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EN
Reverse flotation of collophanite at natural pH could significantly decrease the cost of pH regulators. In this study, isooctyl polyoxyethylene ether phosphate (AEP) was tested as a new surfactant in the reverse flotation of collophanite. Micro-flotation tests were conducted, and the adsorption mechanism of the new collector was analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential analyses. The results of the flotation tests demonstrated that AEP could enable dolomite to float under natural pH (pH=7.2) and showed profound selectivity towards dolomite as opposed to fluorapatite. Based on the zeta potential and XPS results, the adsorption phenomena are mainly attributed to calcium active sites on both mineral surfaces. Dolomite possesses more magnesium active sites than fluorapatite, which tend to reinforce the interaction effect between AEP and dolomite. Furthermore, when compared to CO32- ions on the dolomite surface, PO43- ions on the fluorapatite surface tend to exhibit a stronger hindrance to the adsorption of AEP on the fluorapatite surface. This is attributed to their larger volumes and more charges on their surfaces, thereby causing a floatability difference between the two minerals.
EN
With high-grade apatite resources exhausted and economic development, enhancing the apatite quality from calcium gangue such as dolomite has a great significance for production. However, it is difficult to separate apatite from dolomite effectively due to the similar surface properties. In this study, the N-carboxybutyl chitosan (CBC) was tested as a potential selective depressant to separate apatite from dolomite in the sodium oleate (NaOL). Flotation results of single mineral and artificially mixed mineral confirmed the selective depression effect of CBC. The depression mechanism of CBC was investigated using wettability analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The results indicated that the CBC adsorption quantity and intensity on the dolomite surface more than that on the apatite surface, which was due to CBC absorbed on apatite surface by hydrogen bonding, while absorbed on dolomite surface mainly through chemical chelating between Ca on the mineral surface and -COO- on the depressant. These adsorption differences led to the flotation separation of the two minerals.
EN
Dolomite is the main impurity mineral in magnesite ore, affecting the quality of magnesite products. This study proposed a selective leaching process to reduce the calcium content from the magnesite flotation concentrate using hydrochloride acid (HCl). Laboratory scale tests were conducted to explore the influence of operation factors including HCl concentration, leaching temperature and time, stirring speed on the leaching recovery. The results showed that leaching recovery of CaO and MgO increased with increasing HCl concentration, temperature and time. The CaO leaching recovery is always significantly higher than that of MgO, indicating a good selectivity of HCl to leach dolomite from magnesite. The leaching kinetics of both dolomite and magnesite follow the Avrami model and are diffusion controlled, with an activation energy of 43±}1 kJ×mol-1 and 25±}4 kJ×mol-1, respectively.
EN
In this study, the neural model for modeling of oil agglomeration of dolomite in the presence of anionic and cationic surfactants (sodium oleate and dodecylammonium hydrochloride) was implemented. The effect of surfactants concentration, oil dosage, time of mixing, pH, and mixing speed of the impeller in the process recovery were investigated using Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN). A significant problem in this modeling, was the selection of the structure of the neural network. In algorithms based on the RBFNN, the issue mentioned relates to the number of nodes in the determination of the hidden layer. Also, the distribution of functions in data space is significant. In the proposed solution, at this stage of the neural model design, the Growing Neural Gas Network (GNGN) was implemented. Such a procedure introduced automation of the calculation process. The centers were obtained from the GNGN and the structure (number of radial neurons) can be approximated based on a simple searching algorithm. The idea of the data calculations was implemented as an original algorithm that can be easily transferred to Matlab, Python, or Octave software. The values predicted from the neural networks model were in good agreement with the experimental data. Thus, the RBFNN-GNGN model used in this study, can be employed as a reliable and accurate method to predict, and in the future to optimize the performance of oil agglomeration process.
EN
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a specific depressor for apatite rather than for dolomite. The H2SO4treated dolomite can still be floated effectively by oleate. However, the role of H2SO4 in the adsorption of oleate onto dolomite surface remains unclear. In this work, density functional theory calculations were conducted to probe the interactions among sulfate anion (SO42−), oleate anion and the dolomite surface. The adsorption behaviors of SO42− anion onto the perfect and CO3-defect dolomite surfaces were compared. Such results show that SO42−anion could only adsorb onto the defective dolomite surface, where it bonded with a Ca atom. The remaining Ca and Mg atoms at the defect site could further react with the oleate anion, generating new Ca/Mg–O ionic bond. In this regard, oleate and SO42−anions may both present on the dolomite surface. This phenomenon accounts for the flotation of H2SO4-treated dolomite.
EN
Three-dimensional modeling of the limestone and dolomite distribution in an Upper Permian (Zechstein) stromatolite-bryozoan reef, ~500 m in diameter and 35 m thick (77 borehole cores, 172 data points), shows that dolomite occurs as laterally and vertically discontinuous intervals. The prevailing mineral phases are near-stoichiometric dolomite and Mg-free calcite (370 XRD and 274 XRF analyses). Both δ13C and δ18O (526 analyses) show a spread of ~10‰ and covary with the mineralogy; the heaviest dolomite and calcite δ13C differ by ~1.5‰. Diagenetic modifications caused by flowing meteoric fluids could account for the observed “inverted J” trend of stable and the radiogenic signature of 87Sr/86Sr (23 analyses), but neither vertical nor horizontal gradients occur in the reef modeled. Because the dolomite geometries are incompatible with those predicted by fluid flow models, and the limestone-dolomite difference in δ13C overlaps estimates of isotope fractionation associated with Mg content, the dolomite studied was a depositional Very High Mg Calcite recrystallized to dolomite in a semi-closed diagenetic system rather than a Low Mg Calcite transformed by a dolomitization process. The isotope pattern suggests biogenic fractionation and/or loss of heavy stable C and O and light Sr isotopes during diagenesis.
PL
Celem artykułu jest charakterystyka innowacyjnego układu technologicznego służącego do produkcji i uszlachetniania kruszyw mineralnych. W ramach badań przetestowano proces uszlachetniania kruszywa dolomitowego oraz żwirowego w wąskim zakresie uziarnienia rozdzielonego na frakcje z ziarnami foremnymi i nieforemnymi w laboratoryjnej osadzarce pierścieniowej.
8
EN
This paper is focused on the kinetics of the reaction between natural dolomite and diluted solutions of nitric acid at various temperatures. All experiments were carried out in a semi-batch reactor with an approximately constant nitric acid concentration using the pH-stat titration method. The reaction was studied in the temperature range from 293 to 353 K and the nitric acid concentration in the range from 0.001 to 0.200 mol dm-3. The strong effects of both temperature and nitric acid concentration were observed. The determined fractional values of the apparent reaction order (0.39 to 0.75) indicate a very complex reaction mechanism. In the studied concentration range, the values of the apparent activation energy increase from 30 to 58 kJ mol-1. Based on these data it can be assumed that the reaction takes place in the transitional regime with the stronger influence of chemical reaction. This assumption was verified by calculation of the nitric acid concentration on the surface of the dolomite grain using Sherwood criterion equation. The change in the role of the rate-controlling step was found for highly diluted solutions (< 0.010 mol dm-3 HNO3).
EN
The influence of pulp temperature on the floatability of magnesite and dolomite were studied by flotation test. Inductive Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer (ICP) was used to measure the dissolved metal ion content in the pulp by minerals in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to measure the presence and relative content of metal ions on mineral surfaces and the amount of sodium oleate adsorbed on mineral surfaces was measured by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis). The results show that magnesite and dolomite have a great difference in flotation performance when the pulp temperature is 15 ℃ and the effective separation of magnesite from dolomite can be achieved. The main reason is that after the pulp is stirred at a pulp temperature of 15 ℃ and the pH of the pulp is adjusted with HCl and NaOH, the amount of metal ions remaining on the surface of the magnesite is much larger than that on the surface of the dolomite. Therefore, the active targets (metal ion) adsorbing oleate ions on the surface of the magnesite are more than that on the dolomite. When magnesite and dolomite coexist, oleic acid ion mainly acts on the surface of magnesite at the optimum temperature, which makes magnesite float up and the separation of magnesite from dolomite could be achieved.
PL
W artykule scharakteryzowano eksperymenty wazonowe z uprawy kukurydzy, do których wykorzystywano, jako polepszacz glebowy, odpad z przeróbki kopaliny gnejsowej, dolomit i biowęgiel. Najlepsze rezultaty w przypadku uzysku wysokich przyrostów kukurydzy zaobserwowano dla mieszaniny gnejsu, dolomitu i biowęgla w dawkach odpowiednio 75 g gnejsu i po 9,38 g dolomitu i biowęgla. Ponadto, największy uzysk masy zielonej oraz masy suchej zebrano z wariantu gdzie zastosowano następujące proporcje polepszacza - gnejs 150 g oraz dolomitu 37,5 g.
EN
The article characterizes pot experiment of corn cultivation, where waste from gneiss mineral processing, dolomite and biochar, were used as a soil improver. The best results in the case of obtaining high maize increases were observed for the mixture of gneiss, dolomite and biochar at doses of 75 g gneiss and 9,38 g of dolomite and biochar respectively. In addition, the largest yield of green mass and dry mass was collected from the variant where the following proportions of the improver were used - gneiss 150 g and dolomite 37,5 g.
EN
The dolomites altered to dolomite-illitic rocks were foundac companying marcasite-pyrite-hematite mineralization within the Middle Devonian carbonate rocks in the eastern part of the Holy Cross Mts. (Poland) in the fault zones and their close vicinity. The alteration consist of dolomite recrystallization and replacement by illite, accompanied by small amounts of sillca, K-feldspars and disseminated pyrite or hematite. The final product of dolomite replacement by illite are massive, dolotmite-illitic rocks unevenly distributed within the unaltered dolomites or in fault breccia. They form irregular metric-sized nest-like bodies most often with blurred boundaries, or in some places sharp delineated veins and lenses. Illite crystallinity, demonstrates its hydrothermal origin. Altered rocks are characterized by elevated contents of REE, Rb, and sometimes other trace metal (Zr, Ti, Zn, U, Th, Ba and al.), compared to unaltered dolomites. The enrichment in REE, Zr and Ti implies their mobility in hydrothermal solutions. The lamprophyre intrusions present in the close vicinity may be considered as the probable source of potassium rich hydrothermal fluids. The peculiar features of dolomite-illitic rocks such as: their composition and occurrence close to the sulphide and hematite mineralization, allow supposing, that they may be a guide to deeply seated unknown ore deposits.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań strukturalnych trzech próbek dolomitów (PR-1, PR-2, PR-3) z polskich kopalni rud miedzi. Wykorzystano w tym celu metody piknometrii helowej i quasicieczowej oraz porozymetrii rtęciowej i gazowej. Najwyższe wartości porowatości całkowitej i otwartej, wyznaczone metodami densymetrycznymi, posiadała próbka PR-1, a najniższe wartości próbka PR-3. Określona w próbce PR-1 porowatość całkowita wyniosła 18%, w tym porowatość otwarta blisko 17,6%. W PR-3 natomiast wartości tych parametrów wyniosły odpowiednio 9,5% oraz 8,4%. Dolomit PR-1 miał najbardziej rozbudowaną strukturę porową w całym zakresie porowatości, co potwierdziły analizy porozymetryczne. Próbki posiadały wartości całkowitej objętości makroporów w zakresie 6-34 mm3/g i powierzchni właściwej makroporów, w zakresie 0,4-0,8 m2/g. W zakresie najdrobniejszych porów, powierzchnia właściwa wyniosła od 2,0 m2/g do 3,7 m2/g. Objętość mezoporów w przebadanych dolomitach mieściła się w zakresie 6,1-9,4 mm3/g. Najniższą porowatością określoną porozymetrycznie cechował się dolomit PR-3. Charakterystyka strukturalna dolomitów może stanowić ważny element w ocenie parametrów gazogeodynamicznych dolomitów.
EN
The article presents the results of structural analyses of three dolomite samples (PR-1, PR-2, PR-3) from Polish copper ore mines. Helium pycnometry, qasi-fluid pycnometry, mercury porosimetry and gas porosimetry were used for this purpose. The highest values of total and open porosity, determined by densimetric methods, were found in sample PR-1 and the smallest in sample PR-3. The porosity determined for sample PR-1 was 18% and open porosity amounted to 17.6%. The values of the same parameters in PR-3 were 9.5% and 8.4% respectively. Dolomite PR-1 had the most developed pore structure in the whole range of porosity, which was confirmed by porosimetric analyses. The total pore volume of the samples was in the range of 6-34 mm3/g and the surface area was in the range of 0,4-0,8 m2/g. The surface area of the smallest pores was from 2,0 m2/g to 3,7 m2/g. The volume of mesopores in the dolomites tested was in the range of 6,1-9,4 mm3g. The lowest porosity, determined by porosimetry, was found in dolomite PR-3. The structural characteristics of dolomites may be an important element in the evaluation of gasogeodynamic parameters of dolomites.
EN
The paper presents the results of compression crushing tests of single particles for two lithological types of copper ore: dolomite and shale. The breakage test for single irregular particles were performed with using a hydraulic press device. The authors prepared five particle size fractions of each material, within ranges: 16–18 mm, 18–20 mm, 20–25 mm, 25–31,5 mm and 31–45 mm. The particle size distribution function of single-particle breakage test was calculated separately for each size fraction of dolomite and shale. In addition, the cumulative particle size distribution function for five size fractions for both materials was presented. The curves of the particle size distribution were approximated by the three-parameter function, which parameters depend on the particle strength and material type. The three-parameter function approximating agrees well with the particle size distribution of irregular dolomite and shale particles.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań rozdrabniania pojedynczych ziaren dwóch typów litologicznych rud miedzi: łupka i dolomitu. Materiał został rozdrobniony w prasie hydraulicznej poprzez powolne jednoosiowe ściskanie pojedynczych nieregularnych ziaren. Do testów zostały przygotowane pięć klas ziarnowych każdego surowca: 16–18 mm, 18–20 mm, 20–25 mm, 25–31,5 mm, 31,5–40 mm. Wyliczono równania krzywych składu ziarnowego oddzielnie dla każdej klasy ziarnowej dolomitu i łupka oraz podano jedno równanie wspólne dla pięciu klas każdego typu litologicznego rudy miedzi. Do aproksymacji krzywych składu ziarnowego został użyty rozkład trójparametrowy, parametry którego zależą od wytrzymałości ziaren na rozciąganie i rodzaju materiału. W wyniku aproksymacji uzyskano wysokie wskaźniki dopasowania modelu do rozkładu.
EN
The article discusses the validation process of a certain method of balancing gas contained in the pore space of rocks. The validation was based upon juxtaposition of the examination of rocks’ porosity and the effects of comminution in terms of assessing the possibility of opening the pore space. The tests were carried out for six dolomite samples taken from different areas of the “Polkowice-Sieroszowice” copper mine in Poland. Prior to the grinding process, the rocks’ porosity fell in the range of 0.3-14.8%, while the volume of the open pores was included in the 0.01-0.06 cm3/g range. The grinding process was performed using an original device – the GPR analyzer. T h e SEM analysis revealed pores of various size and shape on the surface of the rock cores, while at the same time demonstrating lack of pores following the grinding process. The grain size distribution curves were compared with the cumulative pore volume curves of the cores before grinding. In order to confirm the argument put forward in this paper – i.e. that comminution of a rock to grains of a size comparable with the size of the rock’s pores results in the release of gas contained in the pore space – the amount of gas released as a result of the comminution process was studied. The results of gas balancing demonstrated that the pore space of the investigated dolomites was filled with gas in amounts from 3.19 cm3/kg to 45.86 cm3/kg. The obtained results of the rock material comminution to grains comparable – in terms of size – to the size of the pores of investigated rocks, along with asserting the presence of gas in the pore space of the studied dolomites, were regarded as a proof that the method of balancing gas in rocks via rock comminution is correct.
PL
W artykule przedstawiona została walidacja metody bilansowania gazu zawartego w przestrzeni porowej skał. Walidacja ta opierała się na zestawieniu badań porowatości skał dolomitu i efektów ich rozdrobnienia w aspekcie oceny możliwości otwarcia przestrzeni porowej. Badania wykonano dla sześciu próbek pobranych z różnych rejonów kopalni rud miedzi O/ZG „Polkowice-Sieroszowice” w Polsce. Materiał skalny przed rozdrobnieniem zbadano metodą porozymetryczną i skaningową SEM, a po rozdrobnieniu metodą granulometryczną. Skały przed rozdrobnieniem posiadały porowatość w zakresie 0.3-14.8%, objętość porów otwartych 0.01-0.06 cm3/g oraz niejednorodny rozkład objętości porów. Rozdrobnienie przeprowadzono za pomocą autorskiej aparatury. Rozdrobnione próbki posiadały zbliżone rozkłady uziarnienia i średnie średnice D3.2 około 4,5 μm. Analizy SEM wykazały, że w strukturze próbek kawałkowych występowały pory o różnych rozmiarach i kształtach, natomiast po rozdrobnieniu nie zaobserwowano porów. Krzywe uziarnienia zestawiono z krzywymi skumulowanej objętości porów rdzeni przed rozdrobnieniem. Uzyskanie punktów przecięcia obydwu krzywych przyjęto jako gwarant otwarcia części porów w skałach i uwolnienia zgromadzonego i zamkniętego dotychczas w nich gazu. Procent otwarcia przestrzeni porowej powiązano ze współrzędnymi punktu przecięcia krzywych. Na potwierdzenie słuszności tezy pracy, iż rozdrobnienie skały do ziarno wielkości porównywalnej do wielkości jej porów powoduje uwolnienie gazu zawartego w przestrzeni porowej, dokonano analizy ilości gazu uwolnionego w wyniku rozdrobnienia. Wyniki bilansowania gazu wykazały, iż w przestrzeni porowej przebadanych dolomitów obecny był gaz, którego ilość wynosiła od 3.19 cm3/kg do 45.86 cm3/kg. Uzyskane w badaniach wyniki rozdrobnienia materiału skalnego do ziarnistości porównywalnej z wielkościami porów badanych skał oraz stwierdzenie obecności gazu w przestrzeni porowej przebadanych dolomitów uznano za dowód prawidłowości działania metody bilansowania gazu w skałach poprzez ich rozdrobnienie.
EN
Recently, many research efforts have been made to reduce the magnesium content in the phosphate concentrate to meet the requirement for phosphoric acid production and other applications. A bioprocessing technique is among these efforts. However, this paper was devoted to study the use of cellulase enzyme as a new phosphate depressant during fatty acid flotation of a calcareous phosphate rock. The flotation behavior of collophane and dolomite as single minerals using oleic acid as a collector and cellulase enzyme as the phosphate depressant was investigated in details. The results from single mineral flotation tests were discussed based on FTIR and zeta potential measurements to find out the mechanism of cellulase depression of phosphate. The findings from the single minerals tests were used to develop a selective flotation process for recovery of phosphate minerals from the natural phosphate ore. The flotation experiments were carried out to apply this new process using the calcareous phosphate ore. Under the optimum flotation conditions, 0.04% cellulase and 0.5 mM oleic acid, a phosphate concentrate containing 0.89% MgO with a P2O5 recovery of 75% was obtained from the phosphate ore containing 2.2% MgO.
EN
This paper focuses on the techniques and results of electrical research into complex terrigenous and carbonate reservoirs. Presented here, are the electric data and their relation to the capacity properties of Cambrian sandstones, limestones and dolomites originating from the Volodymyrska area in Volyno-Podillia (Ukraine). Their petroelectrical models are generated.
PL
Artykuł skupia się na technikach i wynikach badań elektrycznych w złożonych zbiornikach terygenicznych i węglanowych. Prezentowane są tu dane elektryczne i ich związek z właściwościami pojemności kambryjskich piaskowców, wapieni i dolomitów pochodzących z obszaru Volodymyrska na Vołyno-Podolu (Ukraina). Ich petroelektryczne modele są generowane.
18
Content available remote Effect of calcium-magnesium carbonate additives on cement hydration
EN
This work relates to the use of the dolomite and dolomitic limestone component as an additive in cement production, as well as to the role of the carbonate component in cement hydration. The studies focused mainly on the kinetics of hydration, which was determined by using calorimetric measurements, and on the formation of hydrated structure, especially the position of carboaluminate hydrate. Based upon some reports and our previous studies we can conclude that the applicability of dolomitic limestone as a component of cementing materials seems to be quite rational, and the details of dolomite effect on cement hydration should be highlighted. For this purpose, the mixtures of cement with limestone and dolomite, as well as the mixtures of synthetic cement phases with limestone and dolomite were produced and examined by microcalorimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM/BSE), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the determination of chemical shrinkage.
PL
Jako cel prowadzonych badań przyjęto sprawdzenie, czy dolomit może być wykorzystywany jako materiał zastępujący standardowy dodatek kamienia wapiennego. Wprowadzano dolomit i dla porównania węglan wapnia do zaczynów z cementu portlandzkiego CEM I 42,5R; badano też minerały klinkierowe i ich mieszanki (sztuczny cement „wzorcowy”). W badaniach wykorzystano mikrokalorymetrię, mikroskopię skaningową (SEM/BSE), dyfrakcję rentgenowską (XRD) i ocenę skurczu chemicznego. Wykazano, stosując w pierwszej kolejności metodę kalorymetryczną, że w mieszankach tych ma miejsce reakcja dolomitu z C3A oraz przyspieszenie hydratacji C3S. Stwierdzono, że dolomit tworzy, podobnie jak węglan wapnia, produkt węglanoglinianowy, co wpływa na kształtowanie mikrostruktury. Zastosowanie dolomitu jako dodatku do cementu wydaje się więc uzasadnione, ale należy doprecyzować opis mechanizmu oddziaływania tego dodatku na zaczyn cementowy.
PL
Dolomit to surowiec, który może być wykorzystywany w różnorodny sposób dzięki swoim właściwościom fizyczno-mechanicznym oraz składowi chemicznemu. Ta typowa kopalina wielosurowcowa znajduje zastosowanie jako topnik w hutnictwie, przemyśle szklarskim i materiałów ogniotrwałych oraz jako budulec w drogownictwie i budownictwie. Ponadto dolomity wykorzystuje się w przemyśle spożywczym i chemicznym, jak i w rolnictwie do produkcji nawozów mineralnych. W Polsce znajduje się kilkadziesiąt złóż dolomitów, natomiast kilkanaście jest eksploatowanych.
EN
Dolomite is a raw material that can be used in a variety of ways due to its physical and mechanical properties and chemical composition. The mineral is used as a fluxing agent in metallurgy, glass industry and refractory materials industry, as well as a construction material in road construction and construction. In addition, dolomites are used not only in food and chemical industry but also in agriculture for the production of mineral fertilizers. In Poland there are dozens of dolomite deposits while several of them are mined.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono efektywność wzbogacania urobku dostarczonego z zakładów górniczych w świetle jego właściwości fizykochemicznych, charakterystycznych dla trzech głównych odmian litologicznych skał złożowych będących jego składnikami. W tym celu określono podatność na wzbogacanie poszczególnych wydzieleń litologicznych obecnych w urobku, stanowiącym nadawę do procesu wzbogacania. Na przykładzie jednego z Rejonów O/ZWR wyznaczono zależność funkcyjną pomiędzy uzyskiem a jakością koncentratu [ε = f(β)], która obrazuje wpływ zawartości składników litologicznych na osiągane wskaźniki wzbogacania. Wykazano, że przemysłowe wzbogacanie jest bardzo czułe na zmiany jakości nadawy w aspekcie zawartości poszczególnych składników litologicznych, a także udziału głównych składników użytecznych i towarzyszących.
EN
The paper presents the performance of ore beneficiation process carried out on KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. run-of-mine ore relating to its physicochemical properties. The properties are strongly associated with the lithology of rock formations. The susceptibility of specific lithological fraction occurred in the ore for the beneficiation process is described. Functional relationship between recovery and concentrate grade [ε = f(β)] was developed as the example for one of the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. concentrators plants. The variety of ore properties and its effect on process efficiency is discussed. It has been proved that industrial process efficiency is very sensitive to both the alteration of lithological fractions and the content of major valuable metals and accompanying compounds.
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