In this paper, the criticality of the self-heating effect accompanying the fatigue process of polymeric composites is studied by monitoring various physical parameters, which reflects degradation progress in a direct or indirect way. The occurring self-heating effect, resulted from the mechanical energy dissipation due to the viscoelastic nature of a polymeric matrix of composites, under certain loading conditions, may dominate the fatigue process, causing significant intensification of degradation and thermal failure at temperature often higher than the glass-transition temperature. The aim of this study is to determine the critical values of the self-heating temperature, which exceeding results in damage initiation and, in consequence, intensive degradation and failure. Additionally, performed tests enable evaluation of sensitivity of particular techniques as well as obtaining more accurate results with physical justification. Following the obtained results, the critical value of a self-heating temperature, at which domination of the fatigue process by the self-heating effect is observed, is at a level of 65–70 °C. Information about the obtained critical values has a great importance both during the design stage of composite structures subjected to cyclic loading as well as their further operation.