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EN
The paper describes an innovative technology of robotic friction welding of steel studs to the surface of HSS and UHSS sheets and plates of structures, in all welding positions. It specifies basic parameters of the process of friction welding of steel studs to HSS and UHSS sheets and plates. This process ensures a significant increase in the quality and mechanical properties of stud + sheet/plate joints, great ease in controlling welding parameters and monitoring the quality of the welding process, as well as high cost-efficiency and safety of operation. A station for robotic friction stud welding equipped with a real-time monitoring and control system for the quality of welded joints is also described.
EN
The article discusses the electrodynamic treatment (EDT) of thinwalled welded structures and EDT equipment, presents results of mathematical modelling concerning the effect of EDT on stresses in welded sheets made of aluminium alloy AMg6 as well as discusses the effect of EDT on the plastic strain mechanism. In addition, the article presents tests results concerning the effect of EDT during the welding of ship structures made of AMg6 plates and discusses the role of EDT in bulge formation. In addition, the article discusses the application of EDT during the repair welding of aero-engine nacelles made of magnesium alloy ML10 and the effect of EDT on openings in an airplane wing stinger in relation to its service life.
PL
Omówiono zasadę obróbki elektrodynamicznej (EDT) cienkościennych konstrukcji spawanych i opracowaną aparaturę do EDT. Przedstawiono wyniki modelowania matematycznego wpływu EDT na stan naprężenia spawanej płyty ze stopu AMg6 oraz badań wpływu elektrodynamicznych oddziaływań na mechanizm odkształcenia plastycznego. Podano wyniki wpływu EDT na odkształcenia typu wybrzuszenie powstające podczas spawania konstrukcji okrętowych z blach AMg6. Omówiono przykład zastosowania EDT podczas spawania naprawczego gondoli silnika lotniczego z stopu magnezu ML10 oraz wpływ EDT otworów podłużnicy skrzydła samolotu na trwałość zmęczeniową.
3
Content available remote Aktualne procedury kwalifikacji personelu zgrzewającego rury i kształtki z PE
PL
Ciśnieniowe rurociągi z polietylenu projektowane są przy założeniu ich minimalnego czasu eksploatacji wynoszącego 50 lat. Głównym parametrem branym pod uwagę jest długoczasowa wytrzymałość rur polietylenowych dla danej temperatury, która standardowo wynosi do 20°C. Dostępne obecnie wysokiej jakości surowce polietylenowe pozwalają na produkowanie wyrobów umożliwiających nie tylko spełnienie tego podstawowego warunku, ale również na stosowanie np. alternatywnych technik budowy rurociągów. Gwarancją bezawaryjnej ich pracy w zakładanym okresie jest nie tylko stosowanie wyrobów z materiałów o wysokiej jakości. Niemniej ważne jest spełnienie podstawowych wymagań związanych z budową tych rurociągów, obejmujących np. transport i składowanie wyrobów, prawidłowe postępowanie z wyrobami na placu budowy oraz układanie rur w wykopach, zgodnie z dopuszczalną dla nich technologią. Uzyskanie niezbędnej wytrzymałości i trwałości rurociągu zależeć będzie jednak w głównej mierze od prawidłowego wykonania połączeń zgrzewanych. Aby uzyskać wymaganej jakości połączenia zgrzewane, niezbędne jest stosowanie wyrobów o potwierdzonych właściwościach przy wykorzystaniu odpowiedniej jakości urządzeń do zgrzewania oraz wykonanie zgrzewów, zgodnie z uznanymi procedurami zgrzewania, przez personel posiadający odpowiednią wiedzę i umiejętności. Potwierdzenie kwalifikacji personelu wykonującego połączenia zgrzewane wyrobów z tworzyw termoplastycznych, jakim jest polietylen, regulują w Polsce przepisy zawarte w rozporządzeniu Ministra Gospodarki z dnia 27 kwietnia 2000 r. w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy przy pracach spawalniczych (Dz. U. 2000 nr 40 poz. 470). W artykule przedstawiono aktualne wymagania dla personelu wykonującego połączenia zgrzewane rurociągów z polietylenu oraz przedstawiono rodzaje szkoleń w tym zakresie, realizowane przez Instytut Nafty i Gazu - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy.
EN
The design of pressure pipelines made of polyethylene assumes their minimum service life of 50 years. The main parameter taken under consideration involves the long-term durability of polyethylene pipes for a given temperature, which is typically up to 20°C. The currently available high quality polyethylene materials allow the manufacturing of products enabling not just the fulfilment of this basic condition, but also the use of, e.g. alternative techniques for the construction of pipelines. Their trouble-free operation during the assumed time period is guaranteed not only by the use of products made of high quality materials. It is equally important to fulfil basic requirements related to the construction of these pipelines, including, e.g. the transport and storage of products, proper handling of products at the construction site and the laying of pipes in trenches, according to the technology which is permitted for them. However, the achievement of necessary toughness and durability of a pipeline will depend mainly on the proper preparation of welded joints. In order to obtain the required quality of welded joints, it is necessary to use products with confirmed properties while utilising proper quality devices in welding, and to have the welds prepared according to recognised welding procedures by personnel having proper knowledge and skills. In Poland, the confirmation of qualifications of personnel preparing welded joints of products made of thermoplastic, such as polyethylene, is regulated by provisions presented in the resolution of the Minister of Economy dated 27 April 2000 on occupational health and safety during welding operations (Journal of Laws 2000, no. 40, item 470). The paper presents the current requirements for personnel preparing welded joints of polyethylene pipelines, along with the types of associated training implemented by the Oil and Gas Institute - National Research Institute.
4
Content available remote Welding of joints in new generation martensitic steel THOR®115
EN
The present development of materials used in the power engineering industry for elements of boilers characterised by supercritical parameters creates new challenges for the welding engineering sector. The implementation of new combinations of alloying agents aimed to obtain the most favourable mechanical properties, including creep resistance and oxidation resistance, does affect the weldability of steels. Martensitic steels containing 9% of Cr are characterised by high creep resistance and low oxidation resistance at temperature exceeding 600°C. In turn, steels containing 12% of Cr, i.e. VM12-SHC or X20CrMoV12-1, are characterised by significantly higher oxidation resistance but lower strength at higher temperature. In 2018, Tenaris (an Italian concern) developed new steel containing 12% of Cr and designated as THOR®115 (Tenaris High Oxidation Resistance). This article presents experience gained when making welded joints of pipes using various filler metals (W CrMo91, S Ni 6082 and EPRI P87). The research work included the performance of a series of non-destructive tests (VT, PT and RT) as well as destructive tests (tensile tests, bend tests, hardness measurements and macro and microscopic metallographic tests) aimed to confirm the high quality of the joints.
PL
Aktualny rozwój materiałów stosowanych w przemyśle energetycznym na elementy kotłów o parametrach nadkrytycznych stawia nowe wyzwania związane ze spawalnictwem. Wprowadzanie coraz to nowych kombinacji dodatków stopowych w celu osiągnięcia jak najlepszych właściwości mechanicznych, w tym odporności na pełzanie i utlenianie, nie pozostaje bez wpływu na spawalność nowych stali. Stale martenzytyczne zawierające 9% Cr, charakteryzują się dobrą odpornością na pełzanie i jednocześnie niską odpornością na utlenianie w temperaturze przekraczającej 600°C, natomiast stale o zawartości 12% Cr, tj. VM12-SHC lub X20CrMoV12-1 charakteryzują się znacznie wyższą odpornością na utlenianie, ale towarzyszy im mniejsza wytrzymałość w wyższych temperaturach. W 2018 roku włoski koncern Tenaris opracował nową stal o zawartości 12% Cr oznaczoną jako Thor TM115 (Tenaris High Oxidation Resistance). W niniejszym artykule zaprezentowano doświadczenia zdobyte podczas spawania złączy rur przy użyciu różnych materiałów dodatkowych (W CrMo91, S Ni 6082 oraz EPRI P87). W ramach pracy przeprowadzono serie badań zarówno nieniszczących (VT, PT, RT) jak i niszczących (próby rozciągania, zginania oraz udarności, pomiar twardości oraz badania metalograficzne makro- i mikroskopowe) mających na celu potwierdzenie wysokiej jakości wykonanych złączy.
EN
Among structural health monitoring (SHM) methods of thin-walled structures, a vibrodiagnostic method is one of the most promising. The accelerometer recorded responses provide diagnostic information that requires mathematical processing to extract the essential dynamic characteristics. The authors have been looking for new parameters - diagnostic benchmarks which can be applied to non-destructive, automatic testing of thin-walled marine structures (especially their welded joints) like ship hulls. All characteristics have been based on recorded data generated during the vibration tests of welded joints with and without failures. For this purpose, the authors proposed method based on: FFT windowing analysis, benchmark with using 2D or 3D time – frequency dynamic characteristics and the determination of damping decrement in function of time. The work presents the algorithm and exemplary results obtained from the application of proposed method to several selected sample plates with different type of welds.
EN
The article presents a methodology of non-destructive diagnostic vibratory tests of welded plates with geometrical parameters that classify them into a group of thin-walled panels. On the basis of such plates, most ship constructions are created. In previous works, the authors dealt with the study of welded joints in plates with significant thicknesses and developed for them a number of methods for assessing the quality of welded joints. Vibrodiagnostics is a NDT method that allows the use of a variety of techniques and tools. It enables measurements to be made in both a contact and non-contact way depending on the requirements of the structure and the environment. Vibrodiagnostic method is one of the most modern NDT methods, which uses modern measurement tools and computer analysis of data. On the basis of the developed methods, the authors intend to verify their application to plates from real welded constructions, which will be performed in typical shipyard conditions by welders. Such tests are important due to their use for the construction of a real SHM ship construction monitoring system. These methods allow for the examination of the condition of ships’ structural plates and can detect defects in welded joints that prevent ships from operating under severe sea conditions. The article presents the laboratory stand, the sensor layout, results, and their initial analysis.
EN
The article compares the results of tests of residual stress determined based on Knoop microhardness measurements and obtained experimentally with the use of an x-ray diffractometer. Distribution of residual stress in the weld after strengthening of the surface layer, resulting from shot peening, was specified. A method of residual stress determination proposed by Oppel, based on Knoop microhardness distribution, was applied. An analysis of residual stress of 1.4539 austenitic steel welded joints, made with the use of TIG method and additionally strengthened with shot peening of the surface, showed good agreement of the results obtained both with the sin²ψ method and based on the microhardness measurement. The highest compression stress has occurred in a so-called Belayev point, approximately of 35 ÷ 40 μm from the surface.
PL
W artykule porównano wyniki badań naprężeń własnych wyznaczonych na podstawie pomiarów mikrotwardości Knoopa i doświadczalnie przy użyciu dyfraktometru rentgenowskiego. Określono rozkład naprężeń własnych w spoinie po umocnieniu warstwy wierzchniej w wyniku kulowania. Zastosowano metodę wyznaczania naprężeń własnych zaproponowanych przez Oppela na podstawie rozkładu mikrotwardości Knoopa. Analiza naprężeń własnych połączeń spawanych ze stali austenitycznej 1.4539 wykonanych metodą TIG dodatkowo umocnionych przez kulowanie powierzchni wykazała dobrą zgodność wyników uzyskanych za pomocą metody sin²ψ oraz na podstawie pomiaru mikrotwardości. Największe naprężenia ściskające występowały w tzw. punkcie Bielajewa ok. 35 ÷ 40 μm od powierzchni.
8
Content available remote Analysis of indications in penetrant tests of welded joints
EN
The article presents the analysis of indications detected in penetration tests of welded joints. The analysis was based on tests of butt welded joints made of aluminium and steel. The study involved various durations of the phase of penetration and that of development. A detailed assessment of indication sizes was based on a registered continuous test.
PL
Opisano podstawy spawania laserowego techniką z oczkiem spoiny i techniką z jeziorkiem metalu spoiny oraz techniką spawania laserowego hybrydowego i z podawaniem materiału dodatkowego oraz zakresy zastosowań przemysłowych. Przeprowadzono analizę zalet i wad procesu spawania laserowego oraz opisano podstawowe wady złączy i możliwości monitorowania jakości spawania laserowego w czasie rzeczywistym.
EN
The analysis presented in the study was to determine the accuracy in the assessment system used when testing welded joints using the ultrasonic method using the DGS technique. An attempt was made to determine the DDSR reference reflector as a function of the thickness of the tested material. The designated reflector allowed the assessment of sensitivity of reference reflectors adopted according to PN-EN ISO 17640.
PL
Przedstawiona w opracowaniu analiza miała na celu określenie dokładności w systemie oceny stosowanym przy badaniu złączy spawanych metodą ultradźwiękową z zastosowaniem techniki DGS. Podjęto próbę wyznaczenia reflektora odniesienia DDSR jako funkcji grubości badanego materiału. Wyznaczony reflektor pozwolił na ocenę czułości reflektorów odniesienia przyjętych wg normy PN-EN ISO 17640.
EN
Purpose: The main goal of the work is to determine the influence of the parameters of stress relief annealing on the mechanical and structural properties of welded joints made of chromium-molybdenum type 10CrMo9-10 steel. Design/methodology/approach: In the study, commercial 10CRMO9-10 steel was used, the Polish equivalent of 10H2M. This is a chromium-molybdenum toughened steel, i.e. after normalization (910-960°C) and high tempering (650-780°C). The materials were subjected to heat treatment, tests of mechanical properties, Charpy impact test, hardness of individual material zones, as well as macro and microscopic observations. Findings: The hardness tests indicated, that materials subjected to a single heat treatment possess the greatest hardness. Materials undergoing several heat treatments, possess hardness on a similar level to materials that have been annealed once, however they are characterized by low reproducibility of results. The most important parameter of heat treatment of the tested steel is heating up to a temperature of 690°C. Due to such heating, optimal mechanical properties are achieved, which results in long and safe exploitation of the produced elements. Research limitations/implications: The processes of heat treatment are very important to achieve optimal strength properties of welded joints. Practical implications: The development of energy worldwide has caused the creation of machines working in higher pressure and temperature ranges. The influence of temperatures decreases the service life of a given element. The adaptation and completion of the appropriate process of heat treatment extends the exploitation time of elements. Originality/value: Determining the mechanical properties of 10H2M steel, dependent on the temperature of heat treatment and heating time. It was concluded that the optimal parameter of heat treatment for the tested materials – is heating at a temperature of 690°C.
EN
The aim of this work is the experimental investigation of fatigue failure in Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding joints. The specimens for the fatigue analysis were made of 0.8-mm-thick and 1.6-mm-thick 7075-T6 aluminium alloy which is used to fabricate aircraft fuselages con-sisting of a plate skin with a stiffening stringer. The load capacity of joints was determined by tensile/shear tests. Fatigue tests were carried out on an Instron E10000 testing machine at room temperature. High-cycle fatigue tests were carried out under the following conditions: a limited number of cycles equal to 2 _ 106, a frequency of 50 (Hz), and a coefficient of stress cycle R = 0.1. Microstructural features of fatigue fractures for different levels of variable load were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs. The analysis of the fatigue fractures reveals that the Alclad layer at the bottom of the weld is a kind of structural notch and in this situation can be the location of the initiation of fatigue cracking. It was found that fracture mechanism depends on the value of load amplitude. Analysis of the SEM micrographs of fatigue fractures shown that the thermo-mechanically affected zone and heat affected zone are sources of fatigue failure.
12
Content available remote Opis rozwoju pęknięć zmęczeniowych w stalowych złączach spawanych doczołowo
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań rozwoju pęknięć zmęczeniowych w różnych strefach złączy spawanych doczołowo wykonanych ze stali o podwyższonej wytrzymałości S355J2. Rozwój pęknięć zmęczeniowych badano na płaskich próbkach w trzech strefach złącza: w spoinie, w linii wtopienia spoiny i w materiale rodzimym blachy stalowej. Badania były prowadzone z zastosowaniem cyklicznie zmiennego obciążenia rozciągającego o stałej amplitudzie. Na podstawie wyników badań wyznaczono prędkość rozwoju pęknięć zmęczeniowych w rozpatrywanych strefach złączy i opisano ją jako funkcję współczynnika intensywności naprężenia za pomocą równania Parisa. W opisie prędkości pękania uwzględniono zarówno naprężenia od obciążenia zewnętrznego, jak i naprężenia własne w złączu spawanym. Własne naprężenia spawalnicze spowodowały bardzo szybki przyrost prędkości pękania w spoinie i w linii wtopienia spoiny w początkowej fazie zasadniczego etapu rozwoju pęknięcia.
EN
The paper is to presents the test results of fatigue crack growth in various zones of butt–welded joints made of high–strength S355J2–steel. The fatigue crack growth was tested on flat samples in three zones of the joint: in weld material, in fusion line and in original material of steel–plate. The studies were performed with application variable cyclic tensile loading of constant amplitude. Based on the test results determined crack growth rate of fatigue cracking in the joint zones concerned, were described by the Paris–formula as function of stress intensity factor. The description takes into account both the fatigue crack growth rate of the external load stresses and residual stresses in the welded joint. The welding stresses resulted in a very rapid increase of crack growth rate in the weld material and in the fusion line in the initial phase of principal stage of fatigue crack growth rate.
EN
The authors of this article have been looking for new parameters and dynamic characteristics which can be applied to the non-destructive testing of welded joints. All the characteristics have been based on the recorded data generated during the vibration tests of welded joints both with and without failures. This article has dealt with the methods of assessing welded joints using either 2D or 3D time-frequency dynamic characteristics. The calculation procedure that was used for analyzing the simultaneous changes of the response modules, registered by acceleration sensors, has been presented. The vibration amplitudes were transformed into a function of time and frequency (simultaneously) and presented over 2D or 3D time-frequency characteristics. The analyses of the characteristics were performed for a plate without a welded joint, for a plate with a non-defective welded joint and for a plate with a defective welded joint caused by edge bonding. Having analyzed and registered the 2D or 3D time-frequency dynamic characteristics it could be noticed that by presenting the responses, analyzed simultaneously against time and frequency, allowed for the evaluation of whether the examined system maintained non-linearity and, at the same time, allowed for the quality of the welded joint to be indirectly assessed. The proposed measurement parameters of the quality of a welded joint can be defined as a dispersion of the colors from the obtained characteristics. The faults (and the vibration nonlinearity) of the welded joints will be bigger if the dispersion is greater.
14
Content available remote Ocena mikrostruktury złączy spawanych stopu Inconel 617
PL
W związku z przyjęciem pakietu energetyczno-klimatycznego przez kraje członkowskie Unii Europejskiej należy zwiększyć efektywność energetyczną przy zminimalizowaniu emisji gazów cieplarnianych do atmosfery. Wyższa sprawność bloków energetycznych przy zmniejszonej emisji zanieczyszczeń jest możliwa do osiągnięcia przez podwyższenie parametrów termodynamicznych pary, tj. ciśnienia i temperatury. Wymienianym kandydatem na najbardziej obciążone elementy kotła jest stop Inconel 617. W krajowej literaturze brak jest szczegółowych informacji dotyczących oceny mikrostruktury złączy spawanych z badanego stopu. Uzyskane wyniki badań w przyszłości posłużą konstruktorom i projektantom w szacowaniu trwałości złączy spawanych stopu Inconel 617.
EN
In connection with the adoption of the energy and climate package by the member states of the European Union, it is necessary to increase energy efficiency while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Higher efficiency of power units with reduced emission of pollutants is possible to achieve by increasing thermodynamic parameters of steam (pressure and temperature). The replaced candidate for the most loaded boiler elements is the Inconel 617 alloy. In the national literature there is no detailed information on the evaluation of the microstructure of welded joints from the tested alloy. The obtained test results in the future will be used by constructors and designers in estimating the durability of welded joints of the Inconel 617 alloy.
EN
Regardless of the welding method, a new joint and the surrounding area are inevitably subjected to thermo-physical perturbation. The paper presents analyses of many different issues involved in welding and potential solutions including adoption of simplifying assumptions, application of numerical algorithms and development of reliable representative models. The Finite Element Method is used to determine residual stress distribution, using results from thermo-physical tests and widely known mechanical properties of metals subjected to welding processes. Experimental and numerical methods for determining residual stress are compared for welds generated using both TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas, Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and a laser beam. This data reveals that it is necessary to precisely define location of the analyzed welded fragment to correctly determine thermal boundary conditions.
EN
The authors of the article have been looking for a new parameters and dynamic characteristics, which can be applied to non-destructive testing of welded joints. All characteristics have been based on recorded data generated during the vibration tests of welded joints with and without failures. The article deals with the methods of assessing welding joints using 2D: time – frequency dynamic characteristics. A calculation procedure used for analysing simultaneous changes of the response modules, registered by acceleration sensors was presented. Vibrations amplitudes were transformed to a function of time and frequency (simultaneously) and presented over 2D time – frequency characteristics. The analyses of the characteristics were performed for a plate without any welded joint, for a plate with non-defected welded joint and for a plate with a welded joint defected by an edge bonding. Having analysed registered 2D time – frequency dynamic characteristics it can be noticed that presenting the responses analysed simultaneously over the time and frequency allows evaluating if examined system maintains non-linearity and, at the same time, it allows to indirectly assess the quality of the welded joint. The proposed measure parameters of the quality of a welded joint can be defined as a dispersion of colours on the obtained characteristics. The faults (and the vibration nonlinearity) of the welded joints is bigger if the dispersion is greater.
17
Content available Fatigue strength analysis of welded aluminium stairs
EN
The article presents numerical analyses and results of experimental fatigue tests of the welded stairs made from prefabricated EN-AW 6063-T66 aluminium alloy thin-walled profiles. Fatigue life analysis of welded thin-walled structures is a complicated and demanding task. Fatigue analysis of stairs was carried out according to the concept of a weak link, which was verified experimentally. The FEM method was applied in strength analysis. The conducted research allowed identifying the weak link of the structure at the welded joint. The samples stairs were subjected to fatigue tests. The fatigue tests have been conducted using specially designed set up. The experiments confirmed the numerical analysis. The cracks occurred at welded joints before expected fatigue life to fracture. Then the stairs structure was modified by changing the weld joints arrangement. The fatigue tests were carried out again and showed further weaknesses of their structure cracking of the step profile. To precisely capture this problem, detail finite element calculations for the analysed stairs have been conducted. Applying the nominal stress method, this problem was solved changing the treads profile of the stairs step. The last improvement in the construction was sufficient to satisfy fatigue strength requirement of the analysed structure. The weak link approach and nominal stress method proved to be an effective tool in fatigue analysis of the examined structure.
EN
Computed tomography (CT) of aluminum welded joint specimen has been performed. On the tomographic cross sections some defects have been found. To verify them the metallography cross sections of welded has been done. It was found that selected defects are micro cracks.
EN
Steel structures designed according to Eurocode 3 are executed in accordance with the provisions of the standard PN-EN 1090-2, which is referred to in Eurocode 3. In addition, the standard PN-EN 1090-2 refers to in its content a number of welding standards, e.g. PN-EN ISO 9692-1. These standards provide guidelines for welded connections, which should be applied in the case of joints connecting steel hollow sections. Analysis of above-mentioned provisions revealed that for fillet welds they are simultaneously fulfilled only if the inclination angles of the elements are in the range of 70°-100°. According to recommendations of PN-EN 1993-1-8 and EN 1090-2, the same weld type around the perimeter of the element connected to the chord of lattice structure is possible to execute only for inclination angle lower than 60°. Discrepancies between these standards also exist with regard to the interpretation of the dimension of the flare groove welds in connections of rectangular hollow sections with the same width. In addition, analyses of the recommendations for welding in cold-formed zones indicate that, for steel grades currently used for the production of cold-formed rectangular hollow sections, welding in these zones is not permitted only for profiles with wall thickness equal to 12.5 and 16 mm. The above-mentioned issues point out the need for mutual unification of standards for the design and execution of steel joints in hollow sections.
EN
The hollow section welded joints require a number of actions before starting welding and appropriate supervision during this operation to achieve joints with adequate quality level, which should be confirmed by the post-completion tests. The execution of hollow section joints is associated not only with welding, but also with cutting and additional machining of edges. In some cases, weld surfacing is also applied to correct sections fit-up. Weld surfacing and thermal cutting can cause local hardening of connected elements. The welding has to be preceded by an assessment of the previous technological processes. The welded joints can be only executed on the basis of detailed Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS). It is advisable to manufacture - in accordance with previously prepared WPS - pre-production joints for testing, proving the ability of the welding personnel to execute welded joints with specified quality, using the available equipment. The quality of welded joints is proved by testing. A type of conducted tests, thus scope and type of welding defects possible to detect, depends on the weld type, wall thickness of connected elements and joint geometry. The authors’ experience indicates that the proper execution of the welded joint of hollow sections is difficult task, which often requires pre-production quality testing of the joints.
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