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EN
Indonesian municipal solid waste (MSW) is dominated by biodegradable MSW (organic and paper). Due to the degradation process, the physical and hydraulic characteristics of these components can change. It is important to study the physical and hydraulic characteristics of MSW, because landslides occurred in several landfills in Indonesia after heavy rains. Field observations showed that landslides occur due to reduced paper components in the landfill (due to high recycling activities), and cause high percolation of water into the landfill. In the research, 38 samples consisting of two variants of MSW samples (organic and 80% organic + 20% paper), were prepared under the conditions of optimum moisture content. The organic sample of MSW is leaf, while the paper sample of MSW is newspaper, which were shredded to a diameter of about 1 cm. The tests of moisture content, bulk density (in the mould of permeameter), particle size distribution, and permeability were carried out on both sample variants for 90 days, with a test frequency of once in 5 days. The results showed that there was an increase in the moisture content and density, and a decrease in particle size and permeability in both variants of MSW sample. Organic MSW + paper has lower permeability and higher density than organic MSW. This requires further study, because a high paper recycling ratio can lead to a change in the landfill characteristics.
EN
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is known as a thermochemical converting of wet biomass into a coal-like solid fuel (hydrochar). Hydrochar is easily crumbled. Because of hydrophobic properties, hydrochar is difficult to degrade by microorganisms. It has a calorific value comparable to lignite coal. In this study, hydrochar was made via converting the organic fraction of municipal solid waste through HTC at 190, 210, and 230°C for 30 min with feed to water ratio (FWR) 0.1, 0.2, 0.3. The feedstock processed includes food waste, paper, and wood waste, represented as a pseudo-component of the organic fraction of MSW. The high heating value (HHV), FTIR, as well as proximate and ultimate analyses were applied both to feedstock and hydrochar. The results showed that the energy density of hydrochar was elevated with increasing HTC temperature. The energy densification ratio and heating value increased by approximately 1.0–1.32 and 30%, respectively compared to raw feedstock. The lower yields of hydrochar were obtained at higher temperature. The typical char yields for lignocellulosic material range between 62–63 wt% at 190 °C and reduce to 54–57 wt% at 230 °C. Furthermore, a preliminary study of kinetic model for lignocellulose decomposition was conducted. This model was based on the mass loss rate of the lignocellulose compound in HTC of MSW. Three first-order reactions were given to illustrate the hydrochar yield at of 190, 210, and 230°C. The activation energy of lignocellulose decomposition was 76.26 kJ/mol, 51.86 kJ/mol, 12,23 kJ/mol for lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose decomposition, respectively.
EN
The amount of generated waste has been increasing for several years in Poland. There is a lot of research in the field of the environmental and economic evaluation of waste treatment processes. Waste transport is considered to be one of the most important elements of waste management (WM), because it integrates the whole WM system. The environmental impact of waste transport is rising (emissions to air). The European Union introduced provisions on the principle of proximity in the Waste Framework Directive. This principle suggests that waste should generally be transported, treated or disposed of as near to its place of origin as possible. The main aim of the study was to perform an ecological and technical-economic analysis of transportation of selected types of waste (mixed municipal solid waste, construction and demolition waste, separately collected waste called: segregation). The research applied data obtained from a municipal enterprise operating in the South Poland. SimaPro 8.1 software with Ecoinvent 3.3 database was employed to calculate the environmental impact. As a result of the analysis, it was found that the transportation of 1 Mg construction waste had twice as much negative impact on the environment as transportation of 1 Mg mixed municipal waste and segregated waste. This is connected with higher fuel consumption per 1 Mg of transported construction waste and twice the distance that an average hooklift truck must cover in order to collect 1 Mg of construction waste.
EN
This paper deals with the estimation of methane emissions from the Mirash municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. The methane emission was calculated according to two different methodologies, namely, IPCC 2006 and LandGEM. Within the framework of the research, the following parameters were evaluated: the amount of landfilled waste, landfill characteristics, and composition of landfilled waste as well as the climate conditions prevailing in the region. According to the IPCC methodology, the total amount of methane emitted from the Mirash landfill during the period 2006–2017 was 30.57 Giga grams (Gg), while according to the LandGEM methodology, the total amount of methane emitted from the Mirash landfill in the period 2006–2017 was 26.32 Giga grams (Gg). The total mass of CH4 in the Mirash regional landfill for the years 2018–2025 is projected to be 53.74 Gg according to the IPCC method, while according to LandGEM method, the projection points to 50.74 Gg. This study was carried out for the sanitary landfill for solid waste management in Mirash, Prishtina Region, in the Republic of Kosovo, during the year of 2018.
EN
The possibility of utilization of municipal solid waste in the conveyor roasting cement production machine along with obtaining secondary thermal energy, what could reach 15-20% of the principal quantity of the heat energy required for the conduct of the process was considered. The inclusion of ash obtained from the incineration of municipal solid waste after preprocessing into the cement clinker composition was proposed. The reduction of the emission of dioxins and furans in the atmosphere and the impact on the environment was achieved as a result.
EN
Municipal solid waste (MSW) compost supplied from the Istanbul Solid Waste Recycling and Composting Facility was used to amend soil samples collected within the boundaries of Istanbul. Cat grass (Dactylis glomerata cat grass) seeds were sown in the prepared samples. Plant development was observed for 90 days. pH, Cd, Cu and Ni concentrations in plant samples were measured at the end of every month. Concentrations of forms of Cd, Cu and Ni forms in soil were determined at the beginning and at the end of 90 day period (with sequential extraction). The effect of MSW compost on the transfer of Cd, Cu and Ni from the soil to the plants and the change in the forms of heavy metals in soil was determined. Results of sequential extraction showed that, adding compost into the soil changed the forms of these metals in soil. Plant uptake of Cd decreased, however, those of Ni and Cu increased. Cu concentration in plants that grew in soil with 3 wt. % of compost added reached 136.4 μg/kg.
PL
W artykule porównano systemy zabezpieczenia medycznego nurkowań wojskowych, bezpieczeństwa publicznego, zawodowych i amatorskich. Pełne i adekwatne do wykonywanych zadań zabezpieczenie medyczne występuje w przypadku nurkowań zawodowych (prace podwodne wg, Ustawy o wykonywaniu prac podwodnych) i nurkowań wojskowych, stanowiąc, ze względu na wymagania sprzętowe i kwalifikacje personelu, istotne obciążenie logistyczne dla organizatorów takich nurkowań. W nurkowaniach „bezpieczeństwa publicznego” i nurkowaniach amatorskich brak jest spójnego systemu zabezpieczenia medycznego. O ile w związku z masowością turystyki nurkowej i indywidualnym charakterem jej uprawiania jest to wytłumaczalne w odniesieniu do nurków – amatorów, to trudno jest znaleźć wytłumaczenie dla braku odnośnych przepisów dla zabezpieczenia nurkowań wykonywanych przez nurków podległych Ministrowi Spraw Wewnętrznych.
EN
The article compares the medical security systems dives military, public safety, professional and amateur. Full and adequate to the task medical coverage occurs in professional diving (underwater works by, the Act on underwater works) and military diving, acting, due to the requirements and qualifications of personnel, logistics significant burden for the organizers of such dives. The dives "public safety" and amateur diving there is no consistent medical security system. While in connection with the mass production of diving tourism and its individual character is explicable practice in relation to the divers - amateurs, it is difficult to find an explanation for the lack of relevant legislation for the protection of dives performed by divers subordinate to the Minister of Internal Affairs.
PL
Składowanie odpadów jest nieuniknionym elementem każdego systemu gospodarki odpadami komunalnymi. Również technologie, takie jak spalania czy mechaniczno-biologicznego przekształcania (MBP) odpadów komunalnych, produkują pozostałości, które wymagają składowania. W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań potencjalnych zagrożeń dla środowiska składowania nieprzetworzonych odpadów komunalnych oraz stabilizatu z MBP. Wyniki analizy procesu w ujęciu rachunku skumulowanego, potwierdzają słuszność odzysku/spalania gazu składowiskowego na składowiskach nieprzetworzonych odpadów komunalnych oraz zwracają uwagę na niewielkie korzyści środowiskowe instalacji MBP wraz ze składowaniem stabilizatu z MBP.
EN
Landfilling is an unavoidable element of each municipal solid waste (MSW) system. Technologies such as incineration and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) produce rests which need to be landfilled. Unfortunately, more than 90% of MSW in Poland is landfilled untreated. Due to EU regulations, this must be changed by the end of 2012. This work presents research results of assessing the potential environmental impact of landfilling of untreated MSW and landfilling of rests from MBT. For this purpose, four variants have been defined. Results of the analysis prove that landfilling of the rests from MBT has lower environmental impact than landfilling of untreated MSW with landfill gas recovery. Including emissions from MBT installation, landfilling the rests from MBT has slightly lower environmental impact than municipal waste landfilling with landfill gas recovery.
PL
Zawiesiny sporządzone z konwencjonalnych popiołów lotnych stosuje się z powodzeniem w technologiach górniczych do podsadzki samozestalającej, do doszczelniania zrobów czy w profilaktyce przeciwpożarowej. Wykorzystanie w ten sposób popiołów powstających w czasie termicznego unieszkodliwiania odpadów komunalnych jest niemożliwe ze względu na ich własności chemiczne (odpad niebezpieczny). Zbrylanie tego typu odpadów, a zwłaszcza ich granulacja z cementem i/lub specjalnymi dodatkami, zmniejsza wymywalność wielu jonów toksycznych, co umożliwia ich zastosowanie jako dodatku do mieszaniny samozestalającej. Celem niniejszej pracy jest określenie wpływu dodawania zgranulowanych popiołów ze spalania odpadów komunalnych na własności zawiesin popiołowo-wodnych przed zestaleniem i po zestaleniu.
EN
Dense mixtures of conventional fly ashes and water are utilized in many modern mining operations as an underground mine paste backfill, structural fills, fire prevention. The use of MSW fly ashes in such operations are limited as a result of their chemical composition. In this case, the compaction process, accomplished with the use of binder such as Portland cement and/or others, immobilizes the reactive components of this waste and results in the formation of strong granules which remain impervious to leaching. This unables addition of compacted waste to the mixture of fly ash-water. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of addition of compacted MSW fly ashes on the properties of fresh and hardened fly ash-water pastes.
EN
Municipal solid waste (MSW) compost was, on occasion, collected from Shoubra compost plant Cairo during 1994-1995. Physical and chemical characteristics of the MSW compost were investigated and its heavy metal content was determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique for total Fe, Co, Cr and Zn, while Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Ni concentrations were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) technique. The effect of MSW compost application to sandy soil on two crops, namely corn (Zea mays) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), was studied in a field test. The sandy soil was amended with MSW compost at different rates (2, 6 and 8%). The accumulation of heavy metals in the growing crops was evaluated using atomic absorption which allows us to assess the environmental acceptability of MSW compost. The results showed that the levels of the elements tested were always lower than the corresponding values recorded either in American or German MSW compost except for Cu and Cr whose concentrations were higher than German levels by 2,5-fold. Application of MSW compost to sandy soil seems to simulate the growth of the crops tested in this study which may suggest the possible use of such compost as organic soil conditioner. The transfer factors (TF's) of different heavy metals were calculated. The data show that the mean values of TF's for corn were higher than those for sesame. The order of metal TF's for corn was as follow Co=Fe>Cd>Cu>Pb>Zn>Mn>Ni and that for sesame Co>Fe>Cd=Zn>Ni>Cu=Mn>Pb.
PL
Próbki kompostu pochodzące z odpadów miejskich w Kairze pobierano z kompostowni Shoubra w latach 1994-1995. Sporządzono fizyczna i chemiczną charakterystykę kompostu oraz określono zawartość w nim metali ciężkich takich jak :Fe, Co, Cr i Zn metodą instrumentalnej neutronowej analizy aktywacyjnej. Stężenie Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb i Ni w badanych próbkach kompostu oznaczano metodą atomowej spektroskopii absorpcyjnej. W warunkach terenowych zbadano wpływ nawożenia gleby piaszczystej kompostem na wzrost dwóch rodzajów upraw (kukurydzy i sezamu). Zastosowano kilka dawek kompostu (2, 6 i 8%). Stopień akumulacji metali ciężkich w płodach rolnych określono metodą absorpcji atomowej , co umożliwiło oszacowanie przydatności kompostu do nawożenia gleby. Okazało się, że w Kairze poziom stężeń badanych metali był zawsze niższy niż w analogicznych próbach analizowanych w USA i Niemczech z wyjątkiem Cu i Cr, których stężenie było 2,5 raza większe niż w próbach niemieckich. Wydaje się, że nawożenie gleby piaszczystej kompostem stymuluje wzrost badanych upraw i badany kompost może być wykorzystany jako kondycjoner glebowy. Obliczono współczynniki przenoszenia (TF) dla metali ciężkich . Stwierdzono, że średnie wartości współczynników dla ziarna kukurydzy były większe niż dla ziarna sezamu. W przypadku ziarna kukurydzy wartości współczynników przenoszenia metali układały się w następującej kolejności : Co=Fe>Cd>Cu>Pb>Zn>Mn>Ni, a dla ziarna sezamu : Co>Fe>Cd=Zn>Ni>Cu=Mn>Pb.
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