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EN
The paper presents a short outline of geochemical and petrographical study of dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks that was conducted at the Polish Geological Institute starting with the end of the 70. of the 20th century.
2
Content available Nawierzchnie asfaltowe w Polsce
PL
XXI w. przyniósł wiele zmian w dziedzinie konstrukcji nawierzchni drogowych, jednak nadal dominują nawierzchnie podatne. W Polsce nawierzchnie asfaltowe stanowią 97% wszystkich nawierzchni twardych ulepszonych. Infrastruktura drogowa w kraju rozrasta się w szybkim tempie, a dzisiejsze technologie asfaltowe oferują sporą paletę możliwości, co pozwala spełniać coraz wyższe wymagania użytkowników dróg.
EN
Acid sludge, pyrocondensate and heavy resin from hydrocarbons pyrolysis process to ethylene and propylene which are the products of oil refining were studied as the modifiers for petroleum bitumen. Acid sludge and pyrolysis heavy resin were directly used to improve the bitumen properties. The fraction C9 which is a raw material to produce so-called petroleum resins was obtained from pyrocondensate. The synthesized petroleum resins contain differ by their nature functional groups, in particular epoxy, hydroxy, carboxy groups. They were studied as bitumen additives. The above-mentioned by-products and petroleum resins were used as additives to tar while its oxidation to bitumen and while modifying the finished petroleum bitumen.
4
Content available Nawierzchnie asfaltowe
PL
Całkowita długość europejskiej sieci dróg to ponad 5 mln km, z czego 90% posiada nawierzchnie asfaltowe. Po drogach lądowych podróżuje 83% wszystkich pasażerów i transportowanych jest 72% towarów. Nie ulega wątpliwości, że drogi są potrzebne i muszą być odpowiednio utrzymane. Celem powinny być takie rozwiązania, które wręcz wykraczają poza oczekiwania związane z kluczowymi obszarami bezpieczeństwa, komfortu i trwałości dróg.
EN
The total length of the European road network is more than 5 million km, of which 90% are paved with tarmac. There is no doubt that roads are necessary and must be correctly maintained. Terget solutions are those which are even beyond the expectations in key areas of safety, comfort and durability of roads.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki wstępnych badań modyfikatora asfaltu. Analiza tych wyników wykazała istotny wpływ modyfikacji asfaltu imidazoliną na poprawę jego właściwości fizycznych. Nastąpiło wyraźne zwiększenie przedziału plastyczności asfaltu, zarówno przed i po starzeniu laboratoryjnym. Analiza wskaźnika starzenia wykazała, że efektem dodatku imidazoliny jest znaczny wzrost odporności asfaltów na starzenie.
EN
Com. imidazoline was added (1% by mass) to a soft bitumen (softening temp. 40–42°C) to modify its phys. Properties before and after ageing at 163°C for 75 min. The addn. of the imidazoline resulted in a significant increase in resistance of the bitumen to aging.
6
Content available remote Kohezja asfaltów drogowych – badanie metodą testu wahadłowego
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zasadę pomiaru kohezji asfaltów i lepiszczy asfaltowych metodą testu wahadłowego według normy PN-EN 13588:2009, aparaturę niezbędną do wykonania badania oraz sposób przygotowania zestawów do badań. Zaprezentowano wyniki badania kohezji wybranych
EN
The principle of measuring the cohesion of bitumens and bitumens binder agents was performed by the oscillatory method according to PN-EN 13588:2009 was presented. The necessary apparatus and the way the test sets are prepared was also discussed. The cohesion tests results for selected kinds of road bitumens, used in road construction, were also presented.
PL
Badania przeprowadzono na obszarze Karpat zewnętrznych (w przygranicznym rejonie Polski, Słowacji i Ukrainy). Rozpoznano charakter facji anoksycznych w Karpatach na obszarze Polski i Słowacji w obrębie różnych jednostek tektonicznych od dukielskiej przez śląską, węglowiecką, skolską aż po borysławsko-pokucką. Analizę oparto na parametrach geochemicznych i wskaźnikach stanowiących wyniki badań metodą Rock-Eval, chromatografii gazowej alkanów i izoprenoidów oraz oznaczeń izotopów stabilnych węgla (dla materii organicznej). Stwierdzono zróżnicowanie poszczególnych wartości. Zawartość TOC zmienia się w przedziale od 0,62% do powyżej 8,7% wag., przy czym najwyższe wartości charakteryzują facje jednostki skolskiej. Potencjalna macierzystość utworów jest bardzo dobra w obrębie facji anoksycznych jednostki skolskiej, centralnej depresji karpackiej i jednostki dukielskiej. Rezydualny potencjał (S2) rozproszonej materii organicznej zmienia się od 0,26/1,20 mg HC/g skały w warstwach dolnokredowych w Łusce Bystrego do 16,50/36,59 mg HC/g skały w jednostce skolskiej (Bandrów). Jest on umiarkowany w segmencie polskim i słowackim jednostki dukielskiej i nieco wyższy w jednostkach magurskiej i borysławsko-pokuckiej. Frakcja alifatyczna dominuje we wszystkich badanych skałach przy stosunkowo homogenicznym składzie frakcji alifatycznej bituminów. Rozkład n-alkanów jest zmienny. Można wyróżnić trzy grupy bituminów o zróżnicowanej dominacji n-alkanów krótkołańcuchowych i/lub n-alkanów długołańcuchowych. Pristan na ogół dominuje nad fitanem, przy czym izoprenoidy często mają stężenie niższe w stosunku do sąsiadujących z nimi n-alkanów C17 i C18. Stosunek pristan–fitan zmienia się od 18,01 (centralna depresja karpacka) poprzez 13,36 (jednostka węglowiecka) do 6,36 (jednostka śląska), podczas gdy w pozostałych rejonach jego wartość jest bliska jedności. Wśród węglowodorów aromatycznych przeważa fenantren i jego metylowe i di-metylowe pochodne. Wartości oznaczeń δ13CPDB dla węglowodorów wykazują niewielkie zróżnicowanie dla poszczególnych frakcji. Dla bituminów zmieniają się od –24,9 do –28,9‰. Dojrzałość termiczna kerogenu (typ mieszany od II do III) zmienia się od fazy niedojrzałej (jednostka skolska i borysławsko-pokucka) przez dojrzałą w jednostce śląskiej i dukielskiej, po fazę wczesnego okna gazowego w strefie melanżu tektonicznego i jej sąsiedztwie.
EN
Studies were conducted in the Outer Carpathians in the area of the Western and Eastern Carpathians in the borderland of Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine. The character of anoxic facies in the Carpathians in the Polish and Slovak area within different tectonic units - from the Dukla unit through the Silesian, Boryslav-Pokuttia, Skole and the Węglówka units was analyzed. The analysis was based on geochemical parameters and indices from the following methods: Rock-Eval analysis, gas chromatography of n-alkanes and isoprenoids, isotopic determinations of carbon isotopes (in organic matter). Diversity of parameters has been stated. In case of bitumens, the TOC content changes within the interval from 0.62% to over 8.7wt %, while the highest values characterize the facies of the Skole unit. The potential maturity of the sediments is very high in the anoxic facies of the Silesian and Dukla units and in the Central Carpathian Depression (CDK). Residual petroleum potential (S2) of the dispersed organic matter varies from 0.26/1.20 mg HC/g rock in the Lower Cretaceous strata of the Bystre Slice to 16.50/36.59 mg HC/g rock in the Skole unit (Bandrów). It is moderate in the Polish and Slovak segments in the Dukla unit and slightly higher in the Magura and Boryslav-Pokuttia units. The aliphatic fraction dominates in all the studied rocks, while the aliphatic composition of bitumens is relatively homogeneous. The n-alkane distribution is variable in the rocks and solid bitumens. Three groups of bitumens may be distinguished with a variable domination of short-chain n-alkanes and/or long-chain n-alkanes. In general, pristane predominates over phytane, while the isoprenoids often show a lower content in comparison to the adjacent C17 and C18 n-alkanes. The pristine - phytane ratio oscillates from 18.01 (Central Carpathian Depression – CDK) through 13.36 (Węglówka unit) to 6.36 (Silesian unit), being close to one in other samples. Among the aromatic hydrocarbons, phenantrene predominates together with its methyl and di-metlyl derivatives. The d13CPDB data for hydrocarbons show some variability for different fractions. For bitumens, they change from –24.9 to –28.9‰. Thermal maturity of kerogen (mixed type from II to III) varies from the immature phase (Skole and Boryslav-Pokuttia units) through mature in the Silesian and Dukla units up to the early gas phase in the tectonic mélange and its neighbourhood.
EN
Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography (maceral composition, rank, etc.), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and proximate and ultimate analysis are used to investigate the wastes. Organic matter occurs in quantities up to 85 vol.%, typically a few to several vol.%, in the wastes. All three maceral groups (vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite) are present as unaltered and variously-altered constituents associated with newly-formed petrographic components (bitumen expulsions, pyrolytic carbon). The predominant maceral group is vitrinite with alterations reflected in the presence of irregular cracks, oxidation rims and, rarely, devolatilisation pores. In altered wastes, paler grey-vitrinite and/or coke dominates. The lack of plasticity, the presence of paler-coloured particles, isotropic massive coke, dispersed coked organic matter, and expulsions of bitumens all indicate that heating was slow and extended over a long time. Macerals belonging to other groups are present in unaltered form or with colours paler than the colours of the parent macerals. Based on the relative contents of organic compounds, the most important groups of these identified in the wastes are n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, phenol and its derivatives. These compounds occur in all wastes except those most highly altered where they were probably destroyed by high temperatures. These compounds were generated mainly from liptinite-group macerals. Driven by evaporation and leaching, they migrated within and out of the dump. Their presence in some wastes in which microscopically visible organic matter is lacking suggests that they originated elsewhere and subsequently migrated through the dump piles. During their migration, the compounds fractionated, were adsorbed on minerals and/or interacted. The absence of alkenes, and of other unsaturated organic compounds, may reflect primary diagenetic processes that occurred in coals and coal shales during burial and/or organic matter type. Their absence may also be a consequence of heating that lasted many years, hydropyrolysis, and/or the participation of minerals in the reactions occurring within the dumps. The wastes contain compounds typical of organic matter of unaltered kerogen III type and the products of pyrolytic processes, and mixtures of both. In some wastes, organic compounds are completely absent having been destroyed by severe heating. The distributions of n-alkanes in many samples are typical of pyrolysates. In some wastes, narrow n-alkane distributions reflect their generation over small temperature ranges. In others, wider distributions point to greater temperature ranges. Other wastes contain n-alkane distributions typical of unaltered coal and high pristane content or mixtures of pyrolysates and unaltered waste material. The wastes also contain significant amounts of final α Β hopanes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are represented only by two- to five-ring compounds as is typical of the thermal alteration of hard coal. Correlations between the degree of organic matter alteration and the relative contents of individual PAHs and hopanes and geochemical indicators of thermal alteration are generally poor. The properties of the organic matter (its composition and rank), temperature fluctuations within the dumps, migration of organic compounds and mineral involvement are probably responsible for this. The processes taking place in coal waste dumps undergoing self-heating and self-combustion are complicated; they are very difficult to estimate and define. The methods of organic petrology and geochemistry give complementary data allowing the processes to be described. However, each of the dumps investigated represents a separate challenge to be surmounted in any regional attempt to delineate the regional environmental impact of these waste dumps.
EN
Fluid inclusions in halite from Miocene rock salt of the Ukrainian Carpathian Foredeep Basin in locations where evaporites overlie oil and gas reservoir rocks are characterized by their high methane content and the presence of oil droplets in some of them. They are thus similar to fluid inclusions reported from geochemical aureoles around oil and gas accumulations in the Zechstein (Upper Permian) of western Poland (Kovalevych et al., 2008). Geochemical analyses of bitumen in bulk samples of rock salt (including content and distribution of n-alkanes and isoprenoids, carbon isotope ratios) suggest a varied origin: hydrocarbon extracted from halite from boreholes located in proximity (proved or assumed) of oil and gas deposits (Lopushna-7, Grynivka-525) are probably related to organic material dispersed within the rock salt itself, and those from the barren areas (Verkhniy Strutyn-29) are most probably cogenetic with oil accumulated in the deposits of the Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe.
EN
The bitumens obtained as the extraction products from a series of coals and surrounding rocks samples were fractionated onto aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions. Aliphatic and aromatic fractions were then submitted to analysis using modern gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method. The distribution of n-alkanes was compared and parameters values characterising conditions of sedimentation and type of primary organic matter were calculated. In aliphatic fractions, a series of biomarkers was also identified as steranes, diasteranes, tricyclic diterpanes, hopanes and moretanes. The relatively high content of diasteranes was observed in the bitumens from shales bordering on coals. It confirms the literature data indicating possibility of catalytic influence of claystones on arrangement of steranes to diasteranes. The values of parameters calculated from the data characterising distribution of hopanes have indicated a possibility of generation of oils by some of analysed coals: flame as well as orthocoking coals.The aromatic compounds were also identified, mainly phenanthrenes being an important stage of aromatisation process of fossil organic matter.The comparison of characteristics of bitumens obtained from coals and surrounding rocks suggests a possibility of migration of various groups of organic compounds from coal layers to rocks bordering on them. The migration of organic mobile matter seems to be as well a result of a great difference of concentration between coal and surrounding rocks layers as of action of circulating waters or hydrothermal solutions. The temperature gradient and local intrusive bodies are of great significance for processes of oil migration. The examinations and conclusions presented in this work should be, however, taken as the introductory ones and have to be confirmed by analysis of a greater number of samples of various geological characteristics.
PL
Oznaczenie zawartości węgla organicznego (TOC%) w sylurskich skałach, a także analiza dystrybucji biomarkerów - n-alkanów i steranów z frakcji węglowodorów nasyconych, pozwoliła określić pewne partie tego kompleksu skalnego jako potencjalnie macierzyste dla rop naftowych. Porównanie terpanów z dewońskich rop naftowych z terpanami wydzielonymi ze skał sylurskich z obszaru platformy wschodnioeuropejskiej wykazało, iż badane osady nie są skałami macierzystymi dla rop dewońskich. Stopień przeobrażenia materii organicznej w osadach syluru badanego obszaru nie osiągnął głównej fazy generowania węglowodorów.
EN
TOC% contents in Silurian sediments, and biomarker`s analysis GCMS from saturated hydrocarbon`s fraction, distributions n-alkanes and steranes which depend on organic matter contributing to the sediments, characterize the certain parts of Silurian sediments as a, "source rock". Correlation between terpenes from Devonian oils and extracts from Silurian sediments showed, that Silurian sediments from Lublin area aren`t source rock for Devonian oils. The organic matter from Silurian sediments from Lublin area, which was studing by GCMS aren`t in "maine faze of hydrocarbons generation".
EN
Fluid inclusion studies were conducted in the vein quartz known as the "Marmarosh diamonds" of the Krosno and Dukla zones of the Ukrainian Carpathians, which are potentially oil- and gas-bearing. The "Marmarosh diamonds" contain different types of fluid inclusions which record the evolution of the quartz formation. The inclusions were studied by means of gas chromatography, microthermometry and fluorescence. The following sequence has been observed: methane inclusions displaying characteristic features due to crystallography, light hydrocarbons, complex inclusions with a variety of bitumens, and gas-liquid inclusions with two different hydrocarbon phases. The regions where the light hydrocarbon inclusions occur seem to be the most promising as regards oil and gas prospects.
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