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PL
Celem pracy było zaimplementowanie danych pozyskanych technologią lotniczego skaningu laserowego (ALS) w zautomatyzowanej procedurze aktualizacji granic pododdziałów, tj. przebiegu wektorów obiektów podstawowych Leśnej Mapy Numerycznej (LMN) oraz weryfikacji atrybutu wysokości drzewostanów, zapisanej w bazie danych Systemu Informatycznego Lasów Państwowych (SILP). Obiektami testowymi były obręby w Nadleśnictwach Milicz (Milicz) i Chojna (Piasek). Obszar badań w każdym z obrębów obejmował ok. 6 000 ha lasów, z czego blisko 80% stanowiły drzewostany sosnowe. Prace rozpoczęto od aktualizacji przebiegu granic wektora (SHAPE) pododdziałów zapisanych w bazie geometrycznej LMN w oparciu o modele generowane z chmury punktów ALS oraz obraz cyfrowej ortofotomapy. Następnie przeprowadzono aktualizację atrybutowej bazy danych SILP/LAS. Określenie wysokości całego drzewostanu oparto na powierzchni pododdziału z wyłączeniem luk, wykorzystując analizę chmury punktów ALS, tj. 95 percentyl. W celu porównania wyników do danych referencyjnych zbieranych metodami tradycyjnymi (SILP), wygenerowano modele rastrowe (GRID) wysokości drzewostanów określone metodą ALS (HALS) oraz HSILP. W obu obrębach stwierdzono zaniżenie wartości wysokości z bazy SILP/LAS. Średnia różnica (HDiff) wyznaczenia wysokości metodą ALS w stosunku do SILP wyniosła dla obrębu Piasek i Milicz, przy uwzględnieniu znaków odchyłek, odpowiednio +0.9 m oraz +2.3 m, natomiast w przypadku wartości bezwzględnych 2.1 m oraz 3.2 m. Ustalono, że zasadniczą rolę w wartości błędu odegrały licznie występujące drzewostany młodszych klas wieku.
EN
Automatic processing of remotely sensed data, like ALS point clouds, is crucial for modern economy, including forestry. The aim of the study was to develop automated procedures for digital forest map (LMN) revision and automated verification of the attributes (height) stored in the forest descriptive database (SILP), both based on airborne laser scanner datasets. The study areas were the Piasek (Chojna) and Milicz management forest districts, covering about 6,000 ha (80% Scots pine stands). The workflow of verifying and updating a digital map started with updating the compartment borders, which was based on nDSM (created from classified point cloud) and digital ortophoto (RGB+NIR) as well. The developed method, based on normalized ALS point cloud and GIS analysis, provided instant possibility for compartment border update, revealing additional objects like gaps or tree biogroups. The total area of automatically detected objects was around 15% lower when compared to the reference data for Chojna forest district and 10% higher regarding Milicz forest district. Around 84.0% and 85.5% of the gaps matched the reference for Chojna and Milicz forest districts, respectively. A method based on point cloud distribution (95th percentile) within compartment borders to assess its height was presented in the study. The results were compared to a height model (GRID) generated from descriptive database. For both the study areas the height stored in SILP database was lower than the height value derived from ALS data. The difference was equal to +0.9 m (Chojna; absolute difference 2.1 m) and +2.3 m (Milicz; absolute difference 3.2 m). When the stand area was used as a weight in the difference calculation, the difference values (HDiff) changed to +0.6 m (Chojna; absolute difference1.5 m) and +2.4 m (Milicz; absolute difference 2.7 m). Concerning the deciduous stands, the difference was higher (~+1 m) than for the Scots pine stands. The analysis performed confirms the possibility of using airborne laser scanning for geometrical (LMN) and descriptive (SILP/height) database updating. Periodical stand monitoring based on ALS technology can guarantee keeping the databases up to date without the necessity of costly and time consuming field measurements.
EN
Development of geomatic techniques calls for use of the VHR satellite imagery (e.g. IKONOS-2, QuickBird-2) in forest inventory practices. The experiences of Scandinavians, USA and Canada prove, that such practices can be used, although Polish forests differ with regard to tree species and stand structure from coniferous boreal forests in North America and Canada. Polish forest inventory practices are based on old and traditional (time and money consuming) methods of field measurements. The new Polish Instruction of Forest Inventory (2003) allows the use of satellite imagery (VHR; pixel size; 6,0 m) to locate and delineate forest stands and gaps. This paper is a part of research project executed by the Forest Management and Monitoring Unit (Forest Research Institute in Warsaw) in cooperation with the Lab of GIS & Remote Sensing of the Forest Ecology Department (Forestry Faculty; Agricultural University of Krakow). The usefulness of QuickBird technology was demonstrated on the example of the Staszów Forests District (Regional Directorate of the Polish State Forests in Radom) and was supported by the General Directorate of Polish State Forest Holding. In the study, the VHR QuickBird-2 satellite imagery and DGPS measurements were applied and tested for the forest inventory purposes. The selected forest stands were delineated again by interpretation based on QuickBird-2 composition (432 .pan-sharpened.) and then compared with DGPS measurements and digital forest map (LMN) with regard to location (XY), shape and area. The results show the need for immediaterevision and updating of the .newest. digital forest map. The technology of LMN is based mainly on the vectorization of scanned old maps without any serious verification. The reference geodata such like VHR QuickBird-2 images may promptly change the quality of the process of creating maps by supporting the delineation of forest stands and gaps. The authors concluded that the so called .combined methods., based on visual interpretation and vectorisation of the VHR QuickBird composition, DGPS survey and existing forest digital map (LMN) with related database from the latest forest inventory is the best practice in the Polish Forest Inventory.
EN
During the last decades the influence of industry left its trace on Polish forests worsening significantly their health condition, expressed e.g. by the defoliation degree. Direct negative influence of industrial contamination was in certain forests so high that they have been considered the zones of ecological disaster. The new Instruction of Forest Management issued in 2003 does not describe precisely the method of zone delineation . leaving a serious gap . due to which the zones determined 10 or 20 years ago are taken over by new forest management. The purpose of this paper is to point out the usefulness of application of the VHR QuickBird satellite images (04.09.2004; region of 89 km2), which is the socalled supervised classification in assisting the new method of the forest damage zones delineation. Forests of the .wierklaniec Forest Inspectorate (RDLP Katowice) surrounding the zinc and lead metallurgical plant in Miasteczko Śląskie was the region of interest. Distinct damages of stands, including even the so-called industrial turfs caused by heavy metals dust emission and toxic concentrations of gases are still visible in this region. The calibration of image was based on vector data from the Digital Forest Map and GCP (RMSXY <1.50 m) control measurements. The supervised classification (Maximum Likelihood) was performed by means of DGPS measurements in ROI. The results of classification of the QuickBird image were compared with the determined Test Areas and information in the database of the LAS/SILP system prepared during the last forest management review (2003). The obtained classification likelihood for the .FOREST. class was 92.6%, Chile for the .NON FOREST. class: 95.3%. The likelihood of the classification for individual tree species was from 82% for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) to 38% for Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.). For industrial damage zones (II, III and IV) determined more than 10 years ago, the supervised classification allowed to establish the approximate parameter of the crown density as being: 90.37% (zone II), 90.43% (zone III) and 71.93% (zone IV . the so-called .death zone.). Detailed analyses of the selected evaluating features proved the possibility of utilizing the QuickBird image for the determination of such parameters as the crown density or the number of trees in a unit area. The value of the crown canopy oscillated from 94.9% to approximately 7.9% in the damage zone IV. The investigations have shown, beyond any doubt, that the VHR QuickBird satellite images can assist works on site and decision-making processes in delineation of new damage zones. High resolution in the region of interest and variety of radiometric information cause that the QuickBird images are valuable cartometric material, which due to the integration with other geoinformatic technologies (GPS, GIS) can be used for the verification and updating of LMN and SILP databases, including information on already existing forest damage zones.
4
Content available remote Mapnik 3.0 - przeglądarka LMN
EN
The Mapnik Digital Forest Map viewer allows easy quering and presentation of map information from the State Forests database. The viewer is an essential part of the Spatial Information System of a forest district. The functionality of viewers was described in Forest Digital Map Standard. Mapnik 3.0 is designed to meet these requirements. In the article some of its functions are presented. Latest changes in the Standard make necessary further changes to be introduced to the program. These changes should be synchronized with the changes in the databases of forest districts to allow continuous and smooth use of the software by customers. The specification of requirements of LMN Standard regarding map viewers will increase the users. comfort of work. Especially contents of thematic maps should be specified more precisely by specialists from the State Forests. In the nearest future further adjustmentsof the software to new developments in forest district databases are expected, following the implementation of new LMN Standard and changes in SILP. The future of forest digital map viewers is in integrated software, easily accessible and with full functionality needed in the workplace of a forester or a specialist in a forest district. Las Info developed by TAXUS SI is a proposal of such a software. The second direction in viewer development is software for handheld devices, which enables presentation and modification of data needed for field work. mLas Engineer is an example of such a software.
PL
W Lasach Państwowych wymaganymi załącznikami do tzw. Planu Urządzania są leśne mapy numeryczne (LNM) wdrażane obecnie na szeroką skalę w jednolitym standardzie (SLMN). Część opisową systemu SIP w LP stanowią tabele modułu LAS bazy danych SILP. Zarządzenia Dyrektora Generalnego LP wymieniają zdjęcia lotnicze oraz wysokorozdzielcze zobrazowania satelitarne jako jedne z ważnych źródeł informacji w procesie tworzenia leśnej mapy numerycznej i jej aktualizacji. Celem badań było wykazanie przydatności w/w źródeł danych do weryfikacji i aktualizacji LMN. Dla obszaru Puszczy Niepołomickiej wykorzystano barwne zdjęcia lotnicze w skali 1:26.000 (Phare 1997) oraz wygenerowane na ich podstawie ortofotografie cyfrowe. Analizy dotyczyły określenia stopnia poprawności LMN w porównaniu do przebiegu linii wydzieleń drzewostanowych oraz granic oddziałów pozyskanych na drodze opracowania fotogrametrycznego (VSD-AGH) zdjęć lotniczych oraz digitalizacji ekranowej ortofotomapy cyfrowej. Dla poszczególnych leśnictw zestawiono bilans powierzchni wydzieleń opracowywanych trzema różnymi metodami. Jedną z przyczyn rozbieżności pomiędzy stereodigitalizacją oraz wektoryzacją ortofotografii jest rodzaj zastosowanego do jej generowania numerycznego modelu terenu w wyniku czego kartowanie wydzieleń wzdłuż wierzchołków wysokich drzew może być obarczone błędami. Praca wykazała wysoką przydatność zdjęć lotniczych i ortofotografii w określaniu przebiegu granic wydzieleń i oddziałów leśnych a także inwentaryzacji innych obiektów o charakterze liniowym, punktowym i poligonowym.
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