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EN
In the Paratethys Sea, isolation, the development of anoxia and stratification of the water column resulted in deposition of organic-rich sediments. In the Western Carpathians (Central Paratethys) these sediments now lie within the Menilite Formation. Whereas the Eocene-Oligocene transition has been studI ed in the Western Carpathians and is documented by dinoflagellate cyst assemblages, the dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the Menilite Formation members has been uncertain. The Popiele Member and the Menilite Formati on exposed at Aksmanice (Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe, Western Outer Carpathians) reflect palaeogeographic changes at the beginning of the Oligocene. These previously studied deposits have been assigned to lithostratigraphic units, though without biostratigraphic documentation. The age of the Menilite Fm. in the Carpathian sedimentary succession is particularly interesting dueto the diachronous character of the facies development. In this study we provide biostratigraphic data based on well-preserved organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The marker taxa recovered indicate a Rupelian age (Early Oligocene) for the Menilite Fm. A different assemblage occurs in the Popiele Member underlying the Menilite Fm. Here, the dinoflagellate cysts are more diverse and abundant, and represented by typical Eocene taxa attributed to Areosphaeridium spp. and Charlesdowniea spp. The Popiele Member may be assigned to the Priabonian (Late Eocene).
EN
The Crimean Mountains (CM) are regarded as part of the Alpine-Himalaya orogenic belt related to the collision of the Eurasian and African plates. Our research in the CM has allowed confirming the existence of at least two flysch formations of different ages: the Taurida Flysch Formation (Upper Triassic/Lower–? Middle Jurassic) and the Sudak Formation (uppermost Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) in the western and eastern sectors of the CM, respectively. After the Middle Jurassic volcanism, the freshwater claystones with coal-bearing intercalations, as well as local alluvial fan conglomerates were deposited. Then, following the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian marine transgression, three separated Tithonian/Berriasian carbonate platforms developed: Baydarska, Chatyr-Dag and Demerji/Karabi. At the turn of the Late Jurassic, the deep-water Sudak Basin (eastern sector of the CM) began to develop in the eastern periphery of the Demerji/Karabi carbonate platform. This basin, dominated by turbiditic deposition, was probably connected with the Great Caucasus sedimentary system. Finally, distal flysch sedimentation in the Sudak Basin was followed by debris-flow deposits, with huge blocks of Upper Jurassic limestones. These blocks were derived from destruction of the Karabi carbonate platform. During the Berriasian/Valanginian, the eastern sector of the CM began to subside. As a result, both carbonate platforms (western CM) and the debris flow fans of the Sudak Basin (eastern CM) were overlain by marly shales and/or distal turbidites. This type of deposition lasted until the Aptian/Albian. In the post-Albian period, the Alushta-Salgir tectonic zone was transformed into a SE-dipping thrust fault with at least 10 km amplitude of overthrusting.
EN
The Menilite Beds form a widespread lower Oligocene marker succession in various nappes along the Outer Carpathians in the Slovak Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and the Pannonian Basin System, long analysed in detail, like other lithological divisions in the Carpathians. Although the past 80 years of regional research gave inconsistent bathymetric interpretations, the vast majority of Carpathian geologists insist that all the Jurassic to Miocene deposits are of deep-water origin. Intuitively, however, any evolving array of tectonically active thrust wedge-top basins is likely to include many transient zones of shallow-water sedimentation whose deposits, if not cannibalized by erosion, might locally be preserved within the ultimate nappe stack. This hypothesis is postulated here for the (A) Magdalena Sandstone Member of the Menilite Beds in the Silesian Nappe, and (B) Magura Beds in the adjacent/suprajacent Magura Nappe. An early Oligocene age for both units is confirmed here by micropalaeontology. Measured Section A (Gorlice, Sękówka River) in the Silesian Nappe, was deposited on the northern side of an interpreted tectonic palaeo-highland, the Silesian Cordillera. Section A exposes about 180 m of the Menilite Beds and reinterpreted here (see also [30]) as three shallow-water retrogradational parasequences bounded by marine flooding surfaces, recording an overall tectonically-forced regression, previously interpreted as deep-sea deposits.Measured Section B (Ropica Górna, Sękówka River), of the Magura Nappe (Siary Zone), is likewise interpreted here is shallow-water deposits. Both the environment and the early Oligocene age interpreted here conflict with many previous publications. Palaeogeoraphically, Section B was deposited on the southern flank of the Silesian Cordillera. About 80 m of the Magura Beds are exposed in Section B, part of a ca. 2 km-thick succession. Both sections are thought to have accumulated on a tectonically-steepened narrow shelf. The shelf on the southern flank of the Silesian Cordillera was tectonically active, of stair type, dominated by an interpreted coarse-grained shelf-margin delta. The shelf on the northern flank is interpreted as an accommodation-driven, shallow-water deltaic system. The presented work of a detailed sedimentological research programme showing a different point of view on the sedimentation of the Menilite Beds (see also [29, 30]), which are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Carpathians and are still poorly understood. This work emphasises the global importance of the interpretation of flysch palaeobathymetry arising from sedimentologists' increasing ability to recognise combined-flow sedimentary structures in flysch. This research is a step towards understanding the facies distributions and sedimentary environments of the Menilite Beds throughout the Carpathians.
PL
Głównym zagadnieniem omawianym w niniejszej pracy jest wykształcenie facjalne oraz środowisko sedymentacji warstw menilitowych. Stanowią one regionalny marker w sukcesji utworów dolnego oligocenu występujący w różnych płaszczowinach zachodnich i wschodnich Karpat Zewnętrznych na terenie Słowacji, Polski, Ukrainy, Rumunii oraz w obszarze basenu panońskiego. Od dawna były one poddawane, tak jak i inne wydzielenia litostratygraficzne w Karpatach, szczegółowym badaniom. Jednak w ciągu ostatnich 80 lat badań prowadzonych na poziomie regionalnym nie uzyskano ich spójnej interpretacji batymetrycznej. Większość geologów badających Karpaty twierdzi, że utwory budujące Karpaty w okresie od jury do miocenu mają głębokowodną genezę. Wydaje się jednak bardzo prawdopodobne, że lokalnie – na powstających w wyniku tektonicznej ewolucji wewnątrzbasenowych wyniesieniach (zwanych również kordylierami) – mogło dochodzić do rozwoju stref z płytkowodną sedymentacją, gdy nie uległy one procesowi kanibalizacji w wyniku erozji. Dzięki temu utwory takie mogły również zachować się w obrębie struktur płaszczowinowych. Ta koncepcja poparta badaniami sedymentologicznymi, biostratygraficznymi i geochemicznymi znajduje uzasadnienie w przypadku warstw menilitowych z piaskowcami magdaleńskimi występującymi w obrębie płaszczowiny śląskiej oraz w obrębie warstw magurskich płaszczowiny magurskiej. Obie jednostki obecnie znajdują się w bliskim sąsiedztwie i w obu przypadkach badane utwory z ich obrębu są wieku dolnooligoceńskiego. Sukcesja warstw menilitowych odsłaniająca się w korycie rzeki Sękówki w Gorlicach (profil A) z obrębu płaszczowiny śląskiej ma udokumentowaną, około 180-metrową miąższość. Składa się ona z trzech retrogradacyjnych parasekwencji ograniczonych powierzchniami zalewu morskiego. Została zinterpretowana jako zestaw płytkomorskich parasekwencji powstałych w warunkach wymuszonej regresji [por. 30], a nie (jak to dotychczas było przyjmowane) jako osad głębokomorskich turbidytów. Z punktu widzenia paleogeografii profil A powstał po północnej stronie tzw. kordyliery śląskiej.Profil B (odsłaniający się w korycie rzeki Sękówki w Ropicy Górnej) należy do płaszczowiny magurskiej (strefy Siar). Zinterpretowana zmienność warunków sedymentacji wskazuje na powstanie tych utworów również w obrębie płytkowodnego systemu depozycji. Zarówno zinterpretowane środowisko sedymentacji, jak i wiek tych utworów, określony na dolny oligocen są inne niż te prezentowane w wielu poprzednich pracach. Paleogeograficznie profil B został zdeponowany po południowej stronie kordyliery śląskiej. Ma on około 80 m miąższości i stanowi dolną część mierzącej około 2000 m grubości sukcesji warstw magurskich. Oba profile zostały zinterpretowane jako powstałe na tektonicznie kontrolowanych wąskich szelfach. Szelf po południowej stronie kordyliery śląskiej był bardzo aktywny tektonicznie, miał charakter schodowy i był zdominowany prawdopodobnie sedymentacją, jaka mogła mieć miejsce w systemie gruboklastycznej delty skraju szelfu. Szelf po północnej stronie został natomiast zinterpretowany jako szelf napędzany akomodacją, na którym rozwijał się płytkowodny system deltowy. Zaprezentowane wyniki badań są kompleksowym zbiorem szczegółowych badań sedymentologicznych pokazujących odmienny punkt widzenia na sedymentację i genezę warstw menilitowych [por. 29, 30], które są główną skałą macierzystą dla węglowodorów w Karpatach, a które są wciąż słabo poznane.Niniejsza praca ma znaczenie dla nowej, choć wcześniej sygnalizowanej w kilku publikacjach, interpretacji utworów tzw. fliszu i jego paleobatymetrii oraz pokazuje szereg nierozpoznanych dotychczas struktur sedymentacyjnych. Stanowi ona krok w kierunku zrozumienia rozkładu facji i środowisk sedymentacji warstw menilitowych w obrębie Karpat.
EN
The paper presents the results of analysis of surface roughness parameters in the Krosno Sandstones of Mucharz, southern Poland. It was aimed at determining whether these parameters are influenced by structural features (mainly the laminar distribution of mineral components and directional distribution of non-isometric grains) and fracture processes. The tests applied in the analysis enabled us to determine and describe the primary statistical parameters used in the quantitative description of surface roughness, as well as specify the usefulness of contact profilometry as a method of visualizing spatial differentiation of fracture processes in rocks. These aims were achieved by selecting a model material (Krosno Sandstones from the Górka–Mucharz Quarry) and an appropriate research methodology. The schedule of laboratory analyses included: identification analyses connected with non-destructive ultrasonic tests, aimed at the preliminary determination of rock anisotropy, strength point load tests (cleaved surfaces were obtained due to destruction of rock samples), microscopic analysis (observation of thin sections in order to determine the mechanism of inducing fracture processes) and a test method of measuring surface roughness (two- and three-dimensional diagrams, topographic and contour maps, and statistical parameters of surface roughness). The highest values of roughness indicators were achieved for surfaces formed under the influence of intragranular fracture processes (cracks propagating directly through grains). This is related to the structural features of the Krosno Sandstones (distribution of lamination and bedding).
EN
The fracture processes of the Krosno Sandstones of Mucharz, southern Poland, were analysed to determine its relation to orientation of the structural features of the rock. The research putted focused estimating influence of characteristic structural features of the rock (arrangement of laminations plane and direction of arrangement of grains). In the initial stage of research, ultrasonic longitudinal wave propagation speed (Vp) tests were carried out on samples flysch sandstones. The results of the tests were analysed to determine effects of characteristic structural features of the rock on obtained values of longitudinal wave propagation speed (Vp), using on variability of obtained results depending on orientation of mineral elements. In the second part of the study, the point load test was used to determine rock strength under uniaxial compression conditions. In order to estimate uniaxial compressive strength, index-to-strength conversion factors were used. The point load test apparatus and procedure enables economical testing of rock samples in either a field or laboratory setting. Last part of the research was application of computer methods enabled to show technique of analysis microscopic images of the thin – section flysch sandstones samples, tested on point load tests and filled with a staining substance. The study elucidated the structural controls of the fracture processes of the flysch sandstones from Gorka – Mucharz quarry.
EN
The study focuses on a large olistostrome unit (~200 m thick and 4 km in strike-parallel extent) embedded in the Mid-Eocene shaly Hieroglyphic Formation of the Silesian Nappe, exposed in the Rożnów Lake area. Foraminifer biostratigraphy and petrographic comparisons are used to identify the provenance of olistoliths. The olistostrome is tripartite with respect of its olistolith composition. The lower part of the olistostrome abounds in olistoliths of sandstones derived from the Early Eocene turbiditic Ciężkowice Formation, whereas the middle part is dominated by olistoliths of Early Eocene bathyal mudshales. The upper part contains olistoliths of Middle Eocene turbiditic “banded sandstones”, known from the Hieroglyphic Formation and deposited in the bathyal zone above the CCD. The bathyal provenance of the olistostrome contrasts with the abyssal origin of the hosting green shales. The olistostrome unit is inferred to be composite, emplaced in the earliest Bartonian or at the Lutetian/ Bartonian transition by a series of at least three large debris flows that closely followed one another. Biostratigra- phical data and slump-fold vergence suggest resedimentation from the bathyal northern slope of the Silesian Cordillera that bounded the abyssal Silesian Basin to the south. Northward movement of the thrust-formed cordillera must have warped up the base-of-slope deposits of the Ciężkowice Formation, causing their gravita- tional collapse. This event destabilized the former lower-slope muddy deposits, resulting in a second phase of resedimentation by retrogressive slumping, which led to the collapse of mid-slope sandy turbidites. The slope failures involved contemporaneous Mid-Eocene sediment with an admixture of foraminifers derived from the upper slope or shelf margin and with exotic bedrock debris shed from the eroded cordillera crest. The catastrophic multi-phase emplacement of the olistostrome marked the last major thrusting pulse of the second (Late Cretaceous–Late Eocene) stage of tectonic evolution of the Outer Carpathian accretionary prism.
EN
The zircon populations from the Campanian–Maastrichtian part of the Ropianka (Upper Cretaceous– Palaeocene) and Menilite (Oligocene–lower Miocene) formations in the northern part of the Skole Nappe in Poland were examined to evaluate interpretations of the external morphology of detrital zircon in provenance research. The advantage of the zircon typology method, supplemented with elongation measurements, is that it may be applied successfully to comparisons of euhedral zircon populations from sedimentary deposits of different ages and unknown provenance. The zircon typology method, along with elongation measurements of zircons, contributes valuable data that supplement conventional heavy-mineral analyses. It also permits the recognition of potential source areas and rock types for further comparative research.
EN
The oldest flysch deposits are the leading theme of the planned "Silesian-Moravian-Żywiec Beskid" Geopark. The geopark is located in the area of Beskid Śląski Mts. and Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in the territory ofPoland. This is a region of the occurrence of a number of tectonic units of the Outer Carpathians, including Pieniny Klippen Belt, Magura Nappe (with Krynica, Bystrica, Raca and Siary tec- tonic-facies zones), Fore-Magura Unit, Silesian Nappe and Subsilesian Nappe. Geodiversity of this area is defined by well-exposed sections ofrocks. They were the sites ofclassical geological work in the 19th century. Within the geopark boundaries, there are the type localities of the following tectonic units: Silesian Nappe, Fore-Magura, Bystrica and Raca units, as well as Jaworzynka, Bystrica, Vyhylovka, Vendryne and Cieszyn Limestone formations, Malinowska Skala Conglomerate, Mutne Sandstone, and Cisownica Shale members. Landslides, attractive geomorphologic landforms (e.g., highest peaks of the Beskidy Mts., providing magnificent views), waterfalls, diversified river valleys, tors, caves as well as places associated with the history and tradition of this region represent geotouristic attractions with a high potential. They will be included in the network ofgeosites protected within the planned geopark. Analysis ofthe geopark area indicates a high degree of variability of natural values, especially its geodiversity and richness of the historical-cultural heritage. The preservation and protection methods are also diversified. This region represents unique geoenvironmental and historical values on the European scale, therefore offering good chances for establishment of geopark. The documentation of geosites has already been gathered at this stage of work. The information requires only updating, minor additions and construction ofa unified database. The evaluation ofthe current touristic infrastructure have also brought very positive results; the area isfrequented by millions oftouristsfrom Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other countries.
EN
Conventional and high-resolution analyses of heavy minerals from the gravity flow-deposited sandstones of the Campanian–Maastrichtian interval of the Ropianka (Upper Cretaceous–Paleocene) and Menilite (Oligocene) formations of the Polish Carpathians display similar compositions in terms of mineral species. Zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet, staurolite and kyanite belong to the main constituents in both formations. Apatite is common in the Ropianka Fm., while the Menilite Fm. almost lacks this mineral. Furthermore, individual hornblende grains were found in the Ropianka Fm., while andalusite is present only in the Menilite Fm. The Ropianka Fm. is relatively richer in zircon, tourmaline, garnet and apatite, while the Menilite Fm. contains more staurolite and kyanite. Zircon and tourmaline colour and morphological varieties are similar in both formations. The similarities of the heavy mineral assemblages studied suggest origin of these minerals from lithologically similar rocks. Negative correlations between the zircon + tourmaline + rutile (ZTR) values and the content of garnet and staurolite in the Ropianka Fm. may indicate, to a large extent, first-cycle delivery of garnet and staurolite to the formation. Negative, but low, correlation valid only for ZTR and garnet and positive correlations for ZTR and staurolite and kyanite in the Menilite Fm. suggest delivery of these minerals from sedimentary rocks or/and palimpsest sediments. The data obtained on mineral relationships and their morphology suggest mixed first-cycle and recycled provenance of the heavy minerals studied. Additionally, the first-cycle material input seems to be larger during the Ropianka Fm. sedimentation, while during the deposition of Menilite Fm. the contribution of material delivered from erosion of recycled sediments appears more prominent. The heavy mineral evidence suggests a change at the northern margin of the Skole Basin from an immature passive margin with a high relief during sedimentation of the Campanian–Maastrichtian part of the Ropianka Fm. to a mature passive margin with a low relief during sedimentation of the Menilite Fm.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu opadów i infiltracji na zasilanie paleogeńskich poziomów wodonośnych w skałach fliszowych. Badania wskazują, że wielkość zasobów eksploatacyjnych w rejonie Tylicza wiąże się ściśle z reżimem zasilania, dlatego też w pracy określono terminy występowania stanów charakterystycznych zwierciadła wód podziemnych oraz amplitud wzniosu i spadku zwierciadła na tle wielkości opadów i infiltracji.
EN
The paper describes research on the effect of precipitation and infiltration on the groundwater recharge of the Palaeogene aquifer. Since the safe yield in the Tylicz region is closely linked to the recharge regime, the dates of occurrence of specific groundwater levels and amplitudes of water table increase and decrease have been characterised. These data have been discussed on the background of precipitation and infiltration rates.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki badań hydrogeologicznych prowadzonych w rejonie Muszyny. Na podstawie analizy wyników badań naturalnych wypływów wód podziemnych, po uwzględnieniu budowy geologicznej i wyników badań hydrologicznych, oceniono wodonośność utworów fliszowych, co umożliwiło dyskusję na temat zmienności wodonośności na obszarze współwystępowania wód zwykłych i mineralnych.
EN
This paper present the results of hydrogeological studies conducted in the Muszyna region. Based on the results of the analysis of natural groundwater discharges, and taking into account the geological structure and the results of hydrological studies, the water-bearing capacity of flysch rocks has been rated. This allowed discussing the water-bearing capacity in the area of drinking and mineral water co-occurrence.
EN
The study focused on the chemistry of detrital garnet and tourmaline from sediments of the Boryslav and Kliva Sandstone types in the Oligocene part of the Menilite Formation of the Skole Nappe (Western Outer Carpathians, Poland), with regard to provenance. Almandine and almandine-pyrope compositional varieties are the most common garnets, with minor almandine-pyrope-grossular garnet. Scarce garnet grains, with grossular and spessartine as the dominant end-members, are also present. The tourmaline belongs to the alkali tourmaline principal group and represents the schörl-dravite series. The detrital garnet and tourmaline display strong, compositional similarities to minerals, occurring in igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Bohemian Massif, as well as to detrital grains, deposited within the internal basins of the massif. This suggests that the primary rocks for the garnet and tourmaline may be crystalline complexes of the Bohemian Massif. However, other uplifted areas, similar to the complexes of the Bohemian Massif, cannot be ruled out. Such hypothetical areas could be located in the northern foreland of the Carpathian basins. Euhedral tourmaline and other minerals, occurring in the heavy- mineral assemblages studied, most probably were derived from eroded and presently not exposed, crystalline complexes, originally situated in the Skole Basin foreland or within the basin.
EN
Garnet in heavy-mineral assemblages, occurring in sandstones of the Campanian–Maastrichtian part of the Ropianka (Late Cretaceous–Palaeocene) and Menilite (Oligocene) formations of the Skole Nappe, is present as first-cycle and poly-cycle grains, derived from a proximal source, remote areas and/or from sedimentary rocks of the Skole Basin foreland. The garnets in the formations are compositionally similar, suggesting an origin from the same source rocks. Relatively large amounts of garnet, represented by euhedral or slightly rounded, weakly etched or unetched almandine and spessartine-almandine garnet, and minor pyrope-enriched almandine, were derived directly from a source close to the Skole Basin. These garnets are from sediments, metamorphosed at low- to medium-grade conditions (such as mica-schists, gneisses) and perhaps also granitic bodies. Rounded and variously etched garnets, especially high pyrope-almandine and pyrope-almandine-grossular varieties, but also partly almandine-dominated varieties, are suggested to have been derived from distant sources, such as sedimentary rocks of the Upper Silesian and Małopolska blocks. Rocks, forming uplifted parts of the crystalline basement of Brunovistulicum and/or crystalline domains of the Bohemian Massif, could have been protoliths for part of the almandine-dominated garnet population, whereas pyrope-grossular-almandine garnets may originate from the granulitic, eclogitic or metabasic rocks of the Bohemian Massif. The study shows that analyses of garnet composition, combined with observations on grain textural features and data on the lithology of clasts and pebbles, can permit the determination of sources for different garnet varieties in mixed-provenance populations.
EN
Well-preserved foraminiferids have been found in the Chmielnik-Grabówka section (Skole Nappe, Polish Carpathians). The Abathomphalus mayaroensis (late Maastrichtian) and Racemiguembelina fructicosa (earlylate Maastrichtian) standard planktonic foraminiferal biozones have been recognized, based on the occurrence of their respective index species. Sediments of the R. fructicosa Zone contain diatoms, which are a rare component of Cretaceous flysch microfossil assemblages in the Carpathians. The diatom frustules and some foraminiferid tests are pyritized, probably after burial in the sediment, below the redox boundary or in the oxygen-deficient microenvironment inside the frustules or tests of microfossils; the presence of trace fossils and bioturbational structures in the same bed indicate an oxygenated sea floor.
EN
Arthrodendron borberensis sp. nov. is described from the Pagliaro Formation (Paleocene) of the Northern Apennines. Specimens of the new species are preserved on the sole of a turbiditic sandstone bed. Arthrodendron borberensis sp. nov. is characterized by its long chambers (some exceeding 10 mm in length), its generally straight course, and rare branching at an acute angle. This large foraminifer lived infaunally within the sediment and possibly as epifauna after exhumation by erosion, prior to the deposition of the host turbiditic sandstone bed. Assemblages of smaller agglutinated foraminifera (a flysch-type fauna) and trace fossils (Nereites ichnofacies) point to a deep-sea environment for the discussed protist
EN
The occurrence of mineral waters and related spas constitutes the leading theme of the projected geopark: Flysch Carpathians and their mineral waters. The geopark is located on the Beskid Sądecki and Beskid Niski area on the Polish side. It is situate in the area of the occurrence of three Carpathian units: Magura Nappe (the major part of the area), which includes Krynica, Bystrica, Racza and Siary tectonic-facies zones; Silesian Nappe and Grybów Unit. Besides mineral waters, the geodiversity of the area is defined by well exposed flysch rocks profiles including clastic type localities of the Magura Nappe described in the XIX century pioneers of geological investigations. The landslide morphology, attractive geomorphological forms like waterfalls, diversified river valleys, tors as well as places connected with history and tradition of exploration and exploitation of Carpathian hydrocarbons fields. The type localities of profiles of Grybów, Siary and Krynica Units as well as Łabowa Variegated Shales, Beloveza and Malcov formations. All these elements represent geotouristical attractions with high potential. They will be included in the network of preserved geosites within the projected geopark. The analysis of proposed geopark Flysch Carpathians and their mineral waters indicates high degree of diversification of natural values, especially geodiversity as well as richness of historical-cultural heritage. The preservation and protection methods are also diversified. This region represents unique geoenvironmental and historical values on the European scale, therefore providing good chances for establishment of geopark. The proposition of geopark with mineral waters and related spas in the Flysch Carpathians is first such project in the world. The documentation of geosites was already gathered during this stage of work, it requires only actualization, minor additions and construction of unified database. The evaluation of the actual touristic infrastructure provided also generally positive results, only the eastern part of geopark requires additional investments and promotion.
EN
Sediment transport along erosion gullies in flysch badlands under Sub-Mediterranean climate is presented. Presented are weekly measurements, compiled measurements by months, as well as correlations of sediment transport with selected weather data. Sediment transport was measured up to 19 kg m-2 and was largely dependent on special weather conditions.
18
Content available remote Piaskowcowo-zlepieńcowe formy skałkowe - więcej niż atrakcja turystyczna
PL
Naturalne, udostępnione do zwiedzania skałki są niewątpliwą atrakcją turystyczną, ale ponadto stanowią cenne źródło informacji geologicznych i geomorfologicznych. Szczególna wartość naukowo poznawcza, a także dydaktyczna form skałkowych wiąże się z możliwością prowadzenia na nich bezpośrednich obserwacji nad wykształceniem budujących je utworów oraz kształtowaniem ich przez procesy egzogeniczne. Formami o takich walorach są na przykład skałki piaskowcowo-zlepieńcowe w Karpatach Zewnętrznych. Jednym z regionów występowania takich skałek w Karpatach jest Pogórze Wiśnickie, gdzie zlokalizowane są między innymi: Kamienie Brodzińskiego, Kamień Grzyb czy Skałki Chronowskie. Kamień Grzyb stanowi jeden z reprezentatywnych przykładów dla przedstawienia generalnych, wspólnych cech genetycznych form skałkowych powstałych w utworach warstw i istebniańskich (formacja istebiańska), z którymi autor zapoznał się również w Beskidzie Morawskim, Śląskim i Beskidzie Małym. Struktury epigenetyczne w postaci struktur arkadowych, komórkowych oraz miskowych tworzą charakterystyczny relief skałek. Formy skałkowe mają złożoną genezę uwarunkowaną wieloma powiązanymi czynnikami i procesami, które rozwijają się w czasie z różnym natężeniem.
EN
Natural, thrown open to the sightseeing rockies are undoubtedly a tourist attraction, but furthermore they constitute a precious source of geological and geomorphological information. A special scientific-cognitive and teaching value of the rocky forms i is based on the possibility of carrying out direct observations on the character of deposits and on shaping these forms by exogenic processes. A good example of the rocky forms with such values is represented by sandstone-conglomerate rockies in the Outer Carpathians. One of the regions where such rockies occur is the Wiśnicz Foothil, where, among others, the Brodziński Stones (after a poet), the Mushroom Stone (after a mushroom-like shape) and the Chronowskie Tors (after the Chronów town) are localized. The Mushroom Stone serves to demonstrate general, common features of the origin of the rocky forms from the Istebna Beds (the Istebna Formation) observed by the author also in the Moravian Beskid Mts. and Silesian Beskid Mts. and the Small Beskid Mts. Epigenetic arcade structures, cellular structures (honey comb structures) and bowl structures form characteristic relief of rockies. The rocky forms have a complex origin, resulting from many interconnected factors and processes that develop in time with various intensity.
EN
The landforms of the Chornohora Mountains and related geomorphological processes are strongly controlled by geological structure. Detailed geomorphological mapping of the Chornohora Range yielded evidence of deep-seated gravitational slope failures on the south-western slopes. These slope deformations were structurally predisposed and linked to the dip of bedrock strata and their resistance to erosion, as well as to cracks and faults within the flysch formations. This paper presents structural factors controlling the morphology of relatively poorly recognized, dip-adjusted south-western slopes of the Chornohora Mts. between Mt. Hoverla (2,061 m a.s.l.) and Mt. Pop Ivan (2,022 m a.s.l.).
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Content available remote Atrakcje geoturystyczne i turystyczne Żywca
PL
Miasto Żywiec położone jest w centrum Kotliny Żywieckiej otoczonej pasmami Karpat Zewnętrznych. W południowej części Żywca znajduje się góra Grojec o niezwykle interesującej budowie geologicznej. Odsłaniają się tutaj najstarsze skały Karpat Zewnętrznych - warstwy cieszyńskie, reprezentujące tzw. flisz wapienny, z intruzjami skał magmowych i utworami produktów spływów rumoszowych. W kamieniołomach góry Grojec eksploatowano wapienie i wypalano je w piecach szybowych. Jeden z pieców zachował się do dzisiaj. Na górze Grojec znaleziono ślady osadnictwa związanego z kulturą łużycką, celtycką i słowiańską. Wiele atrakcji turystycznych możemy zobaczyć także w mieście Żywiec: zamek z XV wieku, pałac Habsburgów, Rynek z dzwonnicą i ratuszem, kilka zabytkowych kościołów i słynnym w świecie Browarem Żywieckim założonym w 1852 r. Żywiec jest świetną bazą wypadową dla turystyki górskiej.
EN
Żywiec is a town located in the central part of the Żywiec Depression surrounded by the Carpathian mountain ranges. In the southern part of the town there is the Grojec Mountain where very interesting geological features can be observed. At this geosite the oldest rocks in the Outer Carpathians are exposed - the Cieszyn Beds. This unit represents so-called "calcareous flysch" with magmatic intrusions and debris flow sediments. Since ages limestones were quarried on the slopes of the Grodziec Mt. and calcinated to quicklime. One of many kilns still exists in the vicinity. At the summit of the Grodziec Mt. archaeological excavations revealed the relics of settlements originated from the Lusatian, Celtic and Slavic cultures. Another historical monuments can be seen the Żywiec: the castle from the XVth century, the palace of Habsburg Family, the Main Market with Bell Tower, City Council Hall, several historical churches and world famous brewery founded in 1852. Moreover, Żywiec is a perfect base for mountain hikes.
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