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EN
Industrial application of ion exchange membranes (IEMs) for saline water desalination is widely used. In this review, two kinds of IEMs were targeted and focused on: cation-exchange membrane (MK-40) and anion-exchange membrane (MA-40). The characteristics of ion-exchange capacity, structural water content, electrical conductivity and diffusion permeability of counter ions and co-ions, as well as the properties in diffusion of alkaline media were reviewed. IEMs are anionic or cationic fixed exchange groups; the diffusion flows of the two IEMs are scarcely impacted by the kind of an ion selective membrane, as well as of the concentration dependence. The salt diffusion coefficient increases alongside the water content in the membrane, whereas the electrical conductivity increases along with the ion exchange capacity (IEC). In addition, the permeability of the charged polymer increases along with the salt concentration, while for the uncharged polymer it decreases. Thus, the methods and formulas for determining the salt diffusion coefficient and osmotic permeability were studied. Evidently, the differences in the microstructure between membranes will significantly affect the permeability of salt transport in IEMs.
EN
In this paper, we propose an image encryption algorithm based on a permutation polynomial over finite fields proposed by the authors. The proposed image encryption process consists of four stages: i) a mapping from pixel gray-levels into finite field, ii) a pre-scrambling of pixels’ positions based on the parameterized permutation polynomial, iii) a symmetric matrix transform over finite fields which completes the operation of diffusion and, iv) a post-scrambling based on the permutation polynomial with different parameters. The parameters used for the polynomial parameterization and for constructing the symmetric matrix are used as cipher keys. Theoretical analysis and simulation demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme is feasible with a high efficiency and a strong ability of resisting various common attacks. In addition, there are not any round-off errors in computation over finite fields, thus guaranteeing a strictly lossless image encryption. Due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of permutation polynomials in finite fields, the proposed image encryption system is nonlinear and can resist known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks.
EN
The article presents the results of research in to the development of an alternative method of determining the effective coefficient of methane diffusion in coal, based on a mathematical model following Fick's second law. The research was conducted based on the recorded courses of methane sorption kinetics in coal samples obtained in laboratory conditions with the precise gravimetric sorption system IGA-001. The value of the coefficient was treated as an element tuning the model in such a way that the average relative error of the ex post was as small as possible. Model verification indicated the correctness of its assumptions. The development of a more accurate methodology to determine the effective coefficient of methane diffusion in coal will enable the verification of the models applied in order to describe the physical and chemical mechanisms of the methane desorption natural phenomenon. It will also pave the way for further research aimed at the determination of: the gas bearing capacity of coal seams, the degree of degassing of seamswhich results from the mining operations being conducted; or to what extent it is possible to degas the deposits.
4
Content available remote Przyczyny zawilgacania budynków
PL
Przedmiotem artykułu są zagadnienia dotyczące hydroizolacji budynków. Omówiono w nim warunki gruntowo-wodne rzutujące na dobór odpowiednich do nich izolacji. Przeanalizowano magazynowanie i transport wody w materiałach porowatych, a także zjawiska sorpcji, kondensacji powierzchniowej i dyfuzji pary wodnej.
EN
This paper concerns the issues related with waterproof insulation of buildings. It also describes the soil and water conditions that affect the selection of proper insulation materials. Storage and transfer of water in porous materials, as well as sorption, surficial condensation and water vapour diffusion have been analysed.
EN
The metabolic processes related to the synthesis of the molecules needed for a new round of cell division underlie the complex behaviour of cell populations in multi-cellular systems, such as tissues and organs, whereas their deregulation can lead to pathological states, such as cancer. Even within genetically homogeneous populations, complex dynamics, such as population oscillations or the emergence of specific metabolic and/or proliferative patterns, may arise, and this aspect is highly amplified in systems characterized by extreme heterogeneity. To investigate the conditions and mechanisms that link metabolic processes to cell population dynamics, we here employ a previously introduced multi-scale model of multi-cellular system, named FBCA (Flux Balance Analysis with Cellular Automata), which couples biomass accumulation, simulated via Flux Balance Analysis of a metabolic network, with the simulation of population and spatial dynamics via Cellular Potts Models. In this work, we investigate the influence that different modes of nutrients diffusion within the system may have on the emerging behaviour of cell populations. In our model, metabolic communication among cells is allowed by letting secreted metabolites to diffuse over the lattice, in addition to diffusion of nutrients from given sources. The inclusion of the diffusion processes in the model proved its effectiveness in characterizing plausible biological scenarios.
EN
Recently, since the demand of rare earth permanent magnet for high temperature applications such as an electric motor has increased, dysprosium (Dy), a heavy rare earth element, is becoming important due to severe bias in its production. To fulfillthe increasing need of Dy, recycling offers as a promising alternative. In recycling of rare earths, Hydro-metallurgical extraction method is mainly used however it has adverse environmental effects. Liquid metal extraction on the other hand, is an eco-friendly and simple method as far as the reduction of rare earth metal oxide is concerned. Therefore, liquid metal extraction was studied in this research as an alternative to the hydro-metallurgical recycling method. Magnesium (Mg) is selected as solvent metal because it doesn’t form intermetallic compounds with Fe, B and has a low melting and low boiling point. Extraction behavior of Dy in (Nd,Dy)-Fe-B magnet is observed and effect of Mg ratio on extraction of Dy is confirmed.
EN
The present paper studies and analyzes the low-pressure vacuum carburizing of Pyrowear 53 steel. The carburizing was performed at 921°C. The results after the completion of the treatment process are presented, i.e. microstructure of the surface layer and hardness. The results confirm that carburizing can be effectively used in hardening of the steel.
EN
This research explores the extent to which various management accounting practices (MAPs) have been implemented in large Thai manufacturing companies. Although IFAC 1998, which describes management accounting evolution, has been studied extensively in the two decades since its release, MAPs and their diffusion for business value creation has received relatively little attention. This study uses a survey questionnaire to collect information on this subject. Of the 1,500 companies that received the survey, 205 provided usable, complete responses, for a 13.67% response rate. Cluster analysis is used to group a set of data objects into four clusters with hierarchical agglomerative methods, and a discriminant analysis is used to assure the cluster analysis classification’s accuracy. The results show that the respondents used Budgeting for product cost controlling the most. We also discovered that the new, advanced MAPs are used increasingly among many large Thai companies. MAPs are used to create value for large Thai companies, but not yet to the highest stage, based on the IFAC evolution model. Adoption is still far behind compared to the pace of change in production processes, especially in light of increasing competition on the global level.
PL
Niniejsze badanie bada zakres, w jakim różne praktyki rachunkowości zarządczej (MAP) zostały wdrożone w dużych tajskich firmach produkcyjnych. Chociaż IFAC 1998, który opisuje ewolucję rachunkowości zarządczej, był intensywnie badany w ciągu dwóch dziesięcioleci od jego wydania, MAPs i ich rozpowszechnianie w celu tworzenia wartości biznesowej zyskały stosunkowo mało uwagi. To badanie wykorzystuje kwestionariusz do zbierania informacji na ten temat. Spośród 1500 firm, które otrzymały ankietę, 205 dostarczyło użytecznych, kompletnych odpowiedzi za wskaźnik odpowiedzi 13,67%. Analiza skupień jest używana do grupowania zbioru obiektów danych w cztery klastry z hierarchicznymi metodami aglomeracyjnymi, a analiza dyskryminacyjna jest używana do zapewnienia dokładności klasyfikacji analizy skupień. Wyniki pokazują, że respondenci najczęściej stosowali budżetowanie do kontrolowania kosztów produktu. Wskazano również, że nowe, zaawansowane MAP są coraz częściej wykorzystywane przez wiele dużych tajskich firm. MAPy są wykorzystywane do tworzenia wartości dla dużych tajskich firm, ale jeszcze nie do najwyższego etapu, w oparciu o model ewolucji IFAC. Zastosowanie wciąż pozostaje daleko w tyle w stosunku do tempa zmian w procesach produkcyjnych, zwłaszcza w świetle rosnącej konkurencji na poziomie globalnym.
EN
Dissolution kinetics of digenite (Cu9S5) was studied in Fe3+-H2SO4-NaCl media. The temperature range for the study was between 297 and 373 K (24 and 100°C), with a ferric concentration between 0.0100 and 0.0806 mol/dm3, a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.05 to 1.5 mol/dm3 and a NaCl concentration of 1.5 to 5 mol/dm3. Agitation speed and particle size were also studied. Results indicate that the dissolution mechanisms of digenite occurs in two stages: i) generation of covellite (CuS) with the formation of cupric ion (Cu2+) and ii) dissolution of covellite (CuS) with copper production in the system, as well as amorphous sulfur (S°). The second stage occurred very slowly compared to the first stage, the above variables studied directly affected the second stage. Temperature, Fe3+ and H2SO4 concentration positively affected dissolution of covellite formed (second stage), while the presence of NaCl did not increase dissolution of Cu9S5 or CuS. Results showed that stirring speed had an important role in the dissolution rate of CuS. Dissolution kinetics was analyzed using the model of diffusion through the porous layer. Covellite dissolution reaction order was 2.3 and 0.2 with respect to the concentration of ferric and sulfuric acid, respectively, and the rate was inversely proportional to particle size. The calculated activation energy was 36.1 kJ/mol, which is a typical value for a reaction controlled by diffusion in the porous layer at temperature between 297 and 373 K (24 and 100°C).
10
EN
Silver diffused into microscope slides made of an AgNO3/NaNO3 alloy. Surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticle was analyzed by optical spectroscopy. The mechanism of silver crystal growth was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with X-ray energy diffraction (EDS) technique. The evolution of local surface plasmon resonance was studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Samples were also analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ellipsometry.
PL
Srebro dyfundowało do szkiełek mikroskopowych ze stopu AgNO3/NaNO3. Powierzchniowy rezonans plazmonowy nanocząstki Ag analizowano za pomocą spektroskopii optycznej. Mechanizm wzrostu kryształów srebra analizowano za pomocą skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej (SEM) wyposażonej w technikę dyfrakcji energii rentgenowskiej (EDS). Ewolucję lokalnego rezonansu plazmonowego powierzchni badano za pomocą spektroskopii UV-VIS. Próbki analizowano również za pomocą rentgenowskiej spektroskopii fotoelektronowej (XPS) i elipsometrii.
EN
This work is focused on transport organic dyes in systems containing humic acids as active reaction agent. Methylene blue was used as a model organic dye which can behave as pollutant and influence many processes in nature. Transport of pollutants in nature is strongly affected by interactions with humic acids or natural organic matter. Their influence is dependent on affinity of pollutant to content and strength of active binding sites. Two different humic samples are used in this study in order to compare their properties on transport of organic dye. Both humic acids are used in original extracted form as well as in the form of samples with selective blocked functional groups.
PL
Niniejsza praca koncentruje się na transporcie barwników organicznych w systemach zawierających kwasy huminowe jako środek aktywny. Błękit metylenowy wykorzystano jako modelowy barwnik organiczny, który może zachowywać się jak substancja zanieczyszczająca i wpływać na wiele procesów w przyrodzie. Na transport zanieczyszczeń w przyrodzie silnie wpływają interakcje z kwasami huminowymi lub naturalną materią organiczną. Ich wpływ zależy od powinowactwa substancji zanieczyszczającej do zawartości i siły aktywnych miejsc wiązania. W badaniu tym zastosowano dwie różne próbki humusowe w celu porównania ich właściwości w transporcie barwnika organicznego. Oba kwasy humusowe stosuje się w oryginalnej postaci ekstrahowanej, jak również w postaci próbek z selektywnie zablokowanymi grupami funkcyjnymi.
12
Content available remote Oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 alloy at 673 K determined by GDOES technique
EN
Oxidation of zirconium alloys is a process that takes place during the operation of nuclear reactors and is essential for assessing the durability of fuel claddings. The present study was aimed to determine the oxidation kinetics of the Zircaloy-4 alloy using GDOES (glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy) at temperature 673 K corresponding to the conditions of use of fuel pellets. The tests were performed on non-oxidized samples as well as after their oxidation for 0.5, 2, 15 and 48 h. Oxygen layer growth was also investigated by thermogravimetric analysis after oxidation for 0.5 h. The naturally generated oxide at room temperature, designated as non-oxidized, had a thickness of 23±2 nm. After 2 h oxidation, an oxide possessing a thickness of 42±4 nm with about 155 nm of oxygen traces was observed. Oxidation for 15 h resulted in formation of an oxide with a thickness of 130±10 nm with a transition distance to the pure alloy of 240 nm. Finally, a layer with a thickness of 235±10 nm appeared after oxidation for 48 h, while the distance after which the measurement included only a pure alloy without the oxygen traces, was about 310 nm. The results show that oxidation can be described by the exponential kinetic equation, that has the parabolic form after 15 or 48 h of oxidation, which well fits the previous results. However, at shorter oxidation times the kinetic equation has the quasi-parabolic form (n < 2). The reason for changing the form of the equation can be attributed to the effect of defective crystalline structure on oxygen diffusion in the oxide layer as the porosity, crevices and cracks.
PL
W wielu pracach opisano masę tlenku cyrkonu powstającego podczas utleniania równaniem parabolicznym, ale według części autorów zależność ta lepiej daje się opisać równaniem kubicznym. Kinetyka opisana przez tę ostatnią zależność dowodzi, że proces dyfuzji atomów tlenu, który determinuje szybkość tworzenia się tlenku, nie jest procesem homogenicznym zachodzącym w idealnym ciele stałym, ale przebiega głównie na granicy ziaren. Celem pracy było określenie zależności ilościowych między czasem utleniania a grubością warstw tlenków w stosunkowo niskiej temperaturze 673 K, odpowiadającej normalnym warunkom pracy reaktorów jądrowych, za pomocą metody GDOES (optyczna spektrometria emisyjna z wyładowaniem jarzeniowym) rzadko stosowanej do badań takich procesów.
EN
Filtration plays a major role in managing the rapid increase of environmental pollution and deterioration of atmospheric air quality. One of the most damaging noxious gases in the atmosphere is toluene, which is a common gas that appears in crude oil and is used in various production processes. The adsorption behaviour of activated carbon was examined in dependence of the concentration, temperature and relative humidity. The results showed that increasing air temperature decreased the time to reach the maximum saturation ratio, which occurred due to the increasing pore diffusion coefficient and pore diffusion rate.
EN
The aim of the article is to analyse the spread and diffusion of socio-economic development in Poland in 2004-2016, while considering spatial aspects. Using the linear ordering method in the non-pattern version, a synthetic development measure for all municipalities in Poland was built based on a set of 77 features illustrating various socio-economic aspects, reduced to 25 features. For the measure constructed in this way, the convergence of the beta and sigma type has been examined, divided into 3 groups of municipalities (rural, urban and urban-rural), as well as in regional division. Using the methods of spatial econometrics, the occurrence of spatial effects was examined, in particular the attention was paid to the relationship between the processes of spreading development and spatial forms of diffusion of development. The analysis also allowed to determine the strength of local impacts of spatial connections between individual municipalities.
PL
Podczas cynkowania zanurzeniowego bizmut jest często stosowany jako dodatek stopowy do kąpieli. Pierwiastek ten wpływa na stabilizację procesu tworzenia powłoki ochronnej na stali i poprawia jej właściwości powierzchniowe. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań zjawisk rozpuszczania stali reaktywnych zawierających krzem w kąpieli cynkowej z dodatkiem 0,5% bizmutu. Zastosowanie warunków modelowych umożliwiło analizę przebiegu procesu rozpuszczania dyfuzyjnego na granicy rozdziału podłoże-kąpiel cynkowa i określenie roli bizmutu. Metodą Boltzmana-Matano wyznaczono wartości współczynnika dyfuzji żelaza w ciekłym cynku w funkcji jego stężenia, w temperaturze 450°C. W przypadku stosowania 0,5% dodatku bizmutu do kąpieli cynkowej można zaobserwować spadek szybkości rozpuszczania dyfuzyjnego podłoża stali reaktywnych. Stwierdzono zmniejszenie szybkości dyfuzji, co jest szczególnie widoczne dla stali sandelinowskiej z krytyczną zawartością 0,05% krzemu, w warstwie dyfuzyjnej powłoki w zakresie występowania fazy ζ.
EN
During hot-dip galvanizing process a bismuth is often applied as alloy addition to zinc bath. This element effects on stabilization of forming process of protective coating on steel and it improves surface properties of coating. The results of investigation of dissolution phenomena of silicon- containing reactive steels in zinc bath with 0,5% bismuth addition have been presented. Due to using the model conditions it is possible to analyse a diffusive dissolution process on the basis metal-zinc bath interface and it determines a bismuth role. The diffusion coefficient of iron dependent on its concentration in liquid zinc has been determined by the Boltzman-Matano method in the temperature of 450°C. Bismuth addition to the zinc bath produces more than twice decrease of dissolution rate of reactive steels. Diffusion rate decreases, that is best visible for Sandelin’s steel with critical silicon addition 0.05%, especially in ζ-phase range in diffusion layer of the coating.
16
Content available Drug diffusion transport through human skin
EN
The stratum corneum (SC) forms the outermost layer of the human skin and is essentially a multilamellar lipid milieu punctuated by protein-filled corneocytes that augment membrane integrity and significantly increase membrane tortuosity. The lipophilic character of the SC, coupled with its intrinsic tortuosity, ensure that it almost always provides the principal barrier to the entry of drug molecules into the organism. Drugs can be administered either as suspensions or as solutions and the formulation can range in complexity from a gel or and ointment to a multilayer transdermal path. In this paper, we discuss theoretical principles used to describe transdermal release and we show that relatively simple membrane transport models based on the appropriate solution to the Fick’s second law of diffusion can be used to explain drug release kinetics into such a complex biological membrane as the human skin. To apply the Fick’s law we introduced into our considerations a brick-and-mortar model with two factors of tortuosity. Assuming that the mortar thickness is variable we also introduced the hindrance factor allowing us to model this variability. Having the modified Fick’s equation we presented its general solution and two special cases of this solution frequently applicable in permeation experiments. It seems that the solutions presented herein better approximate the real conditions of drug delivery then these well known.
EN
This paper contains the results of radionuclides transportation modeling under National Radioactive Waste Disposal (NRWD) grounds in Różan (northeast Poland). The disposal is of the low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) type. We simulated the radionuclides transportation process through sandy soils. The simulation was performed in a self-written simulator in Scilab using the finite difference method. The model included diffusion, advection and radioactive decay. The model was tested according to convergence and stability. Assuming the hydrological gradient being 0.008, the contamination transportation time was 30–46 years depending on the modeled problem. The modeled distance of 600 m was from underneath the disposal to the exudation in the Narew ravine. Radioactive decay for both cesium (Cs 137) and strontium (Sr 90) had a significant impact on the results. The model proved to be a useful tool for performing simple scientific simulations. This survey was part of a PhD thesis.
PL
Artykuł zawiera wyniki modelowania transportu potencjalnego skażenia Cs 137 i Sr 90, przeprowadzonego dla wód podziemnych pod Krajowym Składowiskiem Odpadów Promieniotwórczych w Różanie (północno-wschodnia Polska). KSOP jest składowiskiem odpadów nisko- i średnioaktywnych. Modelowanie zostało przeprowadzone w samodzielnie napisanym symulatorze, w programie SciLab, z wykorzystaniem metody różnic skończonych. Symulowano proces transportu radionuklidów przez piaszczyste gleby. Model zawierał dyfuzję, adwekcję i rozpad promieniotwórczy. Model został przetestowany pod względem zbieżności i stabilności. Modelowany czas transportu skażeń spod dna składowiska do koryta rzeki Narew, przy założeniu gradientu hydrologicznego 0.008, wynosił od 30 do 46 lat w zależności od przyjętego scenariusza. Modelowany dystans wynosił 600 m. Rozpad promieniotwórczy miał znaczący wpływ na uzyskane rezultaty. Modelowanie potwierdziło, że symulator jest użytecznym narzędziem do przeprowadzania prostych, naukowych symulacji. Przeprowadzone badania były częścią pracy doktorskiej.
EN
In the present paper, the theory of the highest entropy production is discussed. It allows to predict, which phases will grow during the multiphase ternary interdiffusion process. Moreover, the theory says, that phase with the highest entropy production value will nucleate as first in the reaction zone. To verify the theory the mathematical formula for calculating the entropy production was formulated. The formula bases on the generalized Darken method. Two diffusion couples: pure titanium with high purity copper-nickel alloys with different initial composition: Ni10Cu90-Ti and Ni90Cu10-Ti (at at.%) were annealed to obtain the thermodynamic and kinetic data. The integral diffusion coefficients for each component in each phase were determined using Wagners method. The reaction zones in ternary system have been analyzed: the microstructure was observed and chemical compositions were measured. Based on obtained results the entropy production was calculated. It can be expected, that the theory of the highest entropy production can be applied in determining a proper diffusion path in multicomponent, multiphase system.
EN
In the present paper the sedimentation process in binary multiphase Cu-Sn system is presented. The initial samples were produced by GoodFellow, the initial molar fraction was Cu30Sn70 respectively. Thus, the two-phase region was obtained. The two different phenomena occurs during the process of sedimentation at 453K for 1 hour with the angular speed of 35 000 RPM . Mainly, the Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 phase growth due to the temperature and migration of pure Sn according to the centrifugal force. Both phenomena's are described by physical equa-tions. The model describing the phase growth based on the Leibnitz rule - the mass conserva-tion law at the moving boundary and the migration of the elements due to the sedimentation is characterized by equation of motion. The results of the presented models are show.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to depict the effect of diffusion and internal heat source on a two-temperature magneto-thermoelastic medium. The effect of magnetic field on two-temperature thermoelastic medium within the three-phase-lag model and Green-Naghdi theory without energy dissipation i discussed. The analytical method used to obtain the formula of the physical quantities is the normal mode analysis. Numerical results for the field quantities given in the physical domain are illustrated on the graphs. Comparisons are made with results of the two models with and without diffusion as well as the internal heat source and in the absence and presence of a magnetic field.
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