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EN
In part 1 of this work we discussed the possibilities for the selection of a GSSP for the Berriasian Stage of the Cretaceous System, based on prevailing practical methods for correlation in that J/K interval, traditional usage and the consensus over the best boundary markers that had developed in the last forty years. This consensus has developed further, based on the results of multidisciplinary studies on numerous sites over the last decade. Here in Part 2 we give an account of the application of those results by the Berriasian Working Group (ISCS), and present the stratigraphic evidence that justifies the selection of the locality of Tré Maroua (Hautes-Alpes, SE France) as the proposed GSSP. We describe a 45 m-thick section in the Calcaires Blancs vocontiens – that part of the formation covering the calpionellid Chitinoidella, Remanei. Intermedia, Colomi, Alpina, Ferasini, Elliptica and Simplex biozones. The stratigraphic data collected here has been compiled as part of a wider comparative study of complementary Vocontian Basin sites (with localities at Charens, St Bertrand, Belvedere and Le Chouet). Evidence from Tré Maroua thus sits in this substantial regional biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic context. For the purposes of the GSSP definition, here we particularly concentrate on the unbroken sequence and biotic markers in the interval immediately below the boundary, the Colomi Subzone (covering circa 675,000 years), and immediately above, the Alpina Subzone (covering circa 725,000 years). Particularly significant fossil datums identified in the Tré Maroua profile are the primary basal Berriasian marker, the base of the Alpina Subzone (a widespread event marked by dominance of small Calpionella alpina, with rare Crassicollaria parvula and Tintinopsella carpathica): the base of the Berriasian Stage is placed at the base of bed 14, which coincides with the base of the Alpina Subzone. Secondary markers bracketing the base of the Calpionella Zone are the FOs of the calcareous nannofossil species Nannoconus wintereri, close below the boundary, and the FO of Nannoconus steinmannii minor, close above. The Tithonian/Berriasian boundary level occurs within M19n.2n, in common with many documented sites, and is just below the distinctive reversed magnetic subzone M19n.1r (the so-called Brodno reversal). We present data which is congruent with magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from other key localities in France and in wider regions (Le Chouet, Saint Bertrand, Puerto Escaño, Rio Argos, Bosso, Brodno, Kurovice, Theodosia…), and thus the characteristics and datums identified at Tré Maroua are key for correlation and, in general, they typify the J/K boundary interval in Tethys and connected seas
EN
A new genus, Hypowaagenia (type species: H. endressi nov. sp.), is introduced for previously unknown large-sized macroconchiate aspidoceratid ammonites with an umbilical and a ventrolateral row of spines. In the medium and adult stages irregular ribs interconnect these spines. The oldest unequivocal record of this genus comes from the Early Kimmeridgian Planula Zone, whereas the type material of H. endressi nov. sp. comes from the upper Platynota Zone/? lowermost Hypselocyclum Zone. Corresponding microconchs have not yet been identified. Although all unequivocal records come from Southern Germany, a Tethyan origin is most likely for these aspidoceratids. Another, stratigraphically younger species tentatively included in Hypowaagenia is Aspidoceras acanthomphalum (Zittel, 1870), which is, however, only recorded yet by mesoconchiate specimens. The ammonite fauna of the type horizon of H. endressi nov. sp. is briefly characterized and termed as the geniculatum Biohorizon of the late Platynota Zone.
EN
The coarse-ribbed and big-sized Arietites solarium (Quenstedt, 1883) is one of the largest-grown and most iconic ammonite taxa in the entire Swabian Lower Jurassic; however, despite previous revisions including the designation of a lectotype, there has been some confusion concerning its correct identification, and its type horizon within the Lower Sinemurian Arietenkalk Formation was not exactly known. Arietites solarium characterises the herein introduced solarium Biohorizon of the upper Bucklandi Zone of the Sinemurian. For nomenclatorial stability, we designate a neotype based on the only surviving specimen of Quenstedtʼs original type series. In addition, we provide a preliminary succession of recognized biohorizons in the Lower Sinemurian of Swabia, which will make correlations with other areas more reliable.
EN
OpracCalcareous nannofossils are described from 4 sections of the Lower Cretaceous Dalichai Formation from the Eastern (Tepal, Talu and Lavan sections) and central Alborz Mountains (Yonjezar section), Iran. Forty-two species belonging to 18 genera have been identified from the 4 sections studied, including 13 species belonging to 8 genera of ascidian didemnids only from the Tepal section. These taxa indicate the CC1-CC5 biozones of Sissingh's (1977) biozonation and an age of Berriasian to Early Barremian. The nannofossils recorded from the Dalichai Formation are generally Tethyan and cosmopolitan, while the presence of some Boreal taxa (Nannoconus abundans and N. borealis) may reflect connection between the Boreal and Tethyan realms in the Early Barremian. The sedimentary basin of the Dalichai Formation of the Tepal, Talu, and Yonjezar sections was located at low latitudes of the Tethyan realm with warm surface water. Also, trends of increasing depth and productivity, of a shift from r-selected to k-selected strategies and of a change from low-to-high mesotrophic to oligotrophic conditions, were deduced. A change from unstable to stable conditions towards the tops of sections is inferred for these localities. Laterally in the Dalichai Basin from the eastern to central Alborz, there was an increase in depth and productivity, and also a trend towards oligotrophic conditions and a dominance of low-stress conditions.owanie rekordu ze środków MNiSW, umowa Nr 461252 w ramach programu "Społeczna odpowiedzialność nauki" - moduł: Popularyzacja nauki i promocja sportu (2021).
EN
Romania has a long history of hydrocarbon production and tens of thousands of boreholes have penetrated Miocene strata. Many well cores or cuttings have been either lost or damaged, but lab reports containing valuable petrographic, paleontological and structural data are still available. Most of the knowledge of the subsurface relies on old descriptions and interpretations used by the oil industry. These data have not been recently updated, while research results from the last decade suggest potential changes in stratigraphy, especially for the lower to middle Miocene succession. In order to update, calibrate, and reduce uncertainties regarding the subsurface stratigraphic record, we have reviewed the lab reports and used equivalent field samples for an updated interpretation of the lower to middle Miocene succession. Core and cutting descriptions from boreholes covering an area of ~10,000 km2 in the Diapir Fold Zone of the Eastern Carpathians have been selected and biostratigraphically re-evaluated based on microfossils and calcareous nannofossils. In many cases, highly uncertain ages were previously interpreted as Oligocene and early Miocene. Our recent data suggest that most of the lower Miocene is either difficult to determine or has been reinterpreted as middle Miocene (e.g., Cornu and Doftana formations). This significant change in ages requires an updated model for the timing of regional structural evolution and may open new exploration opportunities in this highly mature hydrocarbon area. This study demonstrates the need for a new complete and reliable stratigraphic framework for the whole Miocene stratigraphic record of the Eastern Carpathians.
EN
The classical locality of Svinary in the eastern Bohemian Cretaceous Basin is the site of new biostratigraphic investigations. Besides some scarce macrofossil evidence, bulk sedl ment samples were processed to retrieve micropalaeontological assemblages, and calcareous nannofossil smearslides were analysed. The studied material provided calcareous nannofossil assemblages including Micula staurophora, Lithastrinus septenarius and Broinsonia parca expansa, thus documenting the Middle Coniacian (upper part of UC10 Zone and lower part of UC11 Zone). The foraminifera assemblage is relatively rich, planktonic species show a wide stratigraphical range, while the benthic association represented by Neoflabellina suturalis suturalis and Gaudryina carinata is very similar to the Coniacian biozone of Stensioeina granulata-Eponides whitei, valid for the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Ostracods are represented by two common cytherellid species, and two rare ornamented species: Imhotepia marssoni? and Pterygocythereis spinosa. Inoceramid bivalves, namely Platyceramus mantelli, and a newly recorded ammonite, Tridenticeras tridens, support the late Middle Coniacian age of the Svinary outcrop. New biostratigraphic results are given along with palaeoecological interpretations of newly collected fossil material.
EN
In the Paratethys Sea, isolation, the development of anoxia and stratification of the water column resulted in deposition of organic-rich sediments. In the Western Carpathians (Central Paratethys) these sediments now lie within the Menilite Formation. Whereas the Eocene-Oligocene transition has been studI ed in the Western Carpathians and is documented by dinoflagellate cyst assemblages, the dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the Menilite Formation members has been uncertain. The Popiele Member and the Menilite Formati on exposed at Aksmanice (Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe, Western Outer Carpathians) reflect palaeogeographic changes at the beginning of the Oligocene. These previously studied deposits have been assigned to lithostratigraphic units, though without biostratigraphic documentation. The age of the Menilite Fm. in the Carpathian sedimentary succession is particularly interesting dueto the diachronous character of the facies development. In this study we provide biostratigraphic data based on well-preserved organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The marker taxa recovered indicate a Rupelian age (Early Oligocene) for the Menilite Fm. A different assemblage occurs in the Popiele Member underlying the Menilite Fm. Here, the dinoflagellate cysts are more diverse and abundant, and represented by typical Eocene taxa attributed to Areosphaeridium spp. and Charlesdowniea spp. The Popiele Member may be assigned to the Priabonian (Late Eocene).
EN
A 250-m-thick sedimentary succession dominated by siliciclastic deposits occurs in the Kąkolówka Structure of the Skole Nappe. The succession was deposited in the inner part of the Skole Basin during the Late Cretaceous. In position and age, it corresponds to the Kropivnik Fucoid Marl of the Wiar Member (a subdivision of the Ropianka Formation), which was comprehensively described in the external part of the Skole Nappe. In this study, the authors provide the first complete data set on the lithological development and biostratigraphy of the Kropivnik Fucoid Marl from the inner part of the Skole Nappe. The results are compared to previous data from the outer part of the Skole Nappe. In the Kropivnik Fucoid Marl of the Kąkolówka Structure, three main heterolithic facies associations are distinguished: shale-sandstone, marl-sandstone and sandstone-shale. The occurrences of hard, platy and soft marls within siliciclastic rocks are typical of the sections studied. The features observed indicate a turbiditic origin of the deposits studied, including the hard, platy marls. The allogenic material of the strata described includes the small, fragile tests of planktonic foraminifera, which were redeposited from the outer parts of the Skole Basin. Particularly large concentrations of planktonic foraminifera were observed in the hard, platy marls. They are less common in the soft marls and shales. In the Zimny Dział section, a diverse assemblage of benthic and planktonic foraminifera was found. The Kropivnik Fucoid Marl was dated as uppermost Campanian to lowermost Maastrichtian on the basis of planktonic foraminifera, which represent the Gansserina gansseri Zone. The agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages are representative for the lower part of the Rzehakina inclusa Zone and the co-occurrence of the Caudammina gigantea (Geroch) acme with Rzehakina inclusa (Grzybowski) was observed.
EN
The Jurassic through Palaeogene stratigraphy and tectonic structure of the PD-9 borehole at Szczawnica, Pieniny Klippen Belt, West Carpathians, Poland, is revised. The borehole was drilled in the strongly tectonized northern boundary fault zone of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, of Miocene age. Age revision is given by dinoflagellate cysts. Late Cretaceous taxa are reported from the Hałuszowa Formation. The Bryjarka Member (previously with the rank of formation) yielded rich Early Eocene (Ypresian) assemblages. Similar ones are reported from the Szczawnica Formation. A tectonic thrust sheet of the Jurassic Szlachtowa Formation (Grajcarek Unit) in the Palaeogene of the Magura Nappe is evidenced; it yielded late Toarcian-Aalenian dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The succession of strata recorded from the PD-9 borehole shows the steep, almost vertical attitude of the Grajcarek Main Dislocation at Szczawnica, separating the structures of the Magura Nappe (to the north) and the Pieniny Klippen Belt to the south.
EN
This paper deals with the graptolite biostratigraphy and age determination of the Ordovician and Silurian lithological successions of the Baltic, Podlasie and Lublin basins that existed during the early Palaeozoic on the SW slope of the East European Craton. The biostratigraphic research described was conducted on core material coming from old boreholes and cores from several new wells. Graptolite zones were identified and the chronostratigraphic succession was constrained, with the depths to the stratigraphic units, especially those considered prospective for petroleum, being determined in the individual borehole sections. Old local stratigraphic schemes of the Silurian used for many years in the Polish geological literature are correlated with the standard schemes. The most complete succession of graptolite zones, both in the Ordovician and the Silurian, is observed in the Baltic region. The number of stratigraphic gaps increases towards the east and southeast of the regions. The stratigraphic range of the Sasino Shale Formation decreases in this direction; in the Podlasie and Lublin regions, it comprises only the Katian Stage. The stratigraphic range of the Jantar Formation in the western part of the area spans not only the Rhuddanian but also part or the whole of the Aeronian. In the Podlasie and especially the Lublin regions, sedimentation of the Jantar Formation began in the latest Rhuddanian–Aeronian. A large stratigraphic gap, spanning part or the whole of the Llandovery and increasing eastwards, was documented in the Podlasie-Lublin region. The biostratigraphic research allowed a more precise constraint on the temporal and spatial extent of erosion of Pridoli deposits and the beginning of coarse-grained, siliciclastic sedimentation (Kociewie Formation) in the Baltic Basin.
EN
The succession of bioevents in planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannoplankton communities is reviewed and summarized for the Carpathian Foredeep and northern Pannonian Basin in the time interval between ~16 and 13.5 Ma. This succession can be subdivided into three principal intervals: (1) an interval with rare Praeorbulina sicana and P. glomerosa. It was characterized by a limited immigration of index taxa linked to the lack of a warm surface water layer in the Central Paratethys. This interval can be correlated with the first Badenian transgression near the Burdigalian/Langhian boundary. The rare occurrence of biostratigraphical markers does not allow its precise dating and interregional correlation; (2) a brief interval of the first occurrences of Praeorbulina circularis, Orbulina suturalis and Helicosphaera waltrans. This can be related to the formation of a warm surface water layer suitable for the survival of orbulinas and praeorbulinas and a change from estuarine to anti-estuarine circulation. This interval can be correlated with the second Badenian transgression, which, however, was not isochronous over the area as inferred from different successions of these first occurrences; (3) a limited appearance of new index taxa in the Central Paratethys prior to the Wielician Salinity Crisis. This time interval was characterized by increased seasonality and salinity oscillations followed by climate cooling. A “reverse” migration of the stress-tolerant species Helicosphaera walbersdorfensis from the Central Paratethys to the Mediterranean is suggested. Several local bioevents with limited stratigraphic correlation potential have been recognized in this interval.
EN
The early Badenian interval in the Central Paratethys realm is characterized by a major marine transgression into the Pannonian and Carpathian Foredeep basins. In the western part of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep, Badenian sedimentation started generally with conglomerates (Dębowiec Formation) passing into a thick succession of claystones and mudstones with rare sandstone interbeds (Skawina Formation). Profiles containing a full sequence of lower Badenian strata are relatively rare, and are mainly known from boreholes. In this paper, we present new results on samples taken from such a borehole (Kaczyce K2/07) located near the town of Cieszyn. We focus on reconstructing the chronology of the lower Badenian marine sediments at the beginning of the transgression in the Carpathian Foredeep (lower Skawina Fm.) using radio-isotopic dating (40Ar/39Ar) of a volcanoclastic layer (tuff and tuffite) and biostratigraphy of calcareous nannoplankton and foraminifera.The weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar age for sanidine separates from the tuff provided an age of 14.27 ± 0.03 Ma. This age is consistent with the NN5 and MNN5a nannofossil zones determined in this study. Our foraminiferal assemblages show that the basal beds of the Skawina Formation up to the tuffites correspond to the Orbulina suturalis–Praeorbulina glomerosa Zone (according to Cicha et al., 1975) and cover the interval of the Lower Lagenidae Zone–lowermost Upper Lagenidae Zone (Grill, 1941). The petrographic data from the tuffite allow correlation of the tuffite from the Kaczyce K2/07 borehole to the level of the Chełmek Tuffite Bed (Alexandrowicz, 1997) providing a regional correlation horizon for future studies.
EN
The foraminifera-based biostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Jurassic of the Polish Lowlands was re-evaluated. Biostratigraphic charts providing ranges of the most important foraminiferal taxa characteristic of individual Jurassic stages are presented in relation to the currently used ammonite-based standard stratigraphic divisions. The study contains the new research on the foraminifera fauna and includes earlier results available in published and archival reports. In the Oxfordian and Lower Kimmeridgian deposits, various foraminiferal assemblages were distinguished with reference to the lithofacies in the individual parts of the Polish Basin and varying influences of the palaeogeographical provinces. Additionally, the foraminiferal zones in the Oxfordian and Lower Kimmeridgian deposits of southeastern Poland are distinguished based on detail study of foraminifers.
EN
Early Palaeocene through early Eocene silicoflagellate assemblages were examined from five southern subtropical through subpolar deep-sea sites: DSDP Holes 208 and 524, and ODP Holes 700B, 752A, and 1121B. For each site, the taxonomic composition of the silicoflagellate assemblage is documented in detail; Pseudonaviculopsis gen. nov., Dictyocha castellum sp. nov. and Stephanocha? fulbrightii sp. nov. are proposed, along with several new combinations. More importantly, however, these observations enable a considerable refinement to the existing Palaeocene–Eocene silicoflagellate biostratigraphic zonation that for the first time uses datums calibrated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale. The Corbisema aspera Interval Zone occurs immediately above the K/Pg boundary and is here described from Seymour Island. The Corbisema hastata Partial Range Zone extends from near the K/Pg boundary to late early Palaeocene and has been observed in Hole 208. The Pseudonaviculopsis disymmetrica Acme Zone occurs in Holes 208 and 700B. The Dictyocha precarentis Partial Range Zone, observed in Holes 208, 700B, 752A and 1121B, is subdivided into D. precarentis, Naviculopsis primativa, N. cruciata and Pseudonaviculopsis constricta subzones. The Naviculopsis constricta Partial Range Zone occurs in Holes 524, 700B, 752A and 1121B. This study is also the first to consider syn- and/or diachroneity in Palaeogene silicoflagellate biostratigraphy.
EN
The radiolarian biostratigraphy of the Middle–Upper Jurassic pelagic siliceous sediments (Czajakowa Radiolarite Formation) in the Niedzica succession of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (Carpathians) is interpreted in terms of their age in a stratotype section, and facies equivalents in other tectonic-facies units of this region. The siliceous sediments are represented by radiolarian cherts and silicified limestones which are underlain and overlain by red nodular limestones, equivalents of the Rosso Ammonitico facies. The radiolarian association includes thirty-seven taxa belonging to twenty one genera which represent the Northern Tethyan Palaeogeographic Province. Key radiolarians recorded provide a means of correlation with zonation schemes based on Unitary Associations defined for the Jurassic Tethyan sediments. The age of the Czajakowa Radiolarite Formation in the stratotype section is determined as U.A.Z.9 to U.A.Z.11 corresponding to middle Oxfordian up to Kimmeridgian. Comparison of radiolarian biozones from the stratotype section with other facial equivalent sections in the Pieniny Klippen Belt reveals a significant diachronism for both the lower and the upper limits of the Jurassic pelagic siliceous facies.
EN
Sparse fish microremains have been found in marine limestones from the Middle Devonian (Givetian) Skały Formation (Sitka Coral-Crinoid Limestone Member and Sierżawy Member), Świętomarz–Śniadka section, Bodzentyn Syncline, Łysogóry Region, northern Holy Cross Mountains, associated with conodonts of the hemiansatus to ansatus zones. Thelodont scales referred here to Australolepis sp. cf. A. seddoni come from near Śniadka village, from samples dated as hemiansatus to rhenanus/varcus zones. This increases the known range for the genus from its original find in Western Australia. The presence of a thelodont in the late Middle Devonian in Poland extends the known distribution of turiniids around the peri-Gondwana shorelines of Palaeotethys.
EN
The lower (but not lowermost) part of the Upper Cretaceous Anaipadi Formation of the Trichinopoly Group in the area between Kulatur, Saradamangalam and Anaipadi, in the south-western part of the Cauvery Basin in southeast India yielded rich inoceramid and ammonite faunas. The ammonites: Mesopuzosia gaudama (Forbes, 1846), Damesites sugata (Forbes, 1846), Onitschoceras sp., Kossmaticeras (Kossmaticeras) theobald ianum (Stoliczka, 1865), Lewesiceras jimboi (Kossmat, 1898), Placenticeras kaffrarium Etheridge, 1904, and Pseudoxybeloceras (Schlueterella) sp., are characteristic of the Kossmaticeras theobaldianum Zone. The absence of Peroniceras (P.) dravidicum (Kossmat, 1895) indicates the presence of only lower part of this zone, referred to the nominative Kossmaticeras theobaldianum Subzone at the localities studied. The inoceramids present are Tethyoceramus madagascariensis (Heinz, 1933) and Cremnoceramus deformis erectus (Meek, 1877), recorded for the first time from the region. The latter dates the studied interval as early early Coniacian, and allows, for the first time, direct chronostratigraphic dating of the Tethyoceramus madagascariensis Zone, and consequently also of the Kossmaticeras theobaldianum Subzone. As inoceramids occur in the middle part of the ammonite-rich interval, the Kossmaticeras theobaldianum Subzone may be as old as latest Turonian and not younger than early early Coniacian. The base of the Coniacian lies in the lower, but not lowermost part of the Anaipadi Formation. Both inoceramids and ammonites represent taxa known from Madagascar and South Africa.
EN
Triceratium barbadense Greville, 1861a, T. brachiatum Brightwell, 1856, T. inconspicuum Greville, 1861b and T. kanayae Fenner, 1984a, are among the most common diatoms reported worldwide from lower to middle Eocene biosiliceous sediments. Due to complicated nomenclatural histories, however, they are often confused. A morphometric analysis performed herein indicates that T. brachiatum is conspecific with T. inconspicuum, and that both were previously often misidentified as T. barbadense. Triceratium barbadense sensu stricto is a distinct species similar to Triceratium castellatum West, 1860. Triceratium brachiatum and T. kanayae are transferred herein to a new genus, Fenneria, for which a close phylogenetic relationship with Medlinia Sims, 1998 is proposed. A review of the geographic and stratigraphic distribution of Fenneria shows that the best constrained records of its occurrences are found at DSDP Site 338, and ODP Sites 1051 and 1260. The ages of the base (B) and top (T) of each species’ stratigraphic range are calibrated here to the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale either directly or inferred via correlation with dinocyst biostratigraphy. Latitudinal diachroneity of ~7 million years is documented for F. brachiata, which disappears earlier in tropical and mid-latitude sites than in the northern high latitudes. These observations, coupled with a preliminary compilation of the Chron C20n taxonomic composition of pelagic diatom assemblages for Sites 338, 1051 and 1260, indicate that diatoms diversified palaeobiogeographically considerably earlier than the Eocene-Oligocene Transition, as commonly believed. This study also emphasizes the importance of the detailed examination of specimens from both museum collections and deep-sea cores as a step toward enhancing the utility of Palaeogene diatoms in palaeoceanographic and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.
EN
The Silurian fishes from north-western Hunan, China are characterised by the earliest known galeaspids Dayongaspis Pan and Zeng, 1985 and Konoceraspis Pan, 1992, and the earliest known antiarch Shimenolepis Wang J.-Q., 1991, as well as rich sinacanth fin spines. Shimenolepis from Lixian County in north-western Hunan, which was dated as the Telychian (late Llandovery), has long been regarded as the oldest representative of the placoderms in the world. As such, in addition to eastern Yunnan and the Lower Yangtze Region, north-western Hunan represents another important area in South China that yields important fossil material for the research of early vertebrates and related stratigraphy. Here we summarise the Silurian fishes known in north-western Hunan so far, and classify them into three vertebrate assemblages (i.e., the Wentang, Maoshan, and Yangtze assemblages). Based on the updated Silurian vertebrate and stratigraphic databases, the Silurian fish-bearing strata in north-western Hunan can be subdivided into the Rongxi, Huixingshao, and Xiaoxi formations in ascending chronological order, which can be correlated with the Lower Red Beds, the Upper Red Beds, and the Ludlow Red Beds in South China, respectively. A new look at the Silurian strata in Lixian suggests that the age of Shimenolepis is late Ludlow rather than late Llandovery as previously suggested. The research on Silurian fishes and biostratigraphy in north-western Hunan not only provides morphological data of early vertebrates, but also offers new palaeoichthyological evidence for the subdivision, correlation, and age assignment of the Silurian marine red beds in South China. The establishment of a related high-precision Silurian stratigraphic framework in north-western Hunan will help to elucidate the temporal and spatial distribution of Silurian fossil fishes, deepen the understanding of the evolution of early vertebrates, and unravel the coevolution between Silurian vertebrates and the palaeoenvironment.
EN
The new monotypic ammonite genus Xenosphinctes (type species: Xenosphinctes berkai n. sp.) is established. It is recorded from the Upper Jurassic, Early Tithonian, Hybonotum Zone, Riedense Subzone, eigeltingense α horizon from the Talmühle, N of Engen, Baden-Württemberg, SW Germany.
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