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In the papers [1, 2] mathematical models using incremental methods in processing of information about the course of variability in the shape of sea bed along the measurement profile were proposed. These models were implemented in author.s application and served simulation tests. The results of the tests were used for comparisons and for assessment of possibilities to use them in the case of various shapes of the seabed. 1. Janusz Ogrodniczak, "Metody przyrostowe w przetwarzaniu danych batymetrycznych-kryteria oceny dokładności dopasowania przebiegu aproksymującego do sygnału wejściowego., (Incremental methods in the bathymetric data processing . accuracy criteria for the approximation of input signal) Roczniki Geomatyki (Annals of Geomatics) 2006, Vol. IV, Number 3, Warszawa. 2. Janusz Ogrodniczak, "Incremental Methods in Bathymetric Data Processing - Bathymetric Data Quantisation", Advances in Transport Systems Telematics, Section III, Chapter 10, Katowice, 2006.
The possibilities to use delta modulation based incremental methods in the bathymetric data processing are described in this paper. The bathymetric data is a geo-referenced depth data. The depth measurement is made in fixed time intervals so it could be assumed that it is a kind of a signal. Contemporary survey systems provide users with huge amount of data. In the paper it is decided to incorporate the delta modulation into the bathymetric data processing as a method of reducing the amount of the bathymetric data to be transmitted or stored. The delta modulation is a technique taken from signal processing. It is usually used to process electric signals so comparison of voltage levels at the sampling time is the criterion. When considering series of the bathymetric data as a signal, some of the ideas from terrain modeling were adapted to the delta modulation based system. Hence, additional two criteria are taken: a difference between the slope of approximation and the slope of the sea bottom shape and the distance between curves represented by the approximation and the sea bottom shape.
Content available remote Monitoring of underwater objects movement in hydrography
The role and abilities of contemporary underwater navigation systems in movement monitoring of hydro-acoustic detection means and underwater objects visual identification is described in this paper. There are no problems with positioning and movement monitoring of objects located or moving over the Earth surface at present. Unfortunately, these systems could not be applied in case of objects that move below water surface.
W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono rolę i możliwości współczesnych systemów nawigacji podwodnej w monitorowaniu ruchu środków wykrywania hydroakustycznego oraz identyfikacji wizyjnej obiektów podwodnych. Pozycjonowanie oraz monitorowanie ruchu obiektów na powierzchni Ziemi nie stanowi obecnie problemu. Niestety, systemy te nie znajdują zastosowania w przypadku obiektów przemieszczających się pod powierzchnią wody.
Contemporary needs of navigators in using navigational, hydrographical and cartographical data enhance outstanding progress of technique in position fixing and display systems. Launching common application of ECDIS and ECS systems changed our view on the use of charts on ships. bridges in their traditional paper form. These changes were approved by changes incorporated into SOLAS Convention in 2002. Many standardisation documents were prepared for both types of systems, especially for ECDIS. They referred to such problems as how to display chart data, database (ENC) production and updating methods, technical requirements that should be fulfilled by computer hardware and software, procedures for data quality verification and training methods and requirements for operating such systems. The most important of them are: IHO . S-52, S-57, S-61; IMO . A817; IEC . 61174, 60945, 611262. It is almost certain when continuous increasing number of available ENC cells and efficiency of regional centres called RENC are considered that ECDIS and ECS systems become basic tools for navigators. RENC (Regional ENC Coordination Centre) is responsible for data quality verification and distribution of ENC (Electronic Navigational Chart) cells that are computer files containing digital data for charts. At present there are two such centres: .Primar. in Norway and .IC-ENC. in Great Britain. Once launched the process will never stop. Actions connected with introducing new solutions and ideas concerning geo-spatial data selection and presentation prove it. Nowadays, a lot of countries, institutions, national and industrial organisations are preparing or have just started their research programmes. When the level of advancement of research, development and application works of hydrographic services of Canada (CHS), France (SHOM), Germany, Norway and Poland and the achievements of such companies as CARIS, C-Map, Seven Cs, Offshore Systems, Sodena, Transas Marine are analysed, main trends in further evolution of digital chart presentation systems could be easily anticipated. The most important are works towards:m better use of existing S-57 standard,m preparing of additional information layers for the users. m expanding the range of applications on domains, which are not directly connected with navigation. Authors thought that potentially the most promising way of further development is creation of additional information layers. The concept of creation and use of additional information layers follows the idea of AML (Additional Military Layers) originally developed by NATO working groups regarding WECDIS standard. AML product specification is a part of continuous development of S-57 architecture so it should not be a problem to transpose this idea from military to civil domain. Every year S- 57 becomes more and more popular and wider used maritime standard. AML-like layers could allow to extend the range of possible S-57 use on new branches of maritime industries and on the activities known as sea tourism, and because it is an extension of existing standard it should not need significant outlays. In this paper the authors present general information that makes the idea of AML more familiar to readers. The paper also presents examples of using additional information layers In maritime institutions (e.g. Maritime Offices) and in other organisations that use and process hydro-navigational geoinformation for sea industry and managing maritime infrastructure and for sea tourism ,especially for so-called "wreck tourism"
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