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PL
W artykule przedstawiono przykład zastosowania oprogramowania ArcInfo do redagowania mapy. Przybliżono problematykę wyboru i sposobu wykorzystania danych źródłowych, prezentacji rzeźby terenu w trakcie opracowania średnioskalowej mapy topograficznej przeznaczonej do wydruku.
EN
In 2010 an expedition to the massif of Belukha in the Altai (4506 m a.s.l.) in Kazakhstan was organized. A topographic map in the scale of 1:100,000 had been prepared for the expedition. Ali the editorial works were performed in the environment of GIS ArcInfo package, which had been considered the most advanced in applied cartographic tools. The first version of the map had been verified in Altai and in 2011 a new version was elaborated, which mainly improved relief by addi-tion of rock drawing and modified shading. The map was prepared in 'WGS-84' coordinate system and UTM projection basing on Soviet topographic maps in '1942' coordinate system (downloaded from the Internet) and satellite images from LandsatTM and ETM+. Satellite images were used to update buildings, forests, roads, water-beds and main forms of high-mountain rock relief. ASTER GDEM and SRTM digital terrain models were also used, but their quality was not satisfactory. As a result an original terrain model in 25 m resolution was prepared, basing on vectorized contourlines and other necessary relief elements extracted from topographic maps using ANUDEM algorithm. All the elements of map contents mentioned above were prepared in ArcInfo, with input data not organized into one common database, but rather placed in a layer structure (*lyr files). Rock drawings could not be executed in ArcInfo package (ArcMap module), therefore they were done manually using satellite images. Rock drawings were adjusted to the location of mountain ridges determined basing on topographic maps. The drawing was then scanned, processed graphically in Adobe Photoshop, geo-referred and added to the map. Shading was generated from the original terrain model, detailed to follow the contourlines, modified and retouched in Photoshop, adapting the details to rock drawings and contourlines' location. The presented process of preparation of a middle-scale topographic map shows that the newest version of ArcInfo package (9.3.1) has a lot of potential for map editing, starting from data preparation to the final map. However, for particular features and forms of relief, manual involvement using other vector and raster graphic editors is necessary.
EN
In 2005–2007 at the University of Agriculture in Krakow field experiments with shading with polyethylene films were carried out on medium-early celery ‘Tango’ cultivar and butterhead lettuce ‘Melodion’ cultivar. Shadings with transparent, white and black films made from original and recycled materials were fixed on low tunnel structures on 7 days before harvesting lettuce (from 23.05.2005. and 23.05.2006, respectively) and on 10–12 days before harvesting celery (from 29.06.2005, 1.07.2006 and 25.06.2007, respectively). The best elongation growth of celery was shown under white film which also slightly increased the yield of celery stalks. In relation to yielding of celery in 2005 best effect was obtained under white film, in the next year under transparent and white film and in the last year of the experiment the yield was even in all objects with small advantage under white film. Shading lettuce with transparent film for 7 days before harvest increased the yield and soluble sugars content in plants. With the decrease of PAR permeability through films dry matter, soluble sugars and ascorbic acid content decreased in celery and lettuce. No differences were shown in the growth, quality and yield of celery and lettuce grown under films made from original and recycled materials.
PL
W latach 2005–2007 wykonano w Uniwersytecie Rolniczym w Krakowie doświadczenia polowe z cieniowaniem folią polietylenową roślin selerów naciowych odm. ‘Tango’ i sałaty masłowej odm. ‘Melodion’. Cieniowanie folią bezbarwną, białą i czarną, wyprodukowaną z surowców oryginalnych i recyklingowych w przypadku sałaty wykonywano na tydzień przed zbiorem (odpowiednio od 23.05.2005 r. i 23.05.2006 r.), a w przypadku selerów 10–12 dni przed zbiorem (odpowiednio od 29.06.2005 r., 1.07.2006 r. i 25.06.2007 r.). Wzrost elongacyjny selera naciowego był najsilniejszy pod folią białą, która powodowała także nieznaczne zwiększenie plonu ogonków liściowych. Pod względem plonowania w 2005 r. najlepszy wynik uzyskano pod folią białą, w kolejnym pod bezbarwną i białą, a w ostatnim plon był wyrównany we wszystkich obiektach, z niewielką przewagą obiektów, w których stosowano folię białą. Cieniowanie roślin sałaty bezbarwną folią na tydzień przed zbiorem spowodowało wzrost plonu oraz zawartości cukrów rozpuszczalnych. Wraz ze zmniejszaniem przepuszczalności folii dla promieniowania fotosyntetycznie czynnego, zawartość suchej masy, cukrów i kwasu askorbinowego w selerach i sałacie zmniejszała się. Rodzaj surowca stosowanego do produkcji folii nie miał wpływu na wzrost, plonowanie i jakość selerów i sałaty.
4
Content available remote Aspekty wizualizacji rzeźby terenu w czasie rzeczywistym
EN
The paper presents works on creation of an optimal model of data for real time visualization of topographic surface. The model should fulfill three conditions: 1) minimization of the amount of stored data, 2) dynamic adjustment of the model to the scale of imaging, 3) guarantee of obtaining required accuracy of surface reconstruction. On the basis of literature and experiments conducted a data model based on sections was selected and an algorithm for dynamic real time visualization was elaborated. The model consists In creation of dense sections which are generalized in successive steps. Thus, the model with minimum sections arises ensuring the accuracy of reconstruction assumed in advance. Individual sections are assigned so called .priorities., which determine whether they are used in next stages of model construction or not. The higher the priority the lower distance at which the section stall be further processed. The distance is calculated from the observer to the centre of gravity of the section. The method of further creation of the model based on a network of triangles consists of the following stages: 1. Generalization is performed with the aim of decreasing the number of points, on the basis of which the network of triangles will be created. The generalization covers: m Determination of the distance between the observer and each of the sections to be analysed. The number and selection of proper sections shall depend upon the scale in which the model of topographic surface will be pictured. Based on the distance and priority sections for further analysis are selected. Designation of condensed points created a broken line of sections selected at the preceding stage. These points undergo the generalization process in order to decrease the number of triangles for the further process of creation of the topographic surface visualization. The Douglas-Peucker method was selected for generalization ensuring high level of generalization and small deformations. 2. Triangulation. The number of objects which shall be created in this step depends on the level of generalization. The increase in the level of generalization shall result in an increase of the area to be pictured and, at the same time, the accuracy of the model shall decline. In order to decrease calculations, the triangulation is conducted between neighbouring sections by the method of biggest angles. On the basis of the experiments conducted it was found that this method gives the best results providing the greatest number of triangles per unit of time. 3. Shading and illumination. It follows from the assumptions that colour shall define the height (depth). Therefore, the methods based on flat shading, which assign only one colour to each surface and bring about the lack of smooth change in colour, were not further used in the analysis. On the basis of experiments conducted, the Gouraud method was selected fulfilling the assumptions and featured with the shortest time of object shading. In the opinion of the authors, the proposed model very well fulfills the conditions presented at the beginning.
5
Content available Cienie i cieniowanie w grafice komputerowej
PL
Współcześnie grafika komputerowa umożliwia tworzenie światłocieni z powodzeniem symulujących efekty oświetlenia obiektów występujące w świecie rzeczywistym. W artykule krótko przedstawiono podstawowe algorytmy wyznaczania cieni oraz możliwości kreowania cieni w 3D Studio – popularnym programie typu CAD.
EN
Contemporary computer graphics has an ability to create shade and shadows which successfully stimulate light effects in real world. In the paper basic algorithms for creating shade and shadows are shortly presented as well as shade and shadow options in 3D Studio – the popular CAD program.
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