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1
Content available Towards improving optimised ship weather routing
EN
The aim of the paper is to outline a project focussing on the development of a new type of ship weather routing solution with improved uncertainty handling, through better estimation of ship performance and responses to sea conditions. Ensemble forecasting is considered to take into account the uncertainty levels that are typical of operations in a stochastic environment. Increased accuracy of weather prediction is achieved through the assimilation of real-time data, measured by an on-board monitoring system. The proposed system will allow smooth integration of short-term Decision Support Systems for ship handling in dangerous or peculiar situations with long-term Decision Support Systems for weather routing. An appropriate user interface is also a critical part of the project and it will be implemented in a commercial Electronic Nautical Chart environment. A prototype of the full system will be installed and tested on a commercial vessel in regular operations and under real environmental conditions.
EN
The article describes the methodology related to determining the multi-criteria routes for sailing ships. Details of sea area discretisation and discretisation of the description of the sailing vessel properties and manoeuvring principles are shown. User requirements were specified (for five different categories of users) and on this basis the criteria for selecting the most suitable shipping route were formulated. The presented algorithm recommends a route for a given user category by means of defined restrictions and configuration parameters. The applied multi-criteria approach proves the universality and usability of the sailing ship route planning method.
EN
The paper presents a multi-objective method, which optimises the route of a sailboat. The presented method makes use of an evolutionary multi-objective (EMO) algorithm, which performs the optimisation according to three objective functions: total passage time, a sum of all course alterations made during the voyage and the average angle of heel. The last two of the objective functions reflect the navigator’s and passenger’s comfort, which may decrease with multiple turns or when experiencing an excessive heel angle for a long time. The optimisation process takes into account static bathymetry-related constraints as well as dynamic constraints related to the sailboat’s safety in changing wind and wave conditions. The method makes use of all of the above and finally returns an approximated Pareto set containing non-dominated solutions to the optimisation problem. The developed method has been implemented as a simulation application. The paper includes selected simulation results followed by their discussion.
PL
Stworzenie efektywnej i niedrogiej w eksploatacji sieci komunikacji w regionie Morza Bałtyckiego umożliwiło wdrożenie wielu usług e-nawigacji, w tym usługi rutingu pogodowego. Przygotowane w ramach projektu netBaltic narzędzie do optymalizacji trasy żeglugi, model hydrometeorologiczny w połączeniu z siecią internetową stwarzają niespotykane dotąd korzyści dla sektora żeglugi morskiej. Podstawą działania wielokryteriowego modułu rutingu pogodowego są algorytmy SPEA, wyszukujące najbardziej optymalną trasę, według ustalonych przez użytkownika kryteriów (np. czas przejścia, bezpieczeństwo, konsumpcja paliwa). Z kolei dedykowany model hydrometeorologiczny generuje zestaw danych prognostycznych dla Bałtyku i dokonuje ich bieżącej aktualizacji. Sieć łączności powstała w ramach projektu netBaltic umożliwia sprawne działanie narzędzia rutingu pogodowego dzięki stworzeniu infrastruktury dostarczającej aktualne prognozy pogody na pokład jednostki.
EN
Development of an affordable communication network for the Baltic Sea region provided the basis for an array of new e-navigation services, including weather ruting, to be implemented. As a result of the netBaltic project the maritime transportation sector can utilise the weather routing tool, a dedicate hydro-met model and an internet-based communication network. The multi-criterion weather routing module applies Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) to determine an optimal route according to a pre-defined set of criteria (e.g. passage time, safety level, fuel consumption). Whilst a dedicated hydro-met model outputs high-resolution weather forecast for the Baltic Sea and updates them regularly. The netBaltic network assures that the latest weather forecast is delivered on-board.
EN
The article presents a method to determine the route of a sailing vessel with the aid of deterministic algorithms. The method assumes that the area in which the route is to be determined is limited and the basic input data comprise the wind vector and the speed characteristic of the vessel. Compared to previous works of the authors, the present article additionally takes into account the effect of sea waves with the resultant resistance increase on the vessel speed. This approach brings the proposed model closer to real behaviour of a sailing vessel. The result returned by the method is the sailing route, optimised based on the multi-criteria objective function. Along with the time criterion, this function also takes into account comfort of voyage and the number of performed turns. The developed method has been implemented as simulation application SaillingAssistance and experimentally verified.
EN
This paper deals with fuel consumption estimations relating to container ships on the basis of ship service and wave parameters. Data, on which to base estimations, was measured and recorded from a container ship during 96 months at sea. Approximating functions were calculated by the use of curve fitting techniques and regression methods, utilizing newly developed software named ndCurveMaster. The approximation function presented in this paper could have practical application for the estimation of container ship fuel consumption, while considering weather routing. In addition the study clearly shows the relationship between the fuel consumption of a container ship and the number of months since its last docking. These results may form the basis for further research in this direction.
PL
E-nawigacja oznacza integrację istniejących oraz stworzenie nowych rozwiązań elektronicznych, informatycznych, teleinformatycznych oraz usług cyfrowych mających na celu wsparcie szeroko rozumianego procesu nawigacji morskiej. Proces ten wymaga m.in. stworzenia nowych sposobów transmisji danych na morzu. Projekt Internet na Bałtyku (NetBaltic) ma na celu opracowanie koncepcji stworzenia bezprzewodowej, szerokopasmowej sieci teleinformatycznej dla akwenu Morza Bałtyckiego. W artykule przedstawiono możliwe praktyczne wykorzystanie tego typu transmisji danych na przykładzie jednej z usług e-nawigacji, tj. usługi pogodowego planowania trasy statku.
EN
E-navigation aims at integration and creation of new electronic and computer-aided Solutions and services towards supporting navigational process as & whole. There is a require-ment, among other things, to introduce new means of data transmission on board. The NetBaltic project has been created to prepare a f ramework of a new broadband wireiess transmission nelwork for the Baltic Sea. This paper presents how such type of transmission can be utihzed by one of e-navigation services, namely the weather routing service.
8
Content available Multi-objective weather routing of sailing vessels
EN
The paper presents a multi-objective deterministic method of weather routing for sailing vessels. Depending on a particular purpose of sailboat weather routing, the presented method makes it possible to customize the criteria and constraints so as to fit a particular user’s needs. Apart from a typical shortest time criterion, safety and comfort can also be taken into account. Additionally, the method supports dynamic weather data: in its present version short-term, mid-term and long-term term weather forecasts are used during optimization process. In the paper the multi-objective optimization problem is first defined and analysed. Following this, the proposed method solving this problem is described in detail. The method has been implemented as an online SailAssistance application. Some representative examples solutions are presented, emphasizing the effects of applying different criteria or different values of customized parameters.
EN
The method for determining the suboptimal route of sailing vessels operating in a restricted area of the sea are proposed in the paper. The dynamics of the environment including weather conditions and speed characteristics of ships sailing are considered. As optimization criterion, measure sailing time T, and the number of maneuvers performed ω, are taken into account. An heuristic algorithm, and the appropriate application routing for fixed starting points and targets is designed in the method. In addition author analyzed the behavior of the algorithm, depending on the number of direction changes of the course, and granularity of the description of the surface of area.
PL
W artykule zaproponowano suboptymalną metodę określania trasy dla statków żaglowych poruszających się w ograniczonym akwenie morskim. Uwzględniono przy tym dynamikę tego środowiska, między innymi warunki pogodowe oraz charakterystyki prędkościowe statków żaglowych. Jako kryterium optymalizacji przyjęto czas żeglugi T oraz liczbę wykonanych manewrów ω. Zaprojektowano heurystyczny algorytm oraz odpowiednią aplikację wyznaczania trasy dla ustalonych punktów startowych i docelowych. Przeanalizowano zachowanie się algorytmu w zależności od liczby zmian kierunków żeglugi oraz przyjętej ziarnistości opisu akwenu.
EN
A significant increase in demand for navigation support systems called Onboard Routing Systems (ORS) can be observed in the World’s merchant fleet. ORS is a navigation-support system that enables route programming to warn of dangers and navigation constraints and determine the required route-safety level directly onboard the vessel. In this article, an attempt to analyze and compare two ORS systems has been made: the Ship Performance Optimization System (SPOS), by the Meteo Consult Group; and the Bon Voyage system by Applied Weather Technologies (AWT). Individual items, methods, and criteria of both systems for optimization and weather forecasting models utilized have been compared. Particular attention has been paid to the usefulness of the systems regarding the problem of identification and avoidance of hazards such as tropical cyclones and wave resonance. Ergonomics of both systems has also been compared.
EN
The Multicriteria Evolutionary Weather Routing Algorithm (MEWRA) has already been introduced by the author on earlier TransNav 2009 and 2011 conferences with a focus on theoretical application to a hybrid‐propulsion or motor‐driven ship. This paper addresses the topic of possible practical weather routing applications of MEWRA. In the paper some practical advantages of utilizing Pareto front as a result of multicriteria optimization in case of route finding are described. The paper describes the notion of Paretooptimality of routes along with a simplified, easy to follow, example. It also discusses a choice of the most suitable ranking method for MEWRA (a comparison between Fuzzy TOPSIS and Zero Unitarization Method is presented). In addition to that the paper briefly outlines a commercial application of MEWRA.
12
Content available An Ant Colony Algorithm for efficient ship routing
EN
With the substantial rising of international oil price and global warming on the rise, how to reduce operational fuel consumption and decrease air pollution has become one of the pursued goals of green ship. Ship route planning is an indispensible part of the ship navigation process, especially in transoceanic crossing ship routing. The soundness of ship routing not only affects the safety of ship navigation but also the operation economy and environmental protection. This research is based on the platform of Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS), and founded on Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA) combined with the concept of Genetic Algorithm (GA), to model living organisms optimization behaviour to perform efficient ship route planning in transoceanic crossing. Besides the realization of route planning automation, ship routing will achieve the goal of optimum carbon dioxide reduction and energy conservation, and provide reference for route planning decision.
EN
Weather routing methods find the most suitable ocean’s route for a vessel, taking into account changeable weather conditions and navigational constraints. In the multicriteria approach based on the evolu-tionary SPEA algorithm one is able to consider a few constrained criteria simultaneously. The approach ap-plied for a ship with hybrid propulsions has already been presented by one of the authors on previous Trans-Nav’2009. This time a motor-driven version of the solution is presented. The paper is focused especially on a proposal of ship safety measure, based on restricting the impact of weather hazards on the ship. Besides the weather conditions and navigational restraint the safety of a vessel is one of more important factors to be con-sidered. The new approach towards a safety factor modeling is described and implemented.
14
Content available remote Storm-surges Indicator for the Polish Baltic Coast
EN
Storm surges appear in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea and, depending on row of factors, have different sizes, specifically characteristic for each region of the sea-coast. Observed climate changes are characterized with greater dynamics of weather phenomena. To compare the risk of storm surges to different areas, a new method had to be developed. Storm-surges indicator is used to compare the risks to the South Baltic water areas, varied along with conditions therein and the hydro meteorological and local conditions. The studies on the relations between the parameters and the occurrence of storm surges were carried out as well. The storm surges indicator “W” is related to the number of storm surges observed at the stations in the particular regions, the maximal wind velocity and the max sea level occurring during the same storm surges. The storm surges indicator was calculated for the period of 1955-2008 for the Polish coastal zone. The inten-tion is to use this indicator for research and forecasting purposes. Assessment of the tendencies and variability of the regional phenomena indicators in timescale prove occurrence of certain regional changes of hydrome-teorological conditions.
EN
The use of methods of complex climatology, which treats climate as a many-year weather re-gime, made it possible to define the annual structure of weather states observed in seven Polish sea ports, i.e. Elbląg, Gdańsk, Hel, Łeba, Ustka, Kołobrzeg and Świnoujście. This work uses data originating from OGIMET and covers the period 2000-2009. Weather conditions that make port operation either difficult or even impossible are considered to be those when, during a day, we observe negative air temperatures, cloudiness, precipitation and strong winds at the same time. Once the frequency of occurrence of unfavorable weather conditions has been defined for the port operation then for each port a climatogram was drawn illustrating their frequency in the following decades of a given year. Weather conditions which are unfavorable for the work in Polish sea ports are observed only in autumn and winter, and during early spring; they are most frequent in the ports of Ustka and Gdańsk. Their annual fre-quency in none of the described ports exceeds 1% so the conditions in Polish sea ports may be regarded as fa-vorable for port operations. The worst weather conditions are observed in the last decade of December, third decade in January and in the second and third decades in February as well as i the first decade of April.
16
Content available remote Elements of Tropical Cyclones Avoidance Procedure
EN
The updated version of the Cyclone II program was used for analyzing hundreds of cases where ships were facing dozens of developed cyclones. The program generates directions for navigators that are recommended for consideration before making decisions on passing around or avoiding tropical cyclones. Three specific situations were defined where a vessel may enter the area affected by a tropical cyclone, and its commander must consider three recommendations for safe passing of the cyclone: – vessel – cyclone encounter, where if on opposite course, the most effective is course alteration; – when the ship overtakes the cyclone, speed reduction is the most effective action; – when the vessel and the cyclone are on crossing routes (30 ÷ 90°), a slight decrease in speed or a slight course alteration or both actions can be effective.
17
Content available remote Development of a 3D Dynamic Programming Method for Weather Routing
EN
This paper presents a novel forward dynamic programming method for weather routing to min-imize ship fuel consumption during a voyage. Compared with the traditional two dimensional dynamic pro-gramming (2DDP) methods which only optimize the ship’s heading, while the engine power or propeller rota-tion speed are set as a constant throughout the voyage, this new method considers both the ship power setting and heading control. A float state technique is used to reduce the iteration on the process of optimization for computing time saving. This new method could lead to a real global-optimal routing in a comparison with a tradition weather routing method which results in a sub-optimal routing.
EN
Weather routing methods find the most suitable ocean's route for a vessel, taking into account changeable weather conditions and navigational constraints. In the multicriteria approach based on the evolutionary SPEA algorithm one is able to consider a few constrained criteria simultaneously. Previously the author has presented the SPEA-based weather routing solution for a ship with hybrid propulsion (motor and sails propulsions). In this paper the same approach is applied for a motor-only driven ship. The paper underlines the most significant differences in the application for hybrid and motor-only propulsions.
PL
Nawigacja meteorologiczna polega na poszukiwaniu oceanicznej trasy przejścia statku z uwzględnieniem ograniczeń nawigacyjnych oraz zmieniających się warunków meteorologicznych. Problem optymalizacji trasy w podejściu wielokryterialnym, bazującym na algorytmie ewolucyjnym SPEA, definiowany jest za pomocą zbioru równocześnie rozpatrywanych kryteriów. We wcześniejszych pracach autorka proponowała już podobne rozwiązanie dla statku z napędem hybrydowym (wyposażonym w silnik oraz dodatkowy pędnik wiatrowy - żagle). W niniejszym artykule opisywane jest analogiczne rozwiązanie dedykowane dla statku z napędem mechanicznym. Podkreślono tu również najważniejsze różnice pomiędzy aplikacją rozwiązania dla statku z napędem hybrydowym oraz mechanicznym.
EN
Route optimization for ships may be defined as a constrained multicriteria optimization problem. This paper presents an already implemented solution to the problem based on a multicriteria evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) and a ranking method (Fuzzy TOPSIS). Research results of the solution indicate the necessity of reduction of total execution time of the algorithm. Thus, in the paper applicable alternative optimization methods in weather routing are reviewed and the most suitable methods are appointed in the final conclusions.
PL
Proces optymalizacji tras statku zdefiniować można jako wielokryterialne zadanie optymalizacyjne z ograniczeniami. W artykule prezentowane jest, zaimplementowane wcześniej, narzędzie służące do rozwiązywania zadania optymalizacji tras. Wykorzystuje ono dwa mechanizmy optymalizacji wielokryterialnej: ewolucyjny algorytm SPEA oraz metodę rankingową Fuzzy TOPSIS. Uzyskane wyniki badań prezentowanego narzędzia wskazują na konieczność redukcji łącznego czasu wykonania algorytmu. Dlatego też w artykule przedstawiono przegląd alternatywnych metod optymalizacji wielokryterialnej, możliwych do zastosowania w badanym przypadku. Dodatkowo podjęto próbę wskazania rozwiązania najkorzystniejszego z punktu wiedzenia rozpatrywanego problemu.
EN
This paper describes application of Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) to an optimization problem in weather routing. The paper includes a description of SPEA algorithm and defines the constrained weather routing optimization problem. It also presents a proposal and preliminary test results of SPEA-based weather routing evolutionary algorithm.
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