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1
Content available Destruction of the Structure of Boiling Emulsions
EN
In this paper we consider the processes of dynamic interaction between the boiling particles of the dispersed phase of the emulsion leading to the large droplet breakup. It is indicated the differences in the consideration of forces that determine the crushing of non-boiling and boiling drops. It is determined the possibility of using the model to define the processes of displacement, deformation or fragmentation of the inclusion of the dispersed phase under the influence of a set of neighboring particles. The proposed method allows us to determine the main energy parameters of the homogenization process by boiling the emulsion.
PL
W tym artykule rozważamy procesy dynamicznej interakcji między wrzącymi cząsteczkami zdyspergowanej fazy emulsji, prowadzące do rozpadu dużych kropel. Wskazano na różnice w uwzględnianiu sił, które determinują kruszenie kropli niewrzących i wrzących. Określono możliwość wykorzystania modelu do zdefiniowania procesów przemieszczenia, deformacji lub fragmentacji włączenia fazy rozproszonej pod wpływem zestawu sąsiednich cząstek. Proponowana metoda pozwala określić główne parametry energetyczne procesu homogenizacji podczas ogrzewania i wrzenia emulsji.
EN
The Cone Penetration Test is one of the most versatile and widely used geotechnical tests over the world. Some differences in technical solutions between the equipment manufactured by different producers and the relatively quick wear of the penetrometer itself make the issue of quality and comparability of the CPTU results very actual. The tests were conducted in the testing ground of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. The test site is located in the northern part of Poznań, within a marginal zone of the Poznań Phase of the Weichselian (Vistulian) glaciation. The subsoil consists of glacial till of the Riss glaciation and glacial till of the Vistulian glaciation, separated by fluvioglacial sandy sediments and covered with fine and medium sands with single gravel grains. The quality of geotechnical parameters of the tested subsoil was assessed for the initial constrained modulus and undrained shear strength. To determine these parameters, static penetrometers produced by two different manufacturers were used. The tests and the results of analysis were performed in three stages. In the first stage, each penetrometer was used to investigate homogeneity and diversity of the subsoil structure in the test sites. The subsoil structure diversity was examined by grouping statistically similar Rf coefficient values along the profile. In the second stage, the level of accuracy and precision in the assessment of the corrected cone resistance - qt, friction on the friction sleeve-fs, and pore pressure - u2 was determined for individual penetrometers. In the next stage, the differences between the constrained modulus and undrained shear strength were determined for both penetrometers. This analysis takes into account the level of precision of the corrected cone resistance.
3
Content available remote Magnetic levitation in industrial transport systems
EN
The paper presents a well known idea of using permanent magnets as a source of energy in an industrial transport system (for instance maglev). The idea of this paper is to present computation and simulation for a transport system in 2D space using the Ansys environment. An idea for a system which starts to operate only at the very moment when a worker needs help and is moving a heavy object, and is using it with a minimum amount of energy has become an idea about saving energy. When gravity is eliminated by magnetic fields forces, for moving heavy object, we only need to overcome the moment of inertia. All resistance practically disappears, because there is almost no friction in this system. In the paper the use of magnetic field concentration in Halbach array system for eliminating gravitational forces during a load movement has been presented.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono dobrze znaną ideę wykorzystania magnesów trwałych, jako źródła energii w przemysłowym systemie transportu (na przykład maglev). Ideą tego artykułu jest prezentacja obliczeń i symulacji transportu systemu w przestrzeni 2D za pomocą środowiska Ansys. Pomysł na system, który działa tylko w momencie, gdy pracownik potrzebuje pomocy i porusza ciężkim przedmiotem i używa go przy minimalnej ilości energii, staje się pomysłem oszczędzania energii. Kiedy grawitacja jest eliminowana przez siły pola magnetycznego, do przemieszczania ciężkich obiektów wystarczy jedynie pokonać moment bezwładności. Cały opór praktycznie znika, ponieważ w tym układzie prawie nie ma tarcia. W artykule przedstawiono zastosowanie koncentracji pola magnetycznego w układzie macierzy Halbacha do eliminacji sił grawitacyjnych podczas ruchu ładunku.
EN
This work is about the effect of fine aggregate properties on the physicomechanical characteristics of hardened mortars. The results indicated that the increase in grain-size of fine aggregate increases the bulk density of hardened mortars. The strength of mortars including limestone fine aggregate is higher than that of the silica-sand. Regardless of the aggregate origin, the strength of the mortars with well-graded fine aggregate for all grain-size is greater than of with uniform fine aggregate. This indicates that grading of fine aggregate increases the strength, while uniformity decreases it. The strength of mortars with well-graded fine aggregate increases as the grain-size increases. Regardless of the aggregate origin, the strength of mortars with uniform fine aggregate increases with increasing grain-size until the grain-size range of 425-1000 µm, but after this range it decreases with increasing grain-size. The thermal conductivity increases with the increase in the grain-size. Notedly, the relationship between thermal conductivity and maximum grain-size of well-graded fine aggregate has a very strong positive correlation. Further, the thermal conductivity value for mortars formed with uniform fine limestone aggregate is minimum at the grain-size range of 425-1000 µm, while it has greatest values close together from this grain-size range.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono założenia i szczegółowe cele projektu oraz aktualny stan wiedzy i możliwości uzyskania postępu w zapewnieniu spójności pomiarowej w europejskim i światowym przemyśle w zakresie siły statycznej, ciągłej i dynamicznej. Omówiono także zakres uczestnictwa GUM oraz potencjalny wpływ założonych w projekcie przedsięwzięć na środowisko, metrologię i użytkowników. Przedstawiono wzorce GUM o najmniejszej niepewności pomiarowej, na których zostaną wykonane badania siły statycznej i ciągłej.
EN
The article presents the assumptions and detailed objectives of the project as well as the current state of the art and the possibilities of achieving progress in ensuring traceability in European and global industry in the field of static, continuous and dynamic force. The scope of GUM participation and the potential impact of the design assumptions on the environment, metrology and users were also discussed. GUM standards with the lowest measurement uncertainty, on which static and continuous force tests will be performed, are presented.
PL
Projektując stężenia połaciowe poprzeczne [1], zaleca się przyjmować zastępcze obciążenie od imperfekcji geometrycznych dźwigarów dachowych. Obciążenie to można bezpiecznie oszacować [1] przy założeniu stałej na długości elementu stabilizowanego siły ściskającej i imperfekcji w kształcie paraboli o strzałce e0. W pracy, dla różnych kształtów imperfekcji geometrycznych elementów stabilizowanych, wyznaczono obciążenia imperfekcyjne oraz siły w prętach tężnika połaciowego i porównano je z siłami wyznaczonymi wg [1]. Wyniki analiz przedstawiono w tabeli i sformułowano syntetyczne wnioski.
EN
During designing transverse roof bracing, [1] recommends taking into account equivalent stabilizing load from geometrical imperfections of roof girders. This load can be safely estimated [1] assuming a constant compression force along the length of the stabilized element and initial parabolic imperfection with maximum amplitude e0. In the paper, for different shapes of geometrical imperfections of stabilized elements, imperfect loads and forces in the roof bracing were determined and compared with the forces determined according to [1]. The results of the analyzes are presented in the table and synthetic conclusions were formulated.
EN
This study discussed the effect of the curing condition on the capillary water absorption of concrete incorporating the locally available materials. The compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) as part of mechanical and durability properties of concrete were also investigated. The engineering properties were conducted on concrete under three different curing conditions at different curing ages of 2 days, 7 days and 28 days. The three different curing conditions were water curing, dry curing and gunny-covered curing. According to the results obtained, the concrete under water curing condition demonstrated a lower capillary water absorption (CWA) at 2 and 7 days ages and the concrete under gunny-covered condition demonstrated lower CWA at 28 days of age, compared with the other curing conditions. It is interesting to see that the compressive strength (38 MPa) of concrete was almost the same at 28 days age under the gunny-covered and water curing conditions.
8
Content available Istota bezpieczeństwa dyplomacji
PL
Artykuł stanowi próbę zdefiniowania pojęcia bezpieczeństwa dyplomacji i jest przyczynkiem do dalszej dyskusji nad zagadnieniem, w szczególności w kontekście zwiększającej się dynamiki w relacjach międzynarodowych oraz rozszerzającej się przestrzeni konfrontacji między podmiotami bezpieczeństwa. Praca prezentuje zagadnienie w odniesieniu do roli dyplomacji i siły w stosunkach międzynarodowych w kontekście realizacji interesów narodowych. Poruszana jest również kwestia bezpośrednich ataków na personel dyplomatyczny oraz na przedstawicielstwa dyplomatyczno-konsularne jako jeden z efektów rywalizacji pomiędzy państwowymi podmiotami bezpieczeństwa.
EN
The paper examines the diplomatic security phenomena throughout an epistemological and ontological view. In the article the Author tries to put a diplomatic security in broader terms related to diplomacy and security, as well as depicts and defines its role, scope and assumptions. The issue is much more important due to rising dynamics of international relations well as still expanding “space confrontation” between states. It is also crucial because sometimes the effects of this confrontation are direct attacks on diplomats or diplomatic and consular missions. The paper depicts an introduction to diplomatic security issues. The sketch of the theory of diplomacy and security is also given.
EN
The article is devoted to solving the fundamental and applied problem of nonlinear structural me-chanics of machines by introducing into the drum two additional stop cylinders with supporting rollers at the end and adjustable length, providing a given elliptical or circular shape of a flexible shell with a smoothly variable geometry in the area of its contact with compacted pavement material. Compaction of soil, gravel and asphalt concrete in the sphere of road is not only an integral part of the technological process of the roadbed, road foundation and surface construction, but it is actually the main operation to ensure their strength, stability and durability. The quality, cost and speed of road construction, the possibility of using fundamentally new technologies, structures and materials is largely determined by the availability of modern road machinery.
EN
This experimental study investigated the effects of a conventional cutting fluid during drilling cylindrical holes on workpiece materials made of the AISI 1040 steel. Drilling responses were compared between dry and wet (in presence of the cutting fluid) cutting conditions with respect to drilling force, roundness deviation and taper of the hole, and chip morphology. High production machining and drilling with high cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut were found to be inherently associated with the generation of a large amount of heat and high cutting temperature. In a dry condition such high cutting temperature not only reduces dimensional accuracy and tool life but also impairs the roundness deviation and taper of the hole. The use of a conventional cutting fluid, in such a situation, was very effective to reduce the cutting temperature. In a dry cutting condition, numerous tool-wears were found on the drill bits. Drilling in such a dry condition seriously affects roundness of the hole, and chip shape and color. Contrastingly, use of a traditional cutting fluid reduced temperature as well as improved roundness and taper of the hole. It also acted as a lubricate at the tool tip–work surface interface. Overall, the conventional cutting fluid enhanced the quality of the machine work and potentially can increase machine life of drill bits.
EN
The aim of the study was to investigate changes of power–velocity relationship and muscular strength of female volleyball players during preparatory period and competition season. Methods: The study was conducted on eleven female volleyball players: age 21.6 ± 1.7 years, body height 177.9 ± 4.7 cm, body mass 71.3 ± 6.6 kg. Power–velocity relationship was determined by means of five maximal 10-second cycloergometer efforts with external loads equal to: 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5% of body weight (BW). The joint torque of flexors and extensors of an elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk was measured using a torque meter. The measurement were taken before (I) and after (II) the preparatory period, after the first (III) and second (IV) competitive season. Results: The power with a load equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0% BW increased significantly after first and second competitive season. The sums of joint torque for the lower and upper limb changed insignificantly. In the case of the right upper limb, sum of the joint torques was significantly reduced by 9.5% between measurement I and IV. Sum of the left upper limb was significantly decreased by 9.8% between measurement I and II. Sum of the joint torque of the trunk was significantly increased between measurements I and II, III and IV by 12.9%, 12.3% and 11.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Obtained results may suggest that selection of the training loads was adequate for training power output and muscle strength of lower limbs but too little emphasis was placed on development of strength in the muscles of the upper limbs.
EN
Vertical jump height is recognised as a determinant factor in elite volleyball performance. In previous studies there are different opinions on whether vertical jump height performance improves during maturation or not. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in jumping abilities in two different age groups of female volleyball players and to determine the take-off efficiency during repeated jumps. Methods: Seventeen female volleyball players from two different age categories – adults and under 16 years – participated in this study. Quattro Jump 9290BA force platform (Kistler, Winterthur, Switzerland) was used to assess the jumping performance during squat jumps, counter movement jumps, and 45-second continuous jumps. Results: Jumping performance did not differ significantly between the two groups. The main efficiency of the conversion of mechanical work into mechanical energy was only 24% and it decreased during the test. Conclusions: The influence of age on the jumping performance in a group of female volleyball players was not confirmed. Take-off efficiency was in both groups quite low and it did not improve during the test.
EN
The main purpose of this research was to analyse the distribution of plantar pressures and foot characteristics during walking between weeks 27 and 36 of pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to test the effect of the customized orthopaedic shoes that were worn by the experimental group. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 73) were divided into 2 groups, control group (n = 38) and experimental group (n = 35) which completed 5 gait trials on a walkway (1.55m) at a self-selected velocity of gait, where force, pressure and remaining foot characteristics were sampled and displayed by Novel database pro m (version 25.3.24). Results: Analysis of foot characteristics did not reveal important changes. Analysis of the distribution of plantar pressures revealed few changes in the pre- and post-measurement of the experimental and control groups between weeks 27 and 36 of pregnancy. In the last measurement, there is a significant increase of peak pressure only in the midfoot area of the left foot (151.1 ± 41.2 kPa) and in the hindfoot area of the right foot (346.3 ± 104.1) of the experimental group. The control group exhibits similar pressure development for both of foot. Conclusions: Monitored parameters demonstrated in certain areas notably development of force and contact area. Results of foot characteristics did not reveal a significant changes. As both groups registered similar values in certain areas in a comparison of pre/post measurement characteristics, the influence of specific orthopaedic shoes cannot be conclusively demonstrated in the experimental group.
EN
In team sports, the varied levels of physical demand associated with different field positions are reflected in the morphofunctional features of the players. The aim of this work was to recognize how the playing position in the team depends on the anthropometric profiles and the strength level of professional handball players. Methods: A body mass, stature, lower and upper extremity length, circumferences and skinfolds were measured in the male professional athletes. The body composition was analysed using a bioelectrical impedance method. Additionally, hand grip and back strength were measured. A statistical analysis was carried out using routinely statistic methods and principal component analysis. Results: Pivot players usually have the most athletic figure in terms of size and weight and relatively short legs. The backs are characterized by the android body type and low subcutaneous fat content, and a large mass of body cells. The backs and pivots have the same strength of back and hand grip. Goalkeepers have relatively long upper and lower limbs and high back and hand grip strength. The wingers are usually slender, have medium length limbs, low body fat percentage, significant extracellular mass and the lowest muscle strength. Conclusions: The results of the multivariate analysis were a notable and valuable addition to the study of morphological and strength differences in a group quite homogeneous like a handball team. The principal component analysis allowed for a reduction of the multidimensional structure to three variables describing body massiveness, strength, and the length and height aspect of the body.
EN
The technological use of accelerated cooling makes it possible to improve the carbon steel properties of the all-rolled railway wheel disc. The properties’ complex depends on the temperature of the accelerated cooling termination. This is determined by the ratio of the carbon atoms emitted from the supersaturated solid solution to the crystal structure defects and dispersion strengthening from carbide phase particles. If the cooling stops at a temperature above 350°C, the decline rate of the strength properties increases. This is caused by the excessive softening effect of the solid solution breakdown and cementite spheroidization during the processes of dispersion hardening.
PL
W pracy zaproponowano sposób pomiaru siły ciosu działającej na wybrany model biomechaniczny oraz wykonanych w ten sposób wyników pomiarów siły ciosu. Pomiar siły ciosu to skomplikowane, interdyscyplinarne zagadnienie. Wymaga zdefiniowania czynników wpływających na skutek uderzenia, oraz określenia sposobu ich pomiaru. Analiza parametrów związanych z technikami uderzanych sportów walki może być przeprowadzana ze względu na wartości siły, lub przyspieszenia, jako bezpośredniego skutku działania siły. Pomiar parametrów przekładających się na siłę uderzenia, oraz badanie skutków sił i przyspieszeń oddziałujących na organizm ludzki znajduje zastosowanie w dziedzinach takich jak sport, medycyna i samochodowe testy bezpieczeństwa.
EN
The paper proposes a method of measuring the force of a blow acting on a selected biomechanical model and the results of the force of a blow measurements performed in this way. Measurement of the force of a blow is a complicated, interdisciplinary issue. It requires to define what the factors that influence on the effect of a blow are, and to determine their measurement method. Analysis of parameters of combat sports techniques can be performed due to the force value, or acceleration, as a direct effect of the force. Measurement of the impact parameters and the effects of forces and accelerations affecting the human organism is applied in disciplines like sport, medicine and safety car crash tests.
PL
W przypadku koparek wielonaczyniowych na proces urabiania mają wpływ siły przeciwstawne elementów roboczych i narzędzi urabiających. Siły te determinują wybór maszyn i ich parametrów oraz metody działania [1, 2]. Badania nad przyczynami awarii części mechanicznych pokazują, że systemy urabiania i ładowania powodują najwięcej awarii, około 32% wszystkich odnotowanych awarii mechanicznych [3]. W niniejszej pracy będziemy używać metody elementów skończonych (MES) do analizy odkształceń i naprężeń działających na ząb tnący, zamocowany na kole czerpakowym koparek wielonaczyniowych. W tym celu wykorzystano oprogramowanie Solid Works® – zarówno jako narzędzie CAD do projektowania zęba, jak i do modelowania oraz symulacji zjawisk.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę wpływu zmiany kąta kształtującego α na wartości parametrów siłowych w procesie walcowania skośnego. Przeprowadzona symulacja numeryczna kształtowania odkuwki stopniowanego wału umożliwiła przedstawienie rozkładów siły promieniowej i osiowej, jak również rozkładu momentu obrotowego działających na rolkę stożkową w zależności od ustalonego kąta kształtującego α.
EN
The paper presents a numerical investigation of the effect of the forming angle α value change on force parameters in a skew rolling process. The MES simulation of forming the stepped shaft allows for the presentation of radial and axial force distributions, as well as the distribution of torque acting on the conical roller, depending on the determined forming angle α.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę wpływu zmiany kąta kształtującego α na wartości parametrów siłowych w procesie walcowania skośnego. Przeprowadzona symulacja numeryczna kształtowania odkuwki stopniowanego wału umożliwiła przedstawienie rozkładów siły promieniowej i osiowej, jak również rozkładu momentu obrotowego, działających na rolkę stożkową, w zależności od ustalonego kąta kształtującego α.
EN
The paper presents a numerical investigation of the effect of the forming angle α value change on force parameters in a skew rolling process. The MES simulation of forming the stepped shaft allows for the presentation of radial and axial force distributions, as well as the distribution of torque acting on the conical roller, depending on the determined forming angle α.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the proposed research is to establish experimentally the relation between damaging of the tread surface of model wheels and the characteristics of fatigue crack growth resistance of wheel steels AKh th AKh th AKh fc AKh fc), depending on its microstructure. Design/methodology/approach: Characteristics of the fatigue crack growth resistance have been determined on the specimens cut out from the hot rolled plate of thickness 10 mm of the steel which is an analogue of railway wheel steels. To obtain different steel microstructures and its strength level, test specimens were quenched (820°C, in oil) and then tempered at 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C for 2 h. The characteristics of Mode I fatigue crack growth resistance of steel were determined on the basis of fatigue macrocrack growth rate diagrams da/dN-AK, obtained by the standard method on compact specimens with the thickness of 10 mm at a frequency of 10-15 Hz and the stress ratio R = 0.1 of the loading cycle. The characteristics of Mode II fatigue crack growth resistance were determined on the basis of da/dN-AKH diagrams, obtained by authors method on edge notched specimens with the thickness 3.2 mm at a frequency of 10-15 Hz and R = –1 taking account of the crack face friction. The hardness was measured with a TK-2 hardness meter. Zeiss-EVO40XVP scanning electron microscope was used for microstructural investigations. Rolling contact fatigue testing was carried out on the model specimens of a wheel of thickness 8 mm and diameter 40 mm in contact with a rail of length 220 mm, width 8 mm and height 16 mm. Wheels were manufactured form the above-described steel after different treatment modes. Rails were cut out from a head the full-scale rail of hardness 46 HRC. The damaging was assessed by a ratio of the area with gaps formed by pitting and spalling to the general area of the wheel tread surface using a special stand. Findings: The growth of the damage of the tread surface of the model wheels correlates uniquely with the decrease of the cyclic fracture toughness of the wheel steel AKh fc and AKh fc, determined at Mode I and Mode II fracture mechanisms. These characteristics of the wheel steel can be considered as the determining parameter of this process, in contrast to the fatigue thresholds AKh th and AKh th. Research limitations/implications: Investigations were conducted on model wheels that simulate the damage of real railway wheels tread surface. Practical implications: A relationship between the damage of tread surface of railway wheels and the strength level of wheel steels is determined. Originality/value: The damage of the tread surface of the model wheels during the rolling contact fatigue of the pair wheel-rail increases with the growth of the strength (hardness) of the wheel steel, which corresponds to the statistical data of the operation of the real railway wheels. Research limitations/implications: Investigations were; conducted on model wheels that simulate the damage of real railway wheels tread surface. Practical implications: A relationship between the damage of tread surface of railway wheels and the strength level of wheel steels is determined. Originality/value: The damage of the tread surface of the model wheels during the rolling) contact fatigue; of the pair wheel-rail increases with the growth of the strength (hardness) of the wheel steel, which corresponds to the statistical data of the operation of the real railway wheels.
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