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EN
In the Polish sector of the Magura Nappe, along the front of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, strongly tectonized calcareous flysch up to 1000 m thick is exposed. Previously these deposits, composed of thin- to thick-bedded flysch, with a packet of Łącko-type marls, have been included into several Paleocene/Eocene formations, e.g., the Szczawnica Formation. This formation contains a poor assemblage of agglutinated foraminifera and a relatively rich assemblage of calcareous nannoplankton, with abundant reworked species. The youngest species give evidence of the NN2 Zone (Lower Miocene). Additionally, in three profiles (Szlachtowa, Knurów and Waksmund) of the Kremna Fm., Early Miocene foraminifera have been recognized. This research documented that during the Burdigalian, at the front of Central Western Carpathians, there still existed a residual marine basin probably up to 100 km wide. These deposits also contain thick packages of exotic carbonate conglomerates derived from the SE, previously regarded as the Jarmuta Formation.
EN
In the Polish sector of the Magura Nappe have long been known and exploited carbonate mineral waters, saturated with carbon dioxide, known as the “shchava (szczawa)”. These waters occur mainly in the Krynica Subunit of the Magura Nappe, between the Dunajec and Poprad rivers, close to the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). The origin of these waters is still not clear, this applies to both “volcanic” and “metamorphic” hypotheses. Bearing in mind the case found in the Szczawa tectonic window and our geological and geochemical studies we suggest that the origin of the carbon dioxide may be linked with the thermal/pressure alteration of organic matter of the Oligocene deposits from the Grybów Unit. These deposits, exposed in several tectonic windows of the Magura Nappe, are characterized by the presence of highly matured organic matter – the origin of the hydrocarbon accumulations. This is supported by the present-day state of organic geochemistry studies of the Carpathian oil and gas bed rocks. In our opinion origin of the carbon-dioxide was related to the southern, deep buried periphery of the Carpathian Oil and Gas Province. The present day distribution of the carbonated mineral water springs has been related to the post-orogenic uplift and erosion of the Outer (flysch) Carpathians.
EN
The Crimean Mountains (CM) are regarded as part of the Alpine-Himalaya orogenic belt related to the collision of the Eurasian and African plates. Our research in the CM has allowed confirming the existence of at least two flysch formations of different ages: the Taurida Flysch Formation (Upper Triassic/Lower–? Middle Jurassic) and the Sudak Formation (uppermost Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) in the western and eastern sectors of the CM, respectively. After the Middle Jurassic volcanism, the freshwater claystones with coal-bearing intercalations, as well as local alluvial fan conglomerates were deposited. Then, following the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian marine transgression, three separated Tithonian/Berriasian carbonate platforms developed: Baydarska, Chatyr-Dag and Demerji/Karabi. At the turn of the Late Jurassic, the deep-water Sudak Basin (eastern sector of the CM) began to develop in the eastern periphery of the Demerji/Karabi carbonate platform. This basin, dominated by turbiditic deposition, was probably connected with the Great Caucasus sedimentary system. Finally, distal flysch sedimentation in the Sudak Basin was followed by debris-flow deposits, with huge blocks of Upper Jurassic limestones. These blocks were derived from destruction of the Karabi carbonate platform. During the Berriasian/Valanginian, the eastern sector of the CM began to subside. As a result, both carbonate platforms (western CM) and the debris flow fans of the Sudak Basin (eastern CM) were overlain by marly shales and/or distal turbidites. This type of deposition lasted until the Aptian/Albian. In the post-Albian period, the Alushta-Salgir tectonic zone was transformed into a SE-dipping thrust fault with at least 10 km amplitude of overthrusting.
EN
The late Early–Middle Miocene Stebnyk Formation is a ~600–2000 m thick unit of the Boryslav-Pokuttya and Sambir nappes, which contains a molasse succession of the Carpathian Foredeep incorporated within the marginal part of the Outer Eastern Carpathian accretionary wedge. In the valley of thePrutRiver, between Deliatyn and Lanchyn, the Stebnyk Formation covers the alluvial fan deposits of the Sloboda Conglomerate and the deltaic deposits of the Dobrotiv Formation in the south, and the lagoonal salty clays of the Vorotyscha Formation in the north. The Stebnyk Formation is built of mainly rose, greenish and grey calcareous mudstones intercalated with several variable sandstone beds, including thick-bedded packages. The occurrence of tetrapod footprints and raindrop imprints, as well as the overall red-be character prove prevailing continental conditions during deposition of the formation, which is interpreted as sediments of a delta plain with distributary channels filled by the thick sandstone beds and associated by intercalations of thinner beds referred to channel levees and crevasse splays. The upper part of the Stebnyk Formation contains marine microfossils of the NN4 Zone, and locally to the NN5 Zone, corresponding to the early Badenian transgression in the region. In the regional scale, the Stebnyk Formation shows a polarity of facies, with a high contribution of conglomerates and thick-bedded sandstones in the lower part in the north west and fining to the south east, with transportation from the west and north west. The sediments accumulated in an elongated subsiding zone between the rising Carpathian orogen and the forebulge elevation of the foreland, in a warm and semi-dry climatic conditions corresponding roughly to the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. The accumulation was balanced by a subsidence caused by sinking of the platform slab and by sedimentary loading.
EN
The aim of this study was the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the Machów Formation, belonging to the supra-evaporitic complex of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep Basin (PCFB). The work was concentrated in the eastern part of the PCFB, in the Sieniawa–Rudka area (Ryszkowa Wola Horst). Samples were collected from the Rudka-13 and Wylewa-1 boreholes. On the basis of calcareous nannoplankton, these deposits were assigned to the upper part of the NN6 Zone combined with the NN7 Zone, which corresponds to the Sarmatian s.s. of the Central Paratethys (upper Serravallian of the Mediterranean scale). Conclusive determination of the biozone NN7 was problematic, owing to the absence of the rare zonal marker species Discoaster kugleri. The typical association of the undivided NN6–NN7 Zone was of low species diversity and usually dominated by Coccolithus pelagicus, Cyclicargolithus floridanus and Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilica (> 7 µm). On the basis of the relative abundance of species, a significant amount of redeposition was deduced. The reworked nannofossils were mostly Eocene in age. The Oligocene, Early Miocene and Late Cretaceous species occurred much less frequently. The dominance of Eocene forms indicates the Carpathians as the main supply area. The Late Cretaceous taxa may have originated from the Senonian marly deposits of the Miechów Trough in the north. Statistical treatment of the quantitative data was performed using multivariate cluster analysis and Nonmetrical Multidimensional Scaling (nMDS). The composition of the calcareous nannofossil assemblages, together with the high percentage of allochthonous taxa, indicate a shallow, coastal environment with a high supply of nutrients.
6
Content available Where was the Magura Ocean?
EN
In the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous palaeogeography of the Alpine Tethys the term Ocean is used for different parts of these sedimentary areas: eg. Ligurian – Piedmont and Penninic, Magura, Pieniny, Valais and Ceahlau-Severins oceans. The Magura Ocean occupied the more northern position in the Alpine-Carpathian arc. During the Late Cretaceous–Paleogene tectono-sedimentary evolution the Magura Ocean was transformed into several (Magura, Dukla, Silesian, sub-Silesian and Skole) basins and intrabasinal source area ridges now incorporated into the Outer Western Carpathians.
EN
The late Early Miocene Dobrotiv Formation, a 700–800-m-thick unit, was deposited in a subsiding platform margin, which become involved in the marginal part of the Outer Eastern Carpathian accretionary wedge. The sedimentary succession from the Sloboda Conglomerate up to the Dobrotiv Formation records a transition from alluvial fan through fan-delta to deltaic deposits, followed by the fluvial plain-channel facies of the Stebnyk Formation. The deltaic deposits are mud-dominated, with poorly developed thickening-up packets of beds. Efficient sediment accumulation was balanced by subsidence caused by subsurface loading. Emerged parts of the deltaic sedimentary system include tetrapod footprints and raindrop imprints. The general absence of mudcracks in the Dobrotiv Formation suggests a humid climate. Deposits of the Sloboda, Dobrotiv and Stebnyk formations form fining- and thinning-upwards clastic wedge successions along the Ukrainian Carpathians.
EN
Seismic data and core from the shallow cartographic Pilzno P-7 borehole were used to construct a new model of the Carpathian orogenic front between Tarnów and Pilzno, in the Pogórska Wola area (southern Poland). The most external, frontal thrust of the orogenic wedge (the Jaśniny structure) was identified as a syn-depositional fault-propagation fold de- tached above the Upper Badenian evaporites. Its formation was controlled by the presence of mechanically weak foredeep evaporites and by the morphology of the sub-Miocene Meso-Paleozoic foreland plate (Jaśniny and Pogórska Wola palaeovalleys). The frontal zone of the Carpathian orogenic wedge (the Skole thrust sheet and the deformed foredeep deposits of the Zgłobice thrust sheet) is characterized by significant backthrusting of the foredeep succession towards the south, and by the presence of a triangle zone, with strongly deformed Upper Badenian evaporites of the Wieliczka Formation in its core. The triangle zone was formed during the latest thrusting movements of the Carpathians. An indication of the existence of the triangle zone in the vicinity of Dębica has also been provided by reinterpretation of the archive regional geological cross-section. The youngest foredeep deposits, brought to the surface above the backthrust, have been dated as Sarmatian (NN7 nannoplankton zone), which indicates that the latest thrust movements within the frontal Carpathian orogenic in the vicinity of Tarnów-Dębica took place approx. 11-10 million years ago. Thermochronological studies (AFT and AHe) indicated that the foredeep succession drilled by the Pilzno P-7 borehole has not been buried deeper than 1.5-2 km, which is compatible with reconstruction based on the seismic data.
EN
The area studied, known as the Małe (Little) Pieniny Mts., belongs to the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB), a suture zone that separates the Central Carpathians from the Outer Carpathian accretionary wedge. Along its northern boundary the PKB is separated from the Paleogene to Early Miocene flysch deposits of the Magura Nappe by a narrow, strongly deformed belt belonging to the Grajcarek tectonic Unit. This unit is composed of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Paleocene pelagic and flysch deposits. The Klippen units of the PKB are represented by Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous carbonate deposits overlain by Upper Cretaceous variegated marls and flysch deposits. We describe geological and biostratigraphic evidence concerning the palaeogeographic, stratigraphic and structural relationships between the Pieniny Klippen Belt and the Magura Nappe, that significantly modify previously held views on the evolution of the Małe Pieniny Mts. and the Polish sector of the PKB.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki badań hydrogeologicznych prowadzonych w rejonie Muszyny. Na podstawie analizy wyników badań naturalnych wypływów wód podziemnych, po uwzględnieniu budowy geologicznej i wyników badań hydrologicznych, oceniono wodonośność utworów fliszowych, co umożliwiło dyskusję na temat zmienności wodonośności na obszarze współwystępowania wód zwykłych i mineralnych.
EN
This paper present the results of hydrogeological studies conducted in the Muszyna region. Based on the results of the analysis of natural groundwater discharges, and taking into account the geological structure and the results of hydrological studies, the water-bearing capacity of flysch rocks has been rated. This allowed discussing the water-bearing capacity in the area of drinking and mineral water co-occurrence.
EN
The chemical composition of the Cretaceous deposits of the Grajcarek thrust-sheets (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Poland) has been investigated to provide information on palaeoenvironment and provenance of pelagic and turbiditic particles. The material studied shows large variations in terrigenous and biogenic content. Phyllosilicates (mirrored in amounts of Al2O3, average 15 wt.%) and carbonates (6 wt.% of CaO) are common mineral components of the deposits excluding the Cenomanian radiolarian shales (CRS) that are enriched in silica "Immobile" elements may be accommodated by phyllosilicates and accessory minerals (i.e. zircon, xenotime, apatite and Ti-oxides). Heavy minerals are significant within the Szlachtowa Fm. High field strength elements (HFSE) in the Malinowa Fm. are housed in secondary apatite and Fe-oxides. Lithophile trace elements (LILE) concentrations in the material studied are lower/comparable to Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS). Ba concentration in the CRS probably reflects enhanced bioproductivity. Interaction between major oxides, distributions of "immobile' and lithophile elements suggest that variation in trace elements through the succession was mainly controlled by the terrigenous input. The material studied was sourced from intermediate to felsic rocks of the Czorsztyn (Oravic) Ridge. The Szlachtowa Fm. and CRS are more mature than others due to low contents of clay minerals. The Szlachtowa Fm. also contains recycled material. The CRS correspond to the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2) whereas the "Black Flysch" of the Szlachtowa and Opaleniec formations may be related to the Early Cretaceous OAE 1
EN
Analysis of previously available stratigraphic data coupled with the re-interpretation of seismic profiles calibrated by boreholes has allowed the construction of a new tectonic model of evolution of the Gdów “embayment” – a tectonic re-entrant located along the Carpathian front east of Kraków (southern Poland). This model shows that the main phase of localized fault-controlled subsidence took place in the Early Badenian and was associated with deposition of the locally overthickened Skawina Formation. Also, deposition of evaporites of the Wieliczka Formation seems to have been tectonically controlled by local basement faulting. Supra-evaporitic siliciclastic deposits have developed as a result of overall north-directed sediment progradation from the eroded Carpathian belt towards the Carpathian Foredeep. During the final stages of development of the Carpathian fold-and-thrust wedge the previously subsiding Gdów “embayment” area was uplifted and basement faults were reactivated either as reverse faults or as low angle thrust faults. Along the leading edge of this inverted structure a triangle zone developed, with backthrusting along the evaporitic level. As a result, overthickened evaporites, formed in local tectonically-controlled depressions within the area of the Gdów “embayment” area have been strongly folded and internally deformed.
EN
The upper part of the Lower Miocene Sloboda Conglomerate, a 250–1400 m thick unit, was deposited mainly on an alluvial fan and fan delta during the early stages of Carpathian Foredeep development. During of the Old Styrian overthrust movements of the Carpathian orogen, a forebulge was formed, which supplied clasts to the conglomerate. The clasts are dominated by Late Proterozoic–Early Cambrian phyllites, while Paleozoic carbonates are common, and Mesozoic and other rocks are rare. The source area formed mainly by a prolongation of the Małopolska Massif that was involved in the forebulge; this was located close to a palaeovalley cut into Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks, buried under younger strata. Additional material was derived from the advancing front of the Carpathian Flysch nappes.
EN
The geological position and geochemistry of the basaltic sill and tuffs occurring within the Berriasian–?Albian pelagic limestones of the Czorsztyn Succession are described. The volcanic rock succession of the Velykyi (= Veliky) Kamenets’/Vilkhivchyk (= Vulkhovchik, Vulhovchik, Olkhivchyk) sites is related to intra-plate submarine volcanism, which took place at the southeastern termination of the Pieniny Klippen Belt. This volcanism was probably associated with the Early Cretaceous opening of the Magura/Fore-Magura basinal system, bounded by the Silesian/Marmarosh and Czorsztyn palaeoridges to the north and south respectively. The alkaline volcanic rocks from the Velykyi Kamenets’/Vilkhivchyk sites are geochemically similary to the basaltic block from Biała Woda (Małe Pieniny Mts., Poland), which is an olistolith a few metres across within the Jarmuta conglomerates (Maastrichtian/Paleocene). This basaltic block was eroded from the frontal part of the Czorsztyn Nappe and was deposited in the uppermost part of the Grajcarek Succession at the southeastern margin of the Magura Basin.
EN
Several sections record the relation between the “black flysch” and Upper Cretaceous red shales in the Grajcarek thrust-sheets. In all the sections studied the “black flysch” appears in the core of imbricated folds or thrust-sheets, whereas the limbs are composed of Upper Cretaceous deposits. The transitional beds between the “ black flysch” and the Upper Cretaceous red shales are composed of green and black bituminous shales, green and red radiolarites and cherty limestones. Biostratigraphical investigations have revealed a similar type and sequence of microfauna assemblages in all the sections studied and significant redeposition of Jurassic calcareous benthic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, molluscs, sponge spicules and crinoid elements. The Cretaceous age (Aptian/Albian-?Cenomanian) of the “black flysch” is shown by the presence of agglutinated foraminifera and microfacies data. These deposits are underlain by a Kimmeridgian-Aptian radiolarite/limestone condensed succession and overlain by Turonian-Campanian hemipelagic red shales and Maastrichtian/Lower Paleocene conglomerates and thick-bedded silicilastic turbidites of the Jarmuta Formation. Such a sequence of deposits is typical of the Outer Carpathian basins and records the global Mid/Late Cretaceous phenomena in the world ocean, followed by the Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds.
EN
Multilayered Muszyna regional model was constructed in the ArcGIS and the GMS environment. Among the several methods for implementing the model in the GMS system the LPF method was used to create a structure of the model. Conceptual model is a spatial arrangement of the fixed structure, which can be automatically divided in grid blocks of different densities. The studied area is located within an open hydrogeological structure in the Carpathian mountain basin. Regional model takes into account the presence of complex fold and fault structures as well as the interaction between groundwater, and surface water as well as fresh water with mineral water. Within the model were separated 10 layers with different hydrogeological characteristics. The first layer includes Pleistocene–Holocene deposits. All other layers are built of fissured-porous flysch rocks. The hydraulic conductivities in studied flysch rocks decreases exponentially with depth. The most permeable subsurface zone is about 100 m thick. The experience gained from modelling for the Muszyna region show effectiveness of the principles of the creation of regional hydrogeological models. Such a quasi 3D model seems to be a good tool to carry out the rational exploitation of fresh and mineral water in a complex groundwater flow system.
EN
The lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Bystrica/Tylicz and Krynica facies zones of the Magura Nappe have been studied in the Beskid Sadecki Range and Lubovnianska Vrchovina (Polish and Slovak parts of the Western Outer Carpathians respectively). The new, Tylicz Zone is established, and the Szczawnica, Zarzecze, Magura and Kremna formations are redefined and described. These formations, spanning over 35 myrs, represent a synorogenic deep-water turbidites depositional system that dominated the southern part of the Magura Basin after the collision of the Alcapa Mega Unit with the Czorsztyn/Oravic ridge. The calcareous nannoplankton zones NP14-NP25 (Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene) and NN1-NN2 (Early Miocene) were recognized.
EN
In the Nowy Sacz Basin, newly exposed Middle Miocene deposits have been studied and sampled in the Kamienica Nawojowska, Poprad and Dunajec rivers. The calareous nannoplankton of the freshwater to marine deposits was examined. Palegrey and brown clayey shales with plant remains and thin seams of lignite represent the freshwater depos its of the Biegonice Formation. These deposits pass upwards into ca. 50 m thick packet of brackish and marine deposits, represented mainly by dark marly shales with bivalves and gastropods of the Iwkowa and Niskowa formations. These deposits contain relatively rich late Badenian to Sarmatian calcareous nannoplakton (NN6/7 Zone).
PL
GMS i ArcGIS stanowią narzędzia użyte do stworzenia wielowarstwowego modelu (10 warstw) metodą LPF (Layer Property Flow). Opisano szczelinowo-porowe utwory fliszu karpackiego pokryte w dolinach cienką warstwą osadów czwartorzędowych. Modelowane sfałdowane struktury fliszowe odwzorowywano w środowisku ArcGIS na podstawie szczegółowej mapy geologicznej (1:10 000) oraz 24 hipotetycznych przekrojów sięgających od 1300 do - 500 m n.p.m. Zostały ocenione właściwości hydrogeologiczne skał oraz zdefiniowano rolę uskoków. Całość danych przygotowana w środowisku ArcGIS została przetransformowana do w pełni zintegrowanego modelu konceptualnego GMS. Quasi-automatyczna transformacja modelu konceptualnego w numeryczny model GMS została opisana w oddzielnym artykule (Kania i in., 2009).
EN
GMS and ArcGIS are the tools used for regional multi-layered (l0 layers) model performance according to the LPF principle (Layer Property Flow). The paper describes the fissured-porous Carpathian flysh covered in valleys by thin Quaternary sediments. The structures of folded flysh are modeled in the ArcGIS environment based on detailed geological map (1:10,000) and 24 hypothetica1 cross-sections from 1,300 m a.s.l. down to - 500 m a.s.l. Hydrogeological properties of rocks and faults were defined. Whole necessary data prepared in ArcGIS were transformed into a fully integrated conceptual GMS model. Quasi automatic transformation of the conceptual model into the GMS numerical model is described in a separate paper (Kania et al., 2009).
20
Content available remote Regionalizacja tektoniczna Polski-Karpaty zewnętrzne i zapadlisko przedkarpackie
EN
Authors discussed the actual state of tectonic regionalization of the Outer Polish Carpathians and their foredeep. The following category of tectonic unit are defined: the groups of nappes, nappes, sub-nappes, thrust-sheets (skibas), anticlinorial and synclinorial structures, and regional-scale folds.
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