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Data of energy economy of battery electric vehicles without a range extender internal combustion engines (BEV) and with a range extender internal combustion engine (BEVx) are reviewed and integrated with simulations by models. A BEV with an on-board, high efficiency, electricity generator based on a positive ignition (PI) internal combustion engine (ICE) is then proposed as a way to improve the uptake of the BEV improving their range and performance as well as their economic and environmental impact. The small ICE, that is working continuously, stationary, fixed load and speed, and the generator similarly optimized for a single point operation, permit an efficiency fuel chemical-to-electric approaching 50%. This is much better than producing electricity centralized from combustion fuels (average efficiency with included distribution and recharging losses at about 30%), and it does not require any electric recharging infrastructure. Simple but reliable extrapolations from the production BEV and BEVx of different battery capacity on the same vehicle platform, plus the simulations, demonstrate that this BEVy may deliver miles-per-gallon (MPG) working gasoline 13% better than any present plug-in-hybrid-electric-vehicle (PHEV) currently available, and MPGe (MPG-equivalent) working electric 12% better than the existing BEV on the same platform with a larger battery pack and no range extender, or 27% better than the BEVx on the same platform with a larger battery pack and range extender. Finally, this BEVy may permit a range over 600 miles with 10 gallons of gasoline onboard, in line with the best PHEV currently available.
W artykule analizowano możliwości wykorzystania wewnętrznego silnika spalinowego o dużej efektywności do ładowania akumulatora. Możliwości te analizowano dla różnych modeli samochodu. Porówanno też tego typu rozwiązanie z samochodami hybrydowymi.
Due to limited resources of fossil fuels and overproduction of greenhouse gases, a need for alternative means for vehicle communication appeared. Because of that hybrid electric vehicles, as well as battery electric vehicles, were proposed to replace some of conventional vehicles based on internal combustion engine [3]. To their advantages over conventional cars belong environmental friendliness and better performance (in case of hybrid electric vehicles), but they also suffer from greater purchase costs and limited range (in case of most battery electric vehicles) [4, 6]. Presented work briefly characterizes four types of vehicles equipped with electric motor (mild hybrid, full hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles) along with generalised presentation of their battery requirements [4, 6]. Further in this work, the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery working principle was explained, along with characterisation of its limitations due to its design and requirements for inactive components e.g. 4-fold drop in specific capacity and energy density while moving from pure electrode material level to battery level [20]. Next, present Li-ion active components, such as LiCoO2, LiMnO2 and LiFePO4 cathodes and graphite anode along with their capacities and energy densities as well as other characteristic regarding (e.g. environmental friendliness, safety and cost) are shown. Moreover electrode materials e.g. nanocomposite anodes and cathodes, multi-electron cathodes (e.g. Li2MnSiO4), as well as Li-metal and Li4Ti5O12 anodes, with their advantages and disadvantages were described [15, 20]. Presented article was summarized by gathered opinions of battery electric vehicles users, who share their experience regarding their electric cars in a survey. One can tell that they are fairly satisfied with their purchase and that improvement in range of battery electric vehicles along with predictable government policy regarding electrification of cars are the most important factors when considering purchase of electric vehicle [36].
The current legislation pushes for the increasing level of vehicle powertrain electrification. A series hybrid electric vehicle powertrain with a small Range Extender (REx) unit – comprised of an internal combustion engine and an electric generator – has the technical potential to overcome the main limitations of a pure battery electric vehicle: driving range, heating, and air-conditioning demands. A typical REx ICE operates only in one or few steady-states operating points, leading to different initial priorities for its design. These design priorities, compared to the conventional ICE, are mainly NVH, package, weight, and overall concept functional simplicity – hence the costeffectiveness. The design approach of the OEMs is usually rather conservative: parting from an already-existing ICE or components and adapting it for the REx application. The fuel efficiency potential of a one-point operation of the REx ICE is therefore not fully exploited. This article presents a multi-parametric and multi-objective optimization study of a REx ICE. The studied ICE concept uses a well-known and proven technology with a favourable production and development costs: it is a two-cylinder, natural aspirated, port injected, four-stroke SI engine. The goal of our study is to find its thermodynamic optimum and fuel efficiency potential for different feasible brake power outputs. Our optimization tool-chain combines a parametric GT-Suite ICE simulation model and modeFRONTIER optimization software with various optimization strategies, such as genetic algorithms, gradient based methods or various hybrid methods. The optimization results show a great fuel efficiency improvement potential by applying this multi-parametric and multi-objective method, converging to interesting short-stroke designs with Miller valve timings.
This paper discusses benefits of introducing an ultracapacitor (UC) bank into a battery electric vehicle (BEV) powertrain. The case of 12kWh LiFePO4 battery pack is studied quantitatively. Simulation results refer, inter alia, to three main scenarios: fresh cells, half-used battery cells, and half-used ultracapacitors and batteries. Thermal modeling is incorporated into the simulation. Data from real world are considered: various driving cycles recorded using GPS receiver (incl. elevation), discharge curves from battery manufacturer, and UC equivalent series resistance (ESR) variations due to cycling according to real data reported in papers. Cost, as well as gravimetric and volumetric issues are presented. The key decisions referring to an energy storage for BEV being currently designed within the frame of ECO-Mobility Project are highlighted.
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