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PL
W ostatnich latach dąży się do jak największego ograniczenia szkodliwego oddziaływania pojazdów trakcji spalinowej na środowisko naturalne. Dlatego też konstruktorzy projektując nowoczesne układy trakcyjne, starają się zminimalizować zużycie przez nie oleju napędowego oraz środków smarnych poprzez zastosowanie nowoczesnych silników spalinowych napędu głównego. Ostatnio dąży się również do zastosowania innych rodzajów napędów, w tym napędu hybrydowego, w którym zasilanie silników trakcyjnych odbywa się z wysokowydajnych zasobników energii (ogniwa akumulatorowe, kondensatory) lub z zasobników wspomaganych energią wytworzoną przez zabudowany na lokomotywie zespół prądotwórczy (silnik spalinowy, prądnica prądu przemiennego, prostownik). Pierwsze pojazdy hybrydowe powstały na bazie samochodów, autobusów, trolejbusów i tramwajów. Dopiero od kilkunastu lat rozpoczęto prace nad stworzeniem układu hybrydowego napędu z zastosowaniem do lokomotyw przeznaczonych najczęściej do ruchu manewrowego i przetokowego. W Polsce pierwsze prace nad stworzeniem układu napędu hybrydowego, w zastosowaniu do modernizowanych spalinowych lokomotyw manewrowych, rozpoczęto w 2010 roku.
EN
In recent years, efforts have been made to reduce as much as possible the harmful environmental impact of diesel traction vehicles. Therefore, when designing modern traction systems, designers try to minimize their discharge of diesel oil and lubricants by using modern internal-combustion engines. In recent years, other types of propulsion have also been sought, including a hybrid drive, in which the traction motors are powered from high-performance energy storage (battery cells, capacitors) or from storage tanks supported by energy generated by the current set installed on the locomotive – creative (internal combustion engine, AC generator, rectifier). The first hybrid vehicles have been created on the basis of cars, buses, trolleybuses and trams. It has only been a dozen or so years of work to develop a hybrid propulsion system with the use of locomotives most often intended for shunting and shunting traffic. In Poland, preliminary work on the creation of a hybrid propulsion system, in application to modernized diesel shunting locomotives, began in 2010.
PL
Określono wpływ rodzaju złoża na zawartość wybranych składników spalin podczas spalania pojedynczych ziaren węgla w reaktorze fluidyzacyjnym. Proces prowadzono w złożu piaskowym i cenosferowym w temp. 600, 700 i 800°C. Porównano zawartość NO, CO i LZO w spalinach. Stwierdzono, że emisja NO i LZO w wyniku spalania ziaren węgla w złożu cenosferowym była zdecydowanie mniejsza niż przy spalaniu w złożu piaskowym.
EN
Granulated coal (grain size 10–11 mm) was combusted in sand or cenosphere-fluidized beds at 600, 700 and 800°C. The contents of NO, CO and volatile org. compds. (VOC) in the flue gases generated in each bed were compared. Emission of NO and VOC during combustion in cenosphere bed was much lower than during combustion in the sand bed.
EN
The article presents the tests and analysis of ecological indicators of two rail-road tractors carried out during the real operation. The conditions of tests and vehicle constructions were characterized by the similar parameters, while the objects met the different exhaust gas emission standards: Stage IIIB and Stage IV. Apparatus from the PEMS group was used in the tests. In the analysis of ecological indicators, the unit emission of harmful gaseous compounds and particulates was determined. The supplementation is the assessment of toxicity indicators, which are the reference of individual compounds to CO2 emission. More favourable ecological characteristics were obtained by a vehicle meeting the newer exhaust gas emission standard, which resulted mainly from the use of advanced exhaust gas treatment systems in its construction.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano badania i analizę wskaźników ekologicznych dwóch ciągników szynowo-drogowych zrealizowane podczas rzeczywistej eksploatacji. Warunki testów i konstrukcje pojazdów charakteryzowały się zbliżonymi parametrami, przy czym obiekty spełniały odmienne normy emisji spalin: Stage IIIB i Stage IV. W badaniach zastosowano aparaturę z grupy PEMS. W analizie wskaźników ekologicznych wyznaczono jednostkową emisję szkodliwych związków gazowych i cząstek stałych. Uzupełnienie stanowi ocena wskaźników toksyczności, będących odniesieniem poszczególnych związków do emisji CO2. Korzystniejsze charakterystyki ekologiczne uzyskał pojazd spełniający nowszą normę emisji spalin, co wynikało przede wszystkim z zastosowania w jego konstrukcji zaawansowanych układów oczyszczania spalin.
PL
Poprawa stanu środowiska naturalnego wymaga coraz nowszych sposobów na obniżenie emisji związków szkodliwych spalin emitowanych przez pojazdy. Jednym z nich jest zastąpienie wyeksploatowanych lokomotyw manewrowych ciągnikami szynowo-drogowymi. Pojazdy takie przystosowane są do przetaczania wagonów, a ich konstrukcja zapewnia dużą funkcjonalność przy niskich kosztach eksploatacji. Głównym celem tego zabiegu jest zmniejszenie negatywnego oddziaływania pojazdu na środowisko i redukcja zużycia paliwa w porównaniu do lokomotywy wykonującej tę samą pracę. Badania emisyjności spalin testowanego pojazdu przeprowadzono podczas rzeczywistych warunków eksploatacji, dzięki czemu uzyskane wyniki są bardziej miarodajne.
EN
The implementation of the 3rd package of the RDE test procedure has extended the test method by considering emissions from a cold start period into the total exhaust emissions from a vehicle. The article presents the research results of exhaust emissions of a vehicle equipped with a gasoline engine. The tests were carried out at two different ambient temperatures, in line with the requirements of the RDE test procedure for passenger cars, meeting the Euro 6d-Temp emissions standard. The obtained results were analyzed, i.e. there were compared the engine and vehicle operating parameters and the values of road exhaust emissions during the cold start at two different ambient temperatures. The summary presents the shares of the cold start phase for each exhaust emission compound in the urban part of the test and the entire RDE test, depending on the ambient temperature (8ºC and 25ºC).
EN
Pollution of the environment is a global phenomenon. The lack of specific actions to reduce environmental pollution can lead to an increase in the average temperature of the Earth's air and to global consequences. One of the important sectors affecting environmental pollution is transport, including road transport. Currently, intensive legislative and construction works are underway to reduce the emission of harmful substances from road transport. Meeting the requirements imposed by the European Union makes it necessary not only to make structural changes to combustion units or exhaust aftertreatment systems, but also to use additional systems supporting the operation of the main engine. This group includes, among others, Mild Hybrid propulsion systems and classic hybrid systems. Their application is to affect not only the possibility of reducing the swept volume of a combustion unit, while maintaining its operational parameters, but also to reduce the emission of harmful substances of exhaust gases. The conducted research and its analysis indicate the legitimacy of using a newer vehicle equipped with a modern propulsion system, i.e. Mild Hybrid, in real conditions. In the case of toxic emissions of exhaust gases, a difference in emissions of individual components is noticeable, depending on the chosen driving mode. However, it is worth mentioning the difference in the emission of nitrogen oxides and the number of particulate matters. Their emission is reduced in relation to a vehicle using a classic powertrain. The use of a modern propulsion system also improves reliability. The tested Mild Hybrid vehicle does not use a conventional alternator and starter. This eliminates the elements that are prone to damage in prolonged operation. This is an unquestionable advantage when taking into account the operation of the vehicle.
7
Content available remote Pelet z torfu jako alternatywne paliwo dla stałych nośników energii
PL
Dokonano analizy techniczno-ekonomicznej nowego rodzaju paliwa, jakim jest pelet torfowy. Uzyskane wyniki porównano z wynikami dla dwóch innych popularnych nośników energii: peletu drzewnego oraz ekogroszku. Zbadano również emisję tlenków azotu oraz tlenków węgla powstających podczas spalania tych paliw. Udowodniono, że pod względem jakościowym i ekonomicznym pelet torfowy jest obiecującą alternatywą dla innych popularnych paliw stałych.
EN
Moisture, ash, and volatile matter contents, combustion heat and mech. strength of a peat were examd. and compared with the results obtained for eco-pea coal and wood pellets. Burning of peat in heating boilers resulted in emissions of CO, NOx and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in amts. close to the emission accompanying the combustion of wood pellet but much lower than for eco-pea coal. The use of peat was economically viable.
EN
To reduce exhaust NOx and smoke, it is important to measure flame temperature and soot amount in combustion chamber. In diesel combustion it is effective to use the two-color method for the measurement of the flame temperature and KL factor, which is related with soot concentration. The diesel flame was directly and continuously observed from the combustion chamber at running engine condition by using a bore scope and a high-speed video camera. The experimental single cylinder engine has 2.0-liter displacement and has the ability with up to five times of the boost pressure than the naturally aspirated engine by external super-charger. The devices of High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR rate at keeping a relatively high excess air ratio were installed in this research engine in order to reduce exhaust NOx emission without smoke deterioration from diesel engines. The video camera nac GX-1 was used in this study. From observed data under the changing EGR rates, the flame temperature and KL factor were obtained by the software of two-color method analysis. The diesel combustion processes are understood well by analyzing high-speed movies of the diesel flame motion and its temperature. The NOx and smoke are mutually related to maximum flame temperature and also it is possible to reduce simultaneously both NOx and soot emissions by high EGR rate in a single cylinder diesel engine.
EN
The article presents the exhaust emission results from a diesel engine in dynamic states of engine operation in the driving tests: NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) and Malta test, developed at the Poznan University of Technology. The NEDC and Malta tests were carried out as simulations on the engine test bench mimicking the driving tests conditions. The test results of the emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides obtained in each of the tests were presented. The dynamic states have been classified depending on the time derivative value of the torque and engine rotational speed. Both the positive and negative as well as zero time derivative values of torque and rotational speed were considered. Therefore, overall six types of dynamic states were analyzed. A high sensitivity of exhaust emission to various types of dynamic states was found. The exhaust emission sensitivity to dynamic states in the Malta test was found to be higher than for the NEDC test, although these tests have similar properties (average rotational speed and average torque). This is due to the fact that the NEDC test is created on the basis of the similarity of zero-dimensional characteristics of the car's speed characteristic, whereas the Malta test was designed in accordance with the principle of faithful representation in the time domain of the NEDC speed curve.
EN
Fuel consumption achieved in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) could be 50% lower than the fuel consumption in real driving conditions and in the case of emissions of regulated toxic compounds the differences could even be much greater. In order to bring the results achieved in official tests closer to real life figures, the European Commission introduced in 2017 the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), which replaced the NEDC. In this article the results of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for 3 cars fitted with engines of the same displacement but with direct and indirect gasoline injection, determined according to the NEDC and WLTC were presented. The results show that the effect of driving cycle on the fuel consumption is equivocal - for one car, fuel consumption was higher in the WLTC; for the other one in the NEDC; and for the third one, fuel consumption achieved in both driving cycles was practically the same. Emissions of regulated exhaust compounds, except for THC, obtained in the WLTC were higher than in the NEDC driving cycle.
EN
The manuscript presents a comparative analysis of the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine equipped with a Common Rail injection system. The engine is fueled with diesel-biodiesel mixtures containing 25% and 50% share (by volume) of renewable components. Conventional diesel is used as a reference. Turkey lard and rapeseed oil are used as raw materials and subjected to the single-stage transesterification process to obtain methyl esters. The experiments are performed on a medium-duty, turbocharged, inter-cooled, Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) diesel engine. This study concentrates on one engine speed of 1500 rpm, typical for gen-set applications, and mid-load range from 100 Nm to 200 Nm. The scope of measurements covers the analysis of exhaust gasses concentration and engine efficiency parameters. In addition, the in-cylinder pressure measurements are performed in order to provide insight into the differences in combustion characteristics between examined fuel mixtures. The study reveals that the addition of the renewable component to fuel mixture positively affects a number of examined performance parameters as well as de-creases the concentration of the examined toxic exhaust components, in the majority of cases.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki pomiarów toksyczności spalin samochodu dostawczego w rzeczywistych warunkach ruchu. Celem badań było zweryfikowanie wpływu stylu jazdy kierowcy na emisję substancji szkodliwych w spalinach. Do realizacji celu wykonano pomiary emisji drogowej podstawowych gazowych związków toksycznych w spalinach emitowanych do atmosfery przez jednostkę napędową pojazdu. Do pomiarów zawartości poszczególnych zanieczyszczeń gazowych wykorzystano mobilną aparaturę do badań toksyczności spalin typu PEMS.
EN
The article presents the results of measurements of exhaust emissions of commercial vehicle in real traffic conditions. The aim of this study was to determine how the driving style effects on the exhaust emissions from vehicle engine. The determinants were the measurements of the concentration of main toxic substances emitted to the atmosphere from the power unit of the tested vehicle. In the measurements a portable exhaust emission analyzer was used (PEMS type).
PL
Pomiary emisji związków szkodliwych spalin podczas testów na hamowni podwoziowej są jednymi z najistotniejszych i najbardziej skomplikowanych badań, jakim są poddawane pojazdy napędzane silnikami spalinowymi. Podczas pomiarów emisji spalin należy zwracać baczną uwagę na wiele czynników, wpływających na prawidłowość otrzymywanych wyników. W artykule omówiony został wpływ regulacji hamowni podwoziowej wykorzystywanej do wykonywania pomiarów emisji związków szkodliwych spalin oraz zużycia paliwa.
EN
Exhaust emission measurements on the chassis dynamometer are one of the most important and most complex tests which are performed on vehicles powered by combustion engines. Many factors must be under control during exhaust emission measurements, which have an influence on correctness of the obtained results. In this paper, the impact of the chassis dynamometer regulation on the exhaust emission results is analysed.
EN
The article analyzes the environmental costs which consisted of determining the annual cost for gases and particles released into the atmosphere by city buses meeting the Euro VI norm. To this end, exhaust emissions of a city bus equipped with a conventional drive system were performed. The vehicle had a length of 18m and was powered by a CI engine with a swept volume of 10,5 dm3, with a maximum power of 240 kW. In order to measure the ecological indicators, tests were performed in real driving conditions using the PEMS system. The apparatus made it possible to measure the concentration of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in the exhaust, which made it possible to determine the road exhaust emissions of the tested vehicle. The research was carried out on a test route including urban and suburban roads in accordance with legislative guidelines. The measurements showed that the bus met the exhaust emission limits determined on the basis of measuring windows defined in relation to the work generated by the drive system. In addition to information on the emissivity of the vehicle, the annual emissions from city buses meeting the Euro VI standard in Poland were also estimated. The information contained in the central vehicle register for the number of vehicles registered in Poland that meet the latest emission standards has been used for this purpose.
EN
At the beginning of the work on the effects of global warming and climate change in the international area, there are efforts to reduce exhaust emissions. Because fossil fuel is depleting and exhaust emission gases emitted to the atmosphere are rising rapidly, energy efficiency is on the agenda in transportation. Therefore, automotive developers and scientists have undertaken new research in the automotive sector. Hybrid electric vehicle technology is one of the important studies that these researchers continue. In the hybrid electric vehicle technology, the hybrid engine is aimed to give the best results in terms of exhaust emission, fuel consumption and maintenance costs compared to other internal combustion engines, and at the same time the hybrid engine is aimed to perform better than other internal combustion engines. General information about the hybrid electric vehicle technology as one of the new and alternative technologies in these study is provided. In addition, information was given about exhaust emission, emission standards and fuel consumption. Comparisons were made between the hybrid engine and other internal combustion engines.
EN
In 2015, the number of vehicles in the world exceeded 1.1 billion units. In the coming years, it is expected that the largest increase in the number of vehicles will take place in developing countries. This is a problem in particular in terms of emissions of harmful substances from vehicles. Considering that all manufactured vehicle models have to undergo a detailed homologation and meet the exhaust emission requirements before placing on the market, it is necessary to refine test procedures, including test cycles, in which vehicle emissions are determined. At present, the NEDC approval test is valid in Europe. It is a cycle reproduced on a chassis dynamometer in steady conditions. It consists of an urban section repeated four times and an extra urban part. From 2019, a new test procedure will take effect, which uses the WLTC cycle, also reproduced on a chassis dynamometer in fixed conditions. It is much more complex and better reflects the real traffic conditions. For a better illustration of the differences that occur between the current NEDC cycle and the new WLTC, the article presents a comparative analysis of both driving cycles. This is to present the justifiability of using a new driving cycle and to present its complexity. The article presents own research of a vehicle with a spark-ignition engine, which has been tested both in the NEDC and WLTC cycle. On the basis of the obtained data, it was possible to determine the differences in the emission of harmful exhaust gas components and indicate how the new homologation procedure affects the emissions from the vehicle.
EN
Test results of exhaust emission sensitivity to engine operating conditions from a vehicle with a compression ignition engine have been analyzed. These results were determined in driving tests: NEDC (New European Driving Cycle), RDE (Real Driving Emissions) and Malta, an original drive cycle developed at Poznan University of Technology. The tests in the NEDC and Malta cycles were carried out on the engine dynamometer in driving tests simulation conditions, while the RDE test was carried out in the real conditions of passenger car traffic. The mean exhaust emission test results of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide as well as the mean particle number in individual tests have been provided. A high sensitivity of the tested emission values to the changes in engine's operating conditions was found, both for static and dynamic conditions. The strongest impact of engine operating conditions was found for hydrocarbons emissions and the number of particles, followed by carbon monoxide, a smaller impact was found for nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide. The largest differences in the values characterizing exhaust emissions were found for the NEDC test, which differed the most in dynamic engine operating conditions from other tests that closer resemble real driving conditions of vehicles.
PL
Opisano technologię kondycjonowania spalin, służącą do poprawy skuteczności elektrofiltrów zbyt niskiej z powodu wysokorezystywnego pyłu. Przedstawiono zasadę działania i budowę nowoczesnej instalacji oraz możliwości jej stosowania w różnych gałęziach przemysłu. Opisano również wybrane studia przypadku z zastosowania technologii w energetyce.
EN
Technol. for flue gas conditioning used in electrostatic precipitators was described. It consists in decreasing the dust resistivity by covering its particles with a thin layer of H₂SO₄ of a good conductivity, what results in an improvement of precipitators efficiency. Three case studies were presented.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczących kontroli składu spalin z pojazdów z silnikami o zapłonie iskrowym w ramach okresowych badań technicznych pojazdów. Zweryfikowano uzyskiwane podczas kontroli wyniki zawartości CO i HC z limitami zawartymi w obowiązujących normach Euro dla tej kategorii pojazdów wyposażonych w różne typy układów wydechowych.
EN
The exhaust gas emission control data in a vehicle control station in 2007-2014 in Slovakia was presented. The emission depended of vehicle prodn. year and its equipment.
PL
Na początku XXI wieku jednym z ważniejszych wyzwań ludzkości jest ograniczenie negatywnych skutków rozwoju cywilizacyjnego. Oprócz silników wykorzystywanych w pojazdach drogowych liczną grupę stanowią silniki o zastosowaniach pozadrogowych. Do tej grupy należą silniki napędzające pojazdy samojezdne nieporuszające się po drogach NRMM (Non-Road Mobile Machinery). Silniki tych pojazdów, spośród wszystkich o zastosowaniach pozadrogowych, charakteryzują się specyficznymi warunkami pracy, które nie pozwalają zakwalifikować ich do silników trakcyjnych. Głównym problemem w odniesieniu do tych pojazdów jest emisja cząstek stałych i tlenków azotu. W pracy dokonano analizy parametrów operacyjnych silnika i emisji spalin ciągnika rolniczego podczas pracy na hamowni. Wykonano badania ciągnika rolniczego, polegające na pomiarach parametrów pracy silnika i stężeniu związków szkodliwych w spalinach. Uzyskano informacje o parametrach operacyjnych silnika i natężeniu emisji zanieczyszczeń podczas badań na hamowni. Dokonano analizy porównawczej parametrów operacyjnych silnika uzyskanych z systemu diagnostycznego oraz pomiarów bezpośrednich na hamowni oraz wykonano korekcję momentu obrotowego odczytywanego z systemu informatycznego silnika. W efekcie wyznaczono wartości emisji jednostkowej zanieczyszczeń podczas badań silnika w warunkach zmiennego obciążenia.
EN
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, one of the major challenges of humanity was to reduce the negative effects of civilization development. Besides the engines used in road vehicles there is a large group of engines for non-road applications. This group includes motor propelled vehicles not used on the road NRMM (Non-Road Mobile Machinery). Engines of these vehicles, among all of the non-road applications, are characterized by very specific working conditions that do not allow for them to be qualified for propulsion engines. The main problem with these vehicles is the particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emission. The paper presents an analysis of the operating parameters of an engine and exhaust emissions of a tractor operating on a chassis dynamometer. Studies of the tractor involved measurements of engine operating parameters and the concentration of harmful substances in the exhaust gases. Information about the parameters of the engine and the intensity of emissions were obtained during the dynamometer test. The study included a comparative analysis of the operating parameters of the engine obtained from the diagnostic system and direct measurements on a chassis dynamometer and a correction of the torque obtained from the vehicle computer system was made. As a result, values of specific emission during engine tests under varying values of load were determined.
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