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EN
The general accessibility and high accuracy of GPS caused that for a dozen or so years it is applied commonly, not only in marine navigation. We can ascertain that in this regard there exists the monopoly. However, now it is apparently that this system can be easily disturbed, what testify numerous reports. The problem has been treated as troubles in land navigation, however nowadays became every-day reality on coastal waters as well, especially on the Mediterranean and Black Seas and Persian Gulf. Officers who survived this tell that the first impulse in such situation is to verify GPS receiver, regardless of the situation around the ship. The concentration of the officer’s attention on the GPS receiver, especially on coastal waters creates the threat for the ship, however in this situation appear other threats which many officers does not associate with GPS. Usually on the present ship GPS receiver is not only the source of positioning information. It is a source of information for many other devices, so inappropriate work of it generates problems with many other processes on the ship. Today question is who on the bridge can notice GPS problems and how? There are receivers which do not inform about the problem, or present not realistic data. Sometimes only ECDIS picture shows some abnormality, for example still the same position while ship is under the way. On the paper the analysis of possibly aspects of the problem is discussed. Presented analysis goes to the conclusion that should be prepared some procedure how to proceed in case of the lack of GPS signals, as well as the watch officer should be prepared to act in such situation. This is a task for marine academies.
2
Content available A critical analysis of IMO S-Mode Guidelines
EN
Circular on “Guidelines for the Standardization of User Interface Design for Navigation Equipment”, commonly known as “S-Mode Guidelines”, has lately been approved by International Maritime Organisation. Its potential impact on default and common user settings of radar equipment, electronic chart display & information system, and integrated navigation system has been discussed in the article. Several issues that should be considered during technical implementation of the circular provisions and follow-up familiarization of navigators with the affected equipment have been identified.
EN
The completion of ECDIS mandatory implementation period on-board SOLAS vessels requires certain operational, functional and educational gaping holes to be solved. It especially refers to positioning and its redundancy, which represents fundamental safety factor on-board navigating vessels. The proposed paper deals with primary and secondary positioning used in ECDIS system. Standard positioning methods are described, discussing possibilities of obtained positions’ automatic and manual implementation in ECDIS, beside default methods. With the aim of emphasizing the need and importance of using secondary positioning source in ECDIS, positioning issue from the standpoint of end-users was elaborated, representing a practical feedback of elaborated topic. The survey was conducted in the form of international questionnaire placed among OOWs, ranging from apprentice officers to captains. The result answers and discussion regarding (non)usage of secondary positioning sources in ECDIS were analysed and presented. Answers and statements were elaborated focusing not only in usage of the secondary positioning system in ECDIS, but in navigation in general. The study revealed potential risks arising from the lack of knowledge and even negligence. The paper concludes with summary of findings related to discrepancies between theoretical background, good seamanship practice and real actions taken by OOWs. Further research activities are pointed out, together with planned practical actions in raising awareness regarding navigation with ECDIS.
EN
The EC funded CyClaDes research project is designed to promote the increased impact of the human element in shipping across the design and operational lifecycle. It addresses the design and operation of ships and ship systems. One of the CyClaDes’ tasks is to create a crew-centered design case-study examination of the information that is shared between the Bridge and Engine Control Room that helps the crew co-ordinate to ensure understanding and complete interconnected tasks. This information can be provided in various ways, including communication devices or obtained from a common database, display, or even the ship environment (e.g., the roll of the ship). A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with seafarers of diverse ranks to get a better idea of what communication does, or should, take place and any problems or challenges existing in current operations, as seen from both the bridge and ECR operators’ perspectives. Included in the interview were both the standard communications and information shared during planning and executing a voyage, as well as special situations such as safety/casualty tasks or heavy weather. The results were analyzed in terms of the goals of the communication, the primary situations of interest for communication and collaboration, the communication media used, the information that is shared, and the problems experienced. The results of seafarer interviews are presented in the paper to explore on-board inter-departmental communication.
EN
Poor lookouts, i.e. one of errors in situation awareness, are pointed out as the major cause of collisions of ships, through investigations of collision accidents. In order to evaluate safety measures for preventing collisions caused by poor lookouts, it is necessary to understand background factors, so called “contexts”, of errors in situation awareness regardless of occurrence of collisions. The purpose of this study is to point out the possible significant contexts, using a navigator’s situation awareness model. As a result, we point out that one of the possible significant contexts is a problem on judgment of priority levels of other ships with regard to attention.
EN
Standard ECDIS configuration doesn’t foresee interaction with Digital Selective Calling (DSC) device. We propose a reasonable way to eliminate the drawbacks of existing VHF radiotelephony using DSC and obtain new advantages in communication and navigation in the frame of existing conventional installations. The proposed innovation is based on ECDIS software updating and the interconnection to DSC equipment. ECDIS modernization would get rid a navigator of the routine procedures and handling with abstract data replacing them by understandable actions on ECDIS display. The proposed integration gives new abilities for smart addressed VHF/DSC communication by estimating the current navigational situation around the ship that is especially important in congested ports, waterways and poor visibility regarding human factor. The proposed modernization retains in operation all standard DSC and ECDIS functions and provides full compatibility with commonly used non-integrated equipment. Financial expenses to its implementation for ship-owner are minimal due to only software updating and standard cabling.
7
Content available remote Considerations on Maritime Watch Keeping Officers’ Vocational Training
EN
The activities on the board of the ships are based on competences and skills. In order to have competent people, you must to create them. This is the role of the maritime training system, to create competent persons for the maritime field. Part of this system is the vocational training for the deck officers. Maybe the most important role of the vocational system is to create competences based on the previous skills and knowledge acquired during the practice period on the board of the ship.
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