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Quadrotors represent an effective class of aerial robots because of their abilities to work in small areas. We suggested in this research paper to develop an algorithm to control a quadrotor, which is a nonlinear MIMO system and strongly coupled, by a linear control technique (PID), while the parameters are tuned by the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The suggested technique allows a decentralized control by decoupling the linked interactions to effect angles on both altitude and translation position. Moreover, the using a meta-heuristic technique enables a certain ability of the system controllers design without being limited by working on just the small angles and stabilizing just the full actuated subsystem. The simulations were implemented in MATLAB/Simulink tool to evaluate the control technique in terms of dynamic performance and stability. Although the controllers design (PID) is simple, it shows the effect of the proposed technique in terms of tracking errors and stability, even with large angles, subsequently, high velocity response and high dynamic performances with practically acceptable rotors speed.
We consider a sequence of projects of independent activities; each project composed of activities available for realization at the same time. It is assumed that the activities are continuous dynamical systems whose dynamics depend continuously on the allotted amounts of the resource, and the initial and terminal states are fixed. The problem is to allocate a renewable, continuously divisible resource (e.g., power, fuel flow, money per time unit, approximate manpower) to the activities in order to minimize the performance time of the sequence of projects under the assumption that the allowable level of the total usage of the resource is constant. Although the solution to this problem is known in the literature, nevertheless there is a lack of effective computational algorithms for the time-optimal resource allocation, especially in the case of really large projects. In this paper a decentralized two-level control scheme using the time-decomposition is proposed to find the time-optimal resource allocation in a sequence of projects. The price mechanism is applied to coordinate the lower level tasks of the optimal resource allocation in the successive time intervals determined by the moments at which the successive projects are available for realization. Necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure the determination of the optimal resource allocation according to the method proposed are stated. The problems connected with the numerical realization of the scheme are discussed and the resulting computer algorithm is outlined.
In this paper, a new approach towards input-output pairing for an unstable system has been proposed. First, it is demonstrated that the previous method of input-output pairing for unstable plants cannot find appropriate pairs as it only checks necessary conditions for stability and integrity. Then, a new approach using relative error matrix and genetic algorithm for finding appropriate pairs in unstable systems is proposed. As it is shown, this approach takes into consideration both static and dynamic information of plant in measuring interaction. Finally, the accuracy of proposed method is demonstrated by an example and closed loop simulation.
This paper deals with the problem of designing Nash equilibrium points in noncooperative games in which agents anticipate values of Lagrange multipliers coordinating their payoff functions. The addressed model of agents' interactions, referred to as the price-anticipation game, is studied within the framework of coordination and mechanism design theory for hierarchical systems. Sufficient conditions are formulated for Nash implementation of a regular and isolated solution to a coordination problem. An equilibrium design procedure is proposed and applied as an analytic tool in a study of mechanism design games. In the setting considered the well-known fact is demonstrated that gains from reaching a desired solution to a coordination problem in a Nash equilibrium point need not balance the overall costs of its implementation. However, it is also demonstrated how these costs can be distributed among the agents and related to the particular organization of interactions in the system. Finally, application of the developed framework in the field of Internet traffic engineering is presented.
Content available Pairwise control principle in large-scale systems
The purpose of the paper is present an algorithm of partially decentralized control design for one type of large-scale linear dynamical system. The pairwise autonomous principle is preferred where design conditions are derived in the bounded real lemma form, and global system stability is reproven to formulate potential application principle in fault tolerant control. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by the numerical example.
The paper addresses the problem of designing a robust output/state model predictive control for linear polytopic systems without constraints. The new robust BMI stability condition for given predictive and control horizon is derived which guarantees the parameter dependent quadratic stability and guaranteed cost.The proposed condition is appropriate for centralized and decentralized control design, as illustrated on example.
In this paper, we study a consensus problem in multi-agent systems, where the entire system is decentralized in the sense that each agent can only obtain information (states or outputs) from its neighbor agents. The existing design methods found in the literature are mostly based on a graph Laplacian of the graph which describes the interconnection structure among the agents, and such methods cannot deal with complicated control specification. For this purpose, we propose to reduce the consensus problem at hand to the solving of a strict matrix inequality with respect to a Lyapunov matrix and a controller gain matrix, and we propose two algorithms for solving the matrix inequality. It turns out that this method includes the existing Laplacian based method as a special case and can deal with various additional control requirements such as the convergence rate and actuator constraints.
Content available remote Sterowanie rozproszone systemem zasilania bezprzerwowego
W referacie przedstawiono propozycję jednofazowego systemu zasilania bezprzerwowego (UPS) zbudowanego w oparciu o pracujące równolegle moduły przekształtników DC-AC-DC-AC z separacją galwaniczną. Opisano opracowany i zastosowany w układzie system komunikacji pomiędzy modułami oparty na warstwie fizycznej CAN, obsługujący sterowanie rozproszone typu master-slave pozwalające na uzyskanie wysokiej dyspozycyjności systemu UPS. Układy sterowania poszczególnymi modułami zaprojektowano tak, aby zapewniały wysoką jakość napięcia wyjściowego przy obciążeniu odbiorami zarówno liniowymi jak i nieliniowymi. Przedstawiono wybrane wyniki badań symulacyjnych i laboratoryjnych układu z modułami o mocy 5kVA.
The paper presents the single phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with galvanic separated DC-AC-DC-AC converters operating in parallel. The CAN physical layer based system of communication between converters has been developed and applied, which allow to utilize a decentralized master-slave control providing high availability factor of the whole UPS system. The control system of particular converters has been developed to ensure a high quality of the output voltage for both linear and nonlinear load. The selected simulations and experimental results obtained for 5kVA prototype modules are presented.
Content available remote Decentralized structural control approach for Petri nets
The structural controller, described by adding the control places to the Petri nets, is introduced in this work to lead the Petri net to the desired marking vectors. An algorithm (Algorithm I) is developed to determine the control places for the given Petri net. The connections and the initial marking of each control place are determined in this algorithm. Moreover, a decentralized structural control approach, based on overlapping decompositions, is introduced in this work. In this decentralized approach, all disjoint Petri subnets, which are obtained by using overlapping decompositions, are determined. The control places for each Petri subnet are determined by using the given algorithm. Then, the control places for the orginal Petri net are obtained by the control places of each PSN by another algorithm (Algorithm II) and these places are added to the orginal Petri net. Therefore, a decentralized structural controller which guarantees to lead the Petri net to the desired marking vectors is obtained.
In the paper a synthesis of a control law for a large scale stochastic system is presented. The system composed of coupled linear subsystems and quadratic performance index which should be minimized, is considered. The problem is solved in a two-level hierarchical control structure wtih a coordinator on an upper level and local controllers on a lower level. An algorithm, in which it is possible to partially decompose calculations and to realize decentralized control, is proposed. a simple example is presented.
Content available remote An approach to decentralized adaptive control
The paper presents a way of control of decentralized two inputs two outputs (TITO) systems. The base of the approach is usage of the set of one-dimensional self-tuning controllers wiyh reduced orders, being tuned simultaneously, in contrast to methods using relays in feedback. A method of the recursive least squares with directional forgetting factor applied to the continuous-time system is used as the identification algorithm for the self-tuning controllers. Itobtains data using the differential filters. verification was done in MATLAB-SIMULINK on the systems with "P" and "V" structures. two methods of tuning the controllers were used: the suboptimal linear quadratic method, and the dynamics inversion method. This approach give good results, and enables to use arbitary method of tuning the controllers, in particular, to apply the approaches of control of SISO systems, which are quite common for the multi-variable systems.
Proposes an approach for the design of discrete-time decentralized control systems with m-step delay sharing information pattern, employing model-based predictive control (MBPC) combined with fuzzy prediction for the interconnections among the subsystems. A state space model is used at each control station to predict the corresponding subsystem output over a long-range time period. The interaction trajectories are considered to be non-linear functions of the states of the subsystems. For all cases the interconnections and the necessary predictions for them are estimated by an appropriate adaptive fuzzy identifier based on the generation of linguistic IF-THEN rules and the on-line construction of a common fuzzy rule base. Representative computer simulation results are provided and compared for nontrivial example systems.
Content available remote Decentralized Variable Structure Tracking for Systems With Time-Domain Dominance
In this paper, we consider the design of tracking controllers for linear MIMO systems described by an input-output model. The presence of known 'weak' interactions among SISO or MIMO subsystems may allow the designer to achieve objectives by using independent controllers of lower complexity than are necessary in general (control decentralization problem). Sufficient conditions for asymptotic tracking employing decentralized variable structure techniques are derived. The condition is shown to be closely related to (and in a sense, a time-domain counterpart of) dominance criteria used in frequency-domain techniques, as they have developed out of Rosenbrock's original diagonal dominance concept. The synthesis of a decentralized variable-structure controller for asymptotic tracking is illustrated for systems obeying some conditions on their nominal relative degrees.
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