The article presents the influence of stresses related to the upset of plasticization zone as well as stresses at grain level and at crystal level on the static strength and fatigue strength depending on the type of steel. The mechanisms of stress formation on a macro scale were analysed, together with the influence of sheet stretch before welding, rolling stresses, the length of welds, the sequence of depositing beads, welding sequence, the type of support, welding methods and the type of deposited metal on welding distortions. The authors presented a relationship between distortions on cooling and on heating stages in the welding thermal cycle. The practical arrangements for the control of longitudinal and angular distortion were discussed. As examples were shown welded I-beams, concrete pumps, bay bridge, the ship`s hull and superstructure of National Stadium in Warsaw. This practical experiences were confirmed by magnetic tests of welding stresses.