Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 1016

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 51 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  heat treatment
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 51 next fast forward last
EN
This study concerns the wear behaviour of metal couples used in industry, particularly in mechanical sliding systems (numerically controlled machine tools). In general, the nature of the materials of the parts of these systems which are in contact and move relatively, are medium carbon steels, thanks to their good mechanical and tribological properties. The present work aims to study, the dry sliding wear of the contact surface of the pin (machine slide) against the contact surface of a disc (machine groove) and the damage induced on the worn track. The pin is AISI 1038 and AISI 1045 steel, the disc is AISI 1055 steel. The tribological tests were carried out on a pin-disc tribometer, in an atmospheric environment. The wear of the pins being evaluated by weighing and studied according to the hardness of the pin with the variation of the normal load applied. The discussion of the results is based on SEM observations and EDS analyzes of worn surfaces and interfacial phenomena produced by dynamic contact. The results obtained indicated the influence of the applied load and the hardness on the wear of the pin and therefore on the tribological behaviour of the worn surfaces.
EN
The paper presents the research results concerning the chromium-nickel-molybdenum duplex cast steel GX2CrNiMoCuN 25-6-3-3 grade. The aim of studies was the description of the influence of hyperquenching temperature Tp i.e. 1100, 1125 and 1150°C on microstructure and mainly mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength UTS, yield strength YS, hardness HB, elongation EL and impact energy KV of duplex cast steel GX2CrNiMoCuN 25-6-3-3 grade. The range of studies included ten melts which were conducted in foundry GZUT S.A. Based on the obtained results was confirmed that application of hyperquenching process guarantees the elimination of brittle s phase in the microstructure of studied duplex cast steel. Moreover on the basis of conducted statistical analysis of the researches results is concluded that with the decrease in hyperquenching temperature increases ductility and amount of austenite, while decreases strength and amount of ferrite in studied duplex cast steel GX2CrNiMoCuN 25-6-3-3 grade.
EN
In this study, the effects of heat treatment on aluminum/steel structural transition joint (STJ) strength were analyzed with ram tensile tests to find the right welding conditions. Before ram tensile tests, the specimens were subjected to different heat treatments to simulate possible thermal conditions, which may occur during the welding of STJ to the steel side of ship construction. Temperatures were varied from 100°C to 500°C, and durations were changed between 5-25 minutes in the heat treatments. The results of the ram tensile tests indicated that tensile strength decreased above 300°C. Micro-hardness test and microstructure examination were conducted to understand behavior change during ram tensile tests. The investigation showed that precipitation of the secondary hard phases with aging at interface above 300°C, reduced the bonding between aluminum and steel materials, which lead to a decrease of strength, and also changed the mechanical behavior of the STJ during ram test from ductile to brittle fracture. If the temperature is below 500°C and the duration is under 15 minutes, the STJ strength value meets the standard requirement. Short and rapid welding could be suggested to reduce heat buildup during welding.
EN
For the EN GX4CrNi13-4 martensitic stainless steel, research was conducted to investigate the impact of the quenching intensity and the content of nickel on the mechanical properties and amount of retained austenite. It was found that the amount of retained austenite significantly increases with growing nickel concentration. On the other hand, the cooling rate at quenching makes a difference only if the cooling is intensive, then amount of retained austenite decrease. A higher nickel content improves the mechanical properties. With more intensive cooling, the tensile strength decreases while the yield strength increases. The ductility is not significantly affected by the cooling intensity.
EN
The article shows examples of simulation of the chemical composition effect on austenite transformation during continuous cooling. The calculations used own neural model of CCT (Continuous Cooling Transformation) diagrams describing austenite transformations that occur during continuous cooling. The model allows to calculate a CCT diagrams of structural steels and engineering steels based on chemical composition of steel and austenitizing temperature. Examples of simulation shown herein are related to the effect of selected elements on the temperatures of phase transformations, hardness and volume fraction of ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite in steel.
EN
In this study, microstructural and crystallographic properties of phase transformations occurring with thermal effect in Fe-XMn-Mo-Si (X = 15.14wt.% ve 18.45wt.%) alloys have been investigated. The effects of (wt.%) Mn rates in the alloy on the characteristics of phase transformations were investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). SEM and TEM investigations was observed that two different martensite (ε and α') structures were formed in austenite grain. In addition, in TEM observations, the interface regions were selected over the bright field image. Crystallographic orientation relationships were obtained by the analyses of electron diffraction patterns from the interface regions. γ → α' type transformation was observed for α' particle formation, and orientation relationship was found as (111)γ // (011)α', [101]γ // [111]α' and, γ → ε type transformation was observed for ε martensite plate formation, and the orientation relationship was found as (111)γ // (0002)ε, [110]γ // [2110]ε. It was noticed that this orientation relationships were compatible with the literature (Kurdjumov-Sachs and Shoji-Nishiyama orientation relationship). Precipitation phase (carbide) formation was observed in microstructure analyses. The changes in the magnetic properties of the alloys having different ratesof Mn as a consequence of thermal effect phase transformations was investigated by using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The internal magnetic field, volume fractions (transformation rates), isomer shift values and magnetic characteristics of the main and product phases were revealed by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. In the Mössbauer Spectrum, it was noticed that ε-martensite and γ-austenite structures showed paramagnetic single-peak, and α'-martensite showed ferromagnetic six-peaks.
EN
The presented work was mainly aimed at assessing the tribological properties of gas nitrided samples subsequently subjected to shot peening. This assessment was carried out using the standard “three rollers – cone” method. In these tests, different materials of roller samples were used, i.e. both structural and tool steels. In addition, the selected material of conical counter-samples, i.e. heat-treated medium carbon steel, was used. The obtained test results allowed us to assess the influence of the use of dissimilar material of nitrided (under different conditions) roller samples, as well as their surface plastic processing, i.e. shot peening.
PL
Prezentowana praca miała głównie na celu ocenę właściwości tribologicznych próbek azotowanych gazowo i następnie kulowanych. Ocenę tę przeprowadzono znormalizowaną metodą „trzy wałeczki – stożek”. W próbach tych użyto zróżnicowane materiały próbek wałeczkowych, tzn. zarówno stale konstrukcyjne, jak i narzędziowe. Ponadto zastosowano wybrany materiał przeciwpróbek stożkowych, tj. ulepszaną cieplnie stal średniowęglową. Uzyskane wyniki badań pozwoliły ocenić wpływ stosowania zróżnicowanego materiału azotowanych (w różnych warunkach) próbek wałeczkowych, a także ich powierzchniowej obróbki plastycznej, tzn. kulowania.
EN
The influence of electron irradiation fluxes with energy of 12 MeV and heat treatment on the electrical properties of epoxypolymers with PEPA content of 11, 12 and 13 wt.h. per 100 wt. including epoxy resin. It is show that the electrical conductivity of epoxypolymer increases with electron irradiation fluxes greater than 10 kGy. It found that extra heat treatment of irradiated samples with a hardener content of 12 wt. h. hours leads to an increase in their electrical conductivity. The nature of the obtained dependences of electrical conductivity is determine by the processes of cross-linking, radiation, thermal destruction and mass fraction of the hardener. Radiation-stimulated increase in the conductivity of epoxypolymers can be use to create conductive protective coatings and sensor electronics elements.
9
Content available remote Poprawa własności stali typu maraging w postaci kęsów kutych
PL
W pracy opisano badania prowadzące do poprawy własności mechanicznych (ciągliwości) stali typu maraging X2NiCoMo18-9-5 w postaci kęsów kutych o dużym przekroju. Zmodyfikowano proces kucia poprzez zastosowanie większych odkształceń plastycznych w niższych wartościach temperatury w stosunku do tradycyjnej technologii. Opracowano też nową trój-etapową obróbkę cieplną odkuwek. Korzystne zmiany własności przypisano zmniejszonej wielkości ziarna austenitu oraz rozdrobnieniu wtrąceń niemetalicznych.
EN
The paper describes experiments leading to the improvement in the mechanical properties (ductility) of the X2NiCoMo18-9-5 maraging steel in the form of forged billets of a large cross-section. The forging process was modified in relation to the traditional technology by applying higher deformations at lower temperatures. A novel three-stage heat treatment was also developed. The improvement of the properties was attributed to the austenite grain refinements and finer size of non-metallic inclusions.
EN
The problem of heat treatment of wet materials contains the question of the heat and mass inside the body transfer (an internal problem) and in the boundary layer at the interface between phases (an external problem). The amount of removable moisture depends on the degree of each of these processes development. When heated, the moisture content on the surface decreases, creating a concentration difference across the body. Therefore, a flow of moisture occurs in the body from deep layers to the surface, towards which the flow of heat is directed. Thus, when wet materials are heated, complex processes of moisture and heat exchange occur, mutually affecting the enthalpy and moisture content of both the heated material and the environment. The features of mathematical model construction of heating and drying of wet materials process are considered in the article. The drying process is defined as a thermal process with effective heat transfer coefficients with consideration of mass transfer. It makes it possible to obtain analytical dependencies that are convenient for engineering calculations, with which you can determine the temperature field and evaluate the kinetics of wet materials drying.
PL
Problem obróbki cieplnej wilgotnych materiałów obejmuje zagadnienia transferu ciepła i masy wewnątrz komponentu (problem wewnętrzny) i w warstwie granicznej z przemianą fazową (problem zewnętrzny). Ilość usuwanej wilgoci zależy od stopnia rozwoju każdego z tych procesów. Po podgrzaniu zawartość wilgoci na powierzchni zmniejsza się, tworząc różnicę koncentracji w całym materiale. Dlatego w materiale występuje przepływ wilgoci z głębokich warstw na powierzchnię, na którą skierowany jest przepływ ciepła. Oznacza to, że gdy ogrzewane są wilgotne materiały, zachodzą złożone procesy wymiany wilgoci i ciepła, wpływając wzajemnie na entalpię i zawartość wilgoci zarówno ogrzewanego materiału, jak i środowiska.W artykule omówiono cechy budowy modelu matematycznego procesu ogrzewania i suszenia materiałów zawilgoconych. Proces suszenia definiuje się jako proces termiczny o efektywnych współczynnikach przenikania ciepła z uwzględnieniem transferu masy. Umożliwia uzyskanie zależności analitycznych dogodnych do obliczeń inżynierskich, za pomocą których można określić pole temperatury i ocenić kinetykę suszenia wilgotnych materiałów.
EN
We have investigated the MGS L285 epoxy laminating resin system, used in aviation applications. A number of tests were carried out, namely Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile testing, three-point bending flexural testing, Charpy impact testing, Shore D hardness, density measurements and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Moreover, the tensile toughness UTT, the brittleness B and the linear isobaric thermal expansivity αL were calculated. The samples were subjected to heat treatment in the temperatures of 50, 60 and 80°C for 15 hours or were stored in room temperature. Glass transition temperature, hardness, density as well as other properties were observed to rise along with the increasing heat treatment temperature, suggesting the validity of applications of Voronoi-Delaunay structural analysis to polymer science. On the other hand, properties such as brittleness, toughness and impact strength exhibited a non-linear course of changes as a function of the heating temperature.
PL
Badano laminującą żywicę epoksydową MGS L285 przeznaczoną do zastosowań w lotnictwie. Przeprowadzono dynamiczną analizę mechaniczną (DMA), skaningową kalorymetrię różnicową (DSC), statyczną próbę rozciągania, zginanie trójpunktowe, badanie młotem Charpy’ego, pomiary twardości metodą Shore’a D, pomiary gęstości, zarejestrowano także widma metodą skaningowej spektroskopii transformatorowej Fouriera (FT-IR). Obliczono wartości wiązkości UTT, kruchości B i izobarycznej rozszerzalności termicznej αL. Próbki wygrzewano w temperaturze 50, 60 lub 80 stopni Celsjusza przez 15 h lub przechowywano w temperaturze pokojowej. W odniesieniu do dużej części badanych właściwości zaobserwowano ich poprawę wraz z rosnącą temperaturą wygrzewania. Korelacja temperatury zeszklenia, twardości i gęstości polimerów wskazuje na słuszność zastosowania w badaniu wolnych objętości analizy strukturalnej opartej na triangulacji Delone i diagramach Woronoja. W wypadku właściwości, takich jak: kruchość, wiązkość i udarność stwierdzono nieliniowy przebieg zmian w funkcji temperatury wygrzewania.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł stanowi kontynuację badań nad obróbką cieplną (OC) cynkowej powłoki zanurzeniowej, naniesionej na stal i żeliwo szare. Obróbka ta powoduje zmiany w strukturze powłoki, co bezposrednio przekłada się na jej właściwości mechaniczne i użytkowe. W poprzednich publikacjach analizowano wpływ OC w zakresie temperatur: 390 ÷ 530ºC. Obróbka ta spowodowała istotne zwiększenie twardości powłoki cynkowej, jednak wiązało się to także z niekorzystnym efektem - znacznym zmniejszeniem odporności korozyjnej w stosunku do próbek bazowych, których nie poddano OC [9]. Zmiana odporności korozyjnej była skutkiem nieciągłości – pękniec, które pojawiły sie w powłoce w następstwie zbyt wysokiej temperatury OC. Obróbka w zakresie niższych temperatur, tj. 270 ÷ 350ºC nie powoduje tak istotnego obniżenia odporności korozyjnej, weryfikowanej za pomocą przyspieszonych badań w komorze solnej wg ISO 9227 (solanka obojętna). Oprócz odporności na korozję mierzono także wpływ OC na inne właściwości powłoki cynkowej, tj.: odporność na ścieranie – przy zastosowaniu testera T-11 oraz zmianę twardosci, mierzoną metodą Vickersa -HV 0,02, dedykowaną do cienkich powłok. Przeprowadzone badania dowiodły korzystnego wpływu przeprowadzonej niskotemperaturowej obróbki cieplnej w odniesieniu do otrzymanych wartości badanych właściwosci mechanicznych powłoki cynkowej.
EN
This paper contains a continuation of research on the heat treatment (OC) of a hot-dip zinc coating applied to steel and cast iron. This treatment causes changes in the structure of the coating, which directly influences its mechanical and functional properties. In previous publications, the influence of OC in the range of 390 ÷ 530ºC was analyzed. The above-mentioned treatment resulted in a significant increase in the hardness of the zinc coating, but it was also associated with an adverse effect – a significant reduction in corrosion resistance compared to the base samples [9]. The decrease in corrosion resistance is the result of discontinuities in the coating resulting from treatment at too high temperature. Machining at lower temperatures, i.e. 270-350ºC, does not cause such a significant reduction in corrosion resistance, verified by accelerated corrosion tests in a salt chamber according to ISO 9227 (NSS Test). In addition to corrosion resistance, the impact of OC on other properties of the zinc coating, i.e. abrasion resistance using the T-11 tester and analysis of hardness changes, carried out using the Vickers -HV 0.02 method, dedicated to thin coatings. The tests proved the beneficial effect of the low-temperature heat treatment carried out in relation to the obtained values of the tested mechanical properties of the zinc coating.
EN
The aim of the research was to verify a new method of measuring the colour of wood. The method was designed to automate wood colour measurement. In the experiments birch wood was used, which was heat treated with saturated water steam. Nikon D3200 camera was used in conjunction with the MATLAB program to implement the method. The assessments were conducted in the colour space of CIE L* a* b*. The measured values confirmed the decrease in lightness from natural to thermally modified wood. The trends of the colour values a* and b* were the same as those reported by the authors who conducted experiments with birch wood. Differences were found in the magnitude of the measured chromatic component a* values. It will be necessary to verify the above facts and determine the reasons for these differences by measuring the colour of other wood species.
14
EN
A recent development in the material studies provides beneficial application of lightweight alloys such as aluminium, magnesium as well as composites and metal matrices. The alloys are experimentally improved by increasing hardness in the ballistics testing using projectiles,makes them viable for the areas such as aerospace, military, defence, automobiles and so on. So the study is made on different approaches. First, by comparing different types of non-ferrous alloys and projectiles regarding sizes, structures. Second, the materials with heat treatment are also studied for investigating the hardness property by overcoming successful penetration on non-ferrous alloys. Third, material to be improvised by use of numerical studies such as 3D models, empirical models and software such as ANSYS, ABAQUS and AUTODYN, etc. Finally, the aim of this paper is to review the recent progress ballistic studies of lightweight materials and to provide a best choice of material for further on-going research.
EN
Purpose: The paper presents the results of microstructure, surface development and thickness of the oxide layer on the pure titanium Grade 2 after mechanical activation and heat treatment (550°C/5h). Design/methodology/approach: Studies show that it is possible to control the thickness of the oxide layer by using different materials to change the roughness of surface - mechanical activation before heat treatment. After mechanical activation and heat treatment, the results of the thickness of the oxide layer as well as a level of surface development were obtained, presented and discussed. Findings: The conducted research have proved that mechanical activation of the surface which cause increase of surface development results in greater thickness of oxide layer which is formed during heat treatment. Nevertheless mechanical activation that results in decrease of surface development, such as polishing, results in decrease of oxide layer thickness. Research limitations/implications: The conducted research have showed up that mechanical activation of the surface which cause increase of surface development results in greater thickness of oxide layer which is formed during heat treatment. Nevertheless, mechanical activation that results in decrease of surface development, such as polishing, results in decrease of oxide layer thickness. Practical implications: are possible using similar method for passivation titanium alloys for medical application. Originality/value: The paper presents the possibility of using mechanical preactivation of surface before heat treatment passivation.
EN
Purpose: To present a technology for hardfacing of metal-cutting tools by arc welding in vacuum. Design/methodology/approach: The experiments were carried out using an installation for arc welding in vacuum. Objects of research were metal cutting tools (lathe knives), made of high-speed steel HS6-5-2 on a base metal of structural steel C45. The structure, hardness and wear resistance after hardfacing and after a triple tempering at 560°C have been determined. The heat resistance of the obtained instruments has been examined. Findings: The microstructural analysis showed that the structure of the built-up layer consisted of martensite, retained austenite and carbides. This was confirmed by the values of measured hardness after welding which were about 63-64 HRC. The triple tempering led to an increase in hardness by 3-4 HRC. It was found that the built-up layers (cutting edges of tools) retain their hardness (HRC=63-65) up to a temperature of 615-620°C, which shows that the heat resistance of the build-up layers was similar to that of the hardened and tempered tools of the same steel. The built-up work-pieces (excluding heat treated) and the reference knife showed the same cutting qualities at cutting speeds in the range of 55 to 120 m/min. It has been found that triple tempering after hardfacing led to increased wear resistance and consequently the durability of the tool also increased due to the higher hardness. Practical implications: The practical application is related to the production of metalcutting tools. Originality/value: The proposed technological method allows to produce defects free built-up layers. The cutting properties of the built-up in vacuum layers are comparable to or better than those of new tools made of steel HS 6-5-2.
EN
The aim of the research was to analyse the influence of the initial heat treatment of polyacrylonitrile fibres on their sorption properties in relation to selected basic and disperse dyes, in order to select the dyeing variants most beneficial from the point of view of increasing the sorption capacity of commonly used dyes and improving the dyeing process. Research was carried out on a fibre produced on an industrial scale, using dyes of basic application importance, which differ in the diffusion properties of the molecules and the mechanism of binding with the fibre material. Thermal treatment of the fibre was carried out in various media (air, water, steam), with various variants of the temperature and its duration, i.e. under the conditions commonly used in fibre preprocessing processes and their "improvement". During the research, several different measurement methods were used to assess changes in the molecular and supramolecular structure of the fibre material: the infrared absorption spectroscopy method, the critical fibre dissolution measurement method, the densitometric method, and the interferential polarisation microscopy method. Fibre sorption changes resulting from the modification of the structure of the fibre under the influence of thermal treatment were analysed from the point of view of improving the efficiency of dye use and shortening the dyeing time based on commonly accepted values of the sorption index Cb and kinetic sorption index: t0.5 for basic dyes and t0.7 for disperse dyes.
PL
Celem badań było określenie wpływu wstępnej obróbki cieplnej badanych włókien poliakrylonitrylowych na ich właściwości sorpcyjne w stosunku do wybranych barwników zasadowych i zawiesinowych. Badania prowadzono na włóknach produkowanych w skali przemysłowej, używając barwników o dużym znaczeniu aplikacyjnych, różniących się właściwościami dyfuzyjnymi cząsteczek oraz mechanizmem wiązania z tworzywem włókna. Obróbkę termiczną prowadzono w różnych mediach (powietrze, woda, para wodna), w różnych wariantach temperatury i czasu jej trwania. W badaniach zastosowano metody pomiarowe, pozwalające oceniać zmiany parametrów budowy cząsteczkowej i nadcząsteczkowej tworzywa włókien: metodę spektroskopii absorpcyjnej w podczerwieni, metodę pomiaru krytycznego czasu rozpuszczania włókien, metodę densytometryczną oraz metodę mikroskopii interferencyjno-polaryzacyjnej. Zmiany zdolności sorpcyjnej włókien analizowano z punktu widzenia poprawy efektywności wykorzystania barwników i skrócenia czasu barwienia w oparciu o wartości wskaźnika sorpcji Cb oraz kinetycznych wskaźników sorpcji: t0,5 dla barwnika zasadowego i t0,7 dla barwników zawiesinowych.
PL
Wygrzewanie struktury jest jednym z pierwszych i podstawowych etapów zapewnienia wysokiej próżni w strukturze. W wyniku procesu obróbki termicznej następuje usunięcie z powierzchni i wnętrza materiałów stykających się z próżnią wszelkich gazów pozostałych podczas wcześniejszych wszystkich procesów technologicznych związanych z wykonaniem struktury [1]. Stosowana dotychczas technologia wygrzewania polegała na stopniowym podnoszeniu temperatury poszczególnych elementów struktury do poziomu 250°C przy zastosowaniu grzałek oraz przy jednoczesnej kontroli próżni. Ponieważ wygrzewanie jest procesem długotrwałym a podnoszenie temperatury powoduje gazowanie z materiałów stykających się z obszarem próżni, a więc wpływa na jej poziom, to konieczne jest sterowanie przebiegiem tego procesu poprzez bezpośredni nadzór wykwalifikowanego pracownika. Bazując na wieloletnim doświadczeniu zdobytym podczas wytwarzania kolejnych typów struktur w Narodowym Centrum Badań Jądrowych opracowano i wykonano stanowisko technologiczne, na którym procesy obróbki termicznej są realizowane w sposób automatyczny, powtarzalny, z zachowaniem pełnych informacji dotyczących ich przebiegu.
EN
The process of heating the accelerating structure is one of the first and basic stages of providing a high vacuum in the structure. As a result of heat treatment, all gases remaining as a result of all previous technological processes are removed from the surface and interior of materials in contact with vacuum. Traditionally used heating technology consisted of gradually increasing the temperature of individual structural elements to a level of 250° C by means of heaters and simultaneously checking the vacuum. Since heating is a long-term process, and raising the temperature causes gassing from materials in contact with the vacuum area, and thus affects its level, it is necessary to supervise the process by a qualified employee Based on many years of experience at the National Center for Nuclear Research, a technological stand has been developed and manufactured, on which heat treatment processes are carried out automatically, repeatably, with full information regarding their parameters.
EN
The use of chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill.) is highly relevant in Central Italy, as it is one of the most important and abundant broad-leaf species in this geographical area. The comprehension of the modifications induced by thermal treatment is of crucial importance to define the optimal temperature that could improve the mechanical and physical properties without affecting significantly the visual appearance. In this paper a careful and complete investigation on the effect of thermal treatment on chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill.) is reported. The aim of this study is addressed to understand the chemical-physical modifications occurred on the surface of wood samples, as a consequence of heating, in order to choose the most suitable temperature of treatment, also in the view of applying a possible coating. No such complete and homogeneous study on chestnut wood was found in the literature, so this paper contributes to add relevant scientific and technological information on it. Samples of chestnut were thermally treated 6 hours in a conventional oven at 140°C, 170°C and 200°C. Surface properties of heated wood, in comparison with untreated, were evaluated through the measurements of: roughness, colour, Vickers and Brinell hardness, surface profile and contact angle. The behaviour of earlywood and latewood was evaluated by studying separately the effect of heating on contact angle and surface micro- -hardness. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was also used to evaluate the chemical modification of wood components due to thermal treatment. Heating at 140°C has little influence on wood characteristics whereas 200°C has a great impact on colour, mechanical properties and hydrophobicity behaviour. The intermediate temperature, i.e. 170°C, seems to give the best results in term of improved mechanical properties and also aesthetical appearance of wood surfaces.
20
Content available remote Laser beam welding: research state of the art on performance and measures
EN
Laser beam welding (LBW) is a remarkable method for combining dissimilar materials, primarily when the unique amalgamation of metals is necessary. LBW, owing to attractive features, namely: low heat input, high heat concentration, high power density and low distortion is one of the more advantageous methods for, e.g., welding and repair of aircraft and turbine engine elements, constructed from superalloy. In this paper, the literature is scrutinized on diverse techniques that are associated with laser welding systems. The review is provided of several dozen research articles, involving an appropriate analysis. Initially, the analysis depicts various schemes that are contributed in different articles. Subsequently, the analysis also focuses on various particular features such as laser beam width and type of laser, and it also considers the heat treatment analysis that is contained in each of the articles reviewed. Furthermore, the present paper provides a detailed study regarding the performance measures and maximum performance achievements regarding each contribution accounted for. Finally, it indicates the various research issues, which can be useful for the researchers to carry out further research on laser welding systems. Of particular interest to the Readers of this journal is the fact of ample application of modelling, identification, data processing, image processing and AI tools in the respective surveyed studies.
first rewind previous Strona / 51 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.