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EN
This paper deals with the theoretical investigation of the effect of a magnetic field, rotation and magnetization on a ferromagnetic fluid under varying gravity field. To find the exact solution for a ferromagnetic fluid layer contained between two free boundaries, we have used a linear stability analysis and normal mode analysis method. For the case of stationary convection, a stable solute gradient has a stabilizing effect, while rotation has a stabilizing effect if 0λ > and destabilizing effect if 0λ < . Further, the magnetic field is discovered to have both a stabilizing and destabilizing effect for both 0λ > and 0λ < . It is likewise discovered that magnetization has a stabilizing effect for both 0λ > and 0λ < in the absence of the stable solute gradient. Graphs have been plotted by giving numerical values of various parameters. In the absence of rotation, magnetic field and stable solute gradient, the principle of exchange of stabilities is found to hold true for certain conditions.
EN
Stibnite mineral (mainly Sb2S3) has been employed for the synthesis of tetrahedrite Cu12Sb4S13 bulk material by spark plasma sintering. High purity Cu12Sb4S13 can be quickly obtained by two sintering procedures at temperatures from the range of 420 °C to 440 °C for 1 h. Appropriate reduction of Cu content (Cu12+xSb4S13, x ⩽ –0.05) or CuS content (Cu12−ySb4S13−y, y = 0.1 or 0.3) was beneficial to fabricate Cu12Sb4S13. The secondary resintering improved the purity of Cu12Sb4S13 material. The first-order magnetic phase transformation with magnetic hysteresis effect was confirmed by the behavior of susceptibility, heat capacity and resistivity. The magnetization showed a linear increase with increasing field (up to 7 T) and non-saturation behavior was observed. The impurities in stibnite mineral Sb2S3 had a weak influence on the transformation temperature but affected the low-temperature magnetization value (~0.15, close to natural tetrahedrite). Similar transformation was observed by the analysis of heat capacity. The properties such as electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity were also measured for Cu11.9Sb4S13 and Cu11.9Sb4S12.9. The maximum figure of merit ZT of Cu11.9Sb4S12.9 was 0.22 at 367 K.
3
Content available remote Structural and magnetic properties of gadolinium modified BiFeO3
EN
This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of the Bi0.94Gd0.06FeO3 sample obtained by solid state reaction method. The structural and morphological analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rietveld refinement analysis, confirming the obtaining of a rhombohedral crystalline phase and R3c space group (a = b = 5.577 Å and c = 13.847 Å), with an interconnected structure. Studies by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed trivalent oxidation states of Bi, Fe and Gd ions. The synthesized sample exhibited a non-linear M–H loop indicating a weak ferromagnetic behavior with a remnant magnetization of 6.34 emu∙mol−1 and a coercive field of 295 Oe. The obtained structural and magnetic characteristics make these materials of great interest as multiferroic components.
EN
The article describes the design of a system used for the improvement of the adhesion of locomotive wheels to rails; the principle of which is based on the electromagnetic feeding of the contact area with the bulk material that has magnetic properties and high hardness (iron scale Fe3O4 and magnetite FeO×Fe2O3). The experimental results of laboratory and bench tests confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system compared with the existing devices using quartz sand to improve the adhesion of wheels to rails are presented. It is concluded that the use of an electromagnetic system for improving the particle supply to the wheel/rail interface is promising.
EN
Co–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites with chemical composition Co0.5Zn0.5 Fe2O4 were synthesized by sol-gel and combustion methods. The sol-gel method was carried out in two ways, i.e. based on chelating agents PVA and PEG of high and low molecular weights. In auto-combustion method, the ratio of citric acid to metal nitrate was taken as 1:1, while in sol-gel method the chelating agents were taken based on oxygen balance. All the three samples were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis for the identification of phase formation and ferritization temperature. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy without any thermal treatment. The measured lattice constants and observed characteristic IR absorption bands of the three samples are in good agreement with the reported values showing the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of all samples were determined using high intensity peaks and W-H plot. Size-Strain Plot method was also implemented since two of the samples showed low crystallite sizes. The least crystallite size (5.5 nm) was observed for the sample CZVP while the highest (23.8 nm) was observed for the sample CZCA. Cation distribution was proposed based on calculated and observed intensity ratios of selected planes from X ray diffraction data. All structural parameters were presented using experimental lattice constant and oxygen positional parameter, and they correlated with FT-IR results. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature to obtain the characteristic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence, squareness ratio and Bohr magnetons. Among all, the sample synthesized via citric acid autocombustion method displayed a remarkably higher magnetization of 53 emu/g and the remaining two samples displayed low magnetization values owing to their smaller crystallite sizes.
EN
Measurements of Residual Magnetic Field RMF (the tangential component parallel to the load direction) were taken on the surface of P91 steel plate samples (X10CrMoVNb9-1) subjected to periodic pulsating tensile cyclic loads with the use of flux-gate and magnetoimpedance sensors, and preliminary measurement results are compiled and analyzed. The study investigates how the microstructure and load cycle parameters affect the RMF changes due to stress variations. Each combination of parameters: microstructure and load cycle corresponds to the characteristic variability pattern of magnetization and its maximum and minimum values.
EN
The structure and the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of the perovskite sample Sr0.9Y0.1CoO2.63 have been studied using different diffraction methods and magnetization and conductivity measurements. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction shows that the sample is structurally two-phase. The majority phase has a tetragonally distorted unit cell and is described by the space group I4/mmm. A very strongly broadened superstructure peak observed at small angles in X-ray diffraction patterns at temperatures below 400 K are explained by the existence of a monoclinic phase with large unit cell whose phase fraction is much smaller than that of the tetragonal phase, but which is dominant in the sample Sr0.8Y0.2CoO2.65. The spontaneous magnetization strongly increases with increasing the Y content up to 20% due to formation of the monoclinic phase. The magnetic structure is predominantly antiferromagnetic G-type with magnetic moments 1.5 μB in the layers of CoO6 octahedra and 2 μB in the anion-deficient CoO4+γ layers. The electrical conductivity of the sample Sr0.9Y0.1CoO2.63 has semiconducting character. The magnetoresistance reaches 58% for the field B = 14 T at 5 K and decreases strongly with the increasing temperature and Y content.
PL
Struktura i właściwości magnetyczne i magnetotransportowe perowskitu Sr0.9Y0.1CoO2.63 zostały zbadane przy użyciu różnych metod dyfrakcyjnych oraz pomiarów namagnesowania i przewodnictwa. Dyfrakcja rentgenowska mierzona na synchrotronie pokazuje, że próbka ma strukturę dwufazową. Główna faza ma tetragonalnie zniekształconą komórkę elementarną i jest opisana przez grupę przestrzenną I4 /mmm. Pik o bardzo mocno poszerzonej superstrukturze obserwowano pod niewielkimi kątami w dyfraktogramach rentgenowskich w temperaturach poniżej 400 K i jest związany z istnieniem fazy monoklinowej o dużej komórce elementarnej, której frakcja fazowa jest znacznie mniejsza niż faza tetragonalna, ale która jest dominujący w próbce Sr0.8Y0.2CoO2.65. Spontaniczne namagnesowanie silnie wzrasta wraz ze wzrostem zawartości Y do 20% z powodu tworzenia się fazy monoklinowej.
EN
Group of steel balls with different chemical composition, diameters and nitriding treatment parameters were investigated with using magnetic resonance and magnetization methods. Emerging nitrided regions consists of diffusion and surface layer of iron nitrides. The thickness of the individual layers depends on the type of steel and process parameters. Resonance signal shape and position were successfully described in the ferromagnetic resonance regime expected for dense iron magnetic system. Influence of the sample size, thermal treatment and carbon content on the absorption signal has been analyzed. Significant magnetic anisotropy has been revealed, as well as non-usual increasing of the magnetization as a function of temperature. It suggests, that overall antiferromagnetic ordering, destroyed by thermal movement, lead to increasing of the ferromagnetic region.
EN
The single crystals of La0.7Ba0.3(Mn1-xFex)O3 (x ≤ 0.28) and La0.7Ba0.3(Mn1-xAlx)O3 (x ≤ 0.15) compositions were grown using flux method and characterized by X-ray, electrical and magnetization measurements. The replacement of Mn ions by Al ions in the La0.7Ba0.3Mn1-xAlxO3 system leads to a decrease in the temperature to 311 K for the sample x=0.1. The Fe-doping above x=0.2 destroys a long range ferromagnetic order thus leading to a spin glass state. It is found that insulating spin glasses exhibit a large magnetoresistance in the paramagnetic region that is comparable to that for ferromagnetic crystals showing metal–insulator transition near TC.
PL
Monokryształy La0,7Ba0,3(Mn1-xFex)O3 (x ≤ 0,28) i La 0,7Ba 0,3 (Mn1-xAlx)O3 (x ≤ 0,15) wyhodowano metodą strumieniową i charakteryzowano poprzez badania rentgenowskie, pomiary elektryczne i magnetyzacyjne. Zastąpienie jonów Mn jonami Al w układzie La0,7Ba0,3Mn1-xAlxO3 prowadzi do obniżenia temperatury do 311 K dla próbki x = 0,1. Domieszka Fe powyżej x = 0,2 niszczy ferromagnetyczny porządek dalekiego zasięgu atomów Fe, prowadząc w ten sposób do spinowego stanu typu szkła. Stwierdzono, że izolacyjny spinowy stan typu szkła wykazuje dużą rezystancję magnetyczną w obszarze paramagnetycznym, która jest porównywalna z kryształami ferromagnetycznymi i wykazują przejście metal-izolator w pobliżu TC.
EN
In the present research work, crystallographic, optical, molecular, morphological and magnetic properties of Zn1-xCuxO (ZnCu) and Zn1-x-yCeyCuxO (ZnCeCu) nanoparticles have been investigated. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated ZnCu and ZnCeCu nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical sol-gel method and thoroughly studied using various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the wurtzite structure of the synthesized ZnCu and ZnCeCu particles. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the synthesized ZnCu and ZnCeCu particles are of spherical shape, having average sizes of 27 nm and 23 nm, respectively. The incorporation of Cu and Ce in the ZnO lattice has been confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO doped with Cu and co-doped Ce display two emission bands, predominant ultra-violet near-band edge emission at 409.9 nm (3 eV) and a weak green-yellow emission at 432.65 nm (2.27 eV). Room temperature magnetic study confirms the diamagnetic behavior of ZnCu and ferromagnetic behavior of ZnCeCu.
EN
The paper describes an efficient method of magnetization of permanent magnets, mounted on synchronous and BLDC motor rotors, which employs an air coil. A developed mathematical model of an electromagnetic circuit is presented, which was simulated in an ANSYS-MAXWELL environment. The performed simulations and experimental tests allowed optimization of the physical process of magnetization of permanent magnets mounted on an electrical machine rotor. The adopted method allowed achieving more favourable conditions of magnetization – less financial expenditure allowed to achieve the same results.
EN
Magnetic properties of 0.7(Fe2O3)/0.3(ZnO) nanocomposite synthesized by traditional wet chemistry method and containing only two phases: ZnO (nonmagnetic) and Zn Fe2O4 (magnetic, with nanocrystallites of average size 12 nm, but forming large agglomerates, up to 100 nm in size) were studied by DC magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The investigated nanocomposite was either in a form of nanopowder or dispersed at concentration of 0.1 wt.% in poly(ethylene naphthalate-block-tetramethylene oxide) PTMO-b-PEN polymer matrix. Similarities and differences in magnetic behavior of these two samples revealed by the study of static magnetization and FMR spectra have been discussed relative to different morphologies and the associated variation of interparticle interactions. Moreover, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability of the nanocomposite and the neat polymer have been studied by thermogravimetric method.
EN
Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of La0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Me0.2O3 (Me = Cr, Fe) stoichiometric cobaltites has been investigated in magnetic fields up to 14 T. It is shown that doping with Fe ions changes spontaneous magnetization only slightly herewith the Curie point significantly decreases. The chromium doping leads to dramatic decrease of magnetization and the Curie point and a strong increase in magnetoresistance at low temperature. The obtained results indicate that the magnetic interactions between Co and Fe are positive whereas those between Co and Cr ions are negative. Enhancement of magnetoresistance is attributed to the magnetic field induced transition from antiferromagnetic order to ferromagnetic one.
PL
Właściwości magnetyczne i magnetotransportowe stoichiometrycznych kobaltytów zbadano w polach magnetycznych do 14T. Ustalono, że domieszkowanie przez jony Fe zmienia namagnesowanie spontaniczne bardzo słabo w tym czasie jak punkt Curie obniża się znacząco. Domieszkowanie przez atomy chromu powoduje dramatyczne zmniejszenie namagnesowania i obniżenie punktu Curie i mocny wzrost magneto rezystancji w niskich temperaturach. Otrzymane rezultaty wskazują oddziaływanie magnetyczne pomiędzy Co i Fe jest pozytywne w tym czasie jak pomiędzy Co a Cr jest negatywne. Wzmocnienie magnetorezystancji przypisano do pola magnetycznego indukowanego przejściem z antyferromagnetycznego układu do ferromagnetycznego.
EN
In this paper the influence of magnetization pattern on the magnetic field features and characteristics in a surface mounted permanent magnet motor is analysed. A comparative analysis of performance characteristics for a conventional surface PM motor with Halbach array topologies is presented. The study is based on FEM field computations that enable the visibility of the magnetic properties and characteristics. The emphasis is put on electromagnetic field distribution, magnetic flux per pole profile and components of the flux density in the air gap.
PL
W artykule przeprowadzono analizę wpływu sposobu magnetyzacji na właściwości pola magnetycznego I charakterystyki w silniku z powierzchniowym magnesem trwałym. Przedstawiona została analiza porównawcza charakterystyki działania dla konwencjonalnego silnika z powierzchniowym magnesem trwałym w układzie Halbacha. Badania zostały oparte na metodzie elementów skończonych, która umożliwia „widzenie” właściwości magnetycznych i charakterystyk. Nacisk położono na rozkład pola elektromagnetycznego, strumień magnetyczny w profilu i składowe indukcji magnetycznej w szczelinie powietrznej.
EN
This paper presents the results of the study on structure and magnetic properties of the perovskite-type (BiFeO3)x-(BaTiO3)1-x solid solutions. The samples differing in the chemical composition (x = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.7) were produced according to the conventional solid-state sintering method from the mixture of powders. Moreover, three different variants of the fabrication process differing in the temperatures and soaking time were applied. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were collected and compared for the set of the investigated materials. The structural transformation from rhombohedral to cubic symmetry was observed for the samples with x = 0.7. With increasing of BaTiO3 concentration Mössbauer spectra become broadened refl ecting various confi gurations of atoms around 57Fe probes. Moreover, gradual decreasing of the average hyperfi ne magnetic fi eld and macroscopic magnetization were observed with x decreasing.
EN
Low-temperature properties of a crystal containing type I superconducting inclusions of two different materials have been studied. In the approximation assuming that the inclusions size is much smaller than the coherence length/penetration depth of the magnetic field, the theory of magnetoresistance of a crystal containing spherical superconducting inclusions of two different materials has been developed, and magnetization of crystals has been calculated. The obtained results can be used for correct explanation of the low temperature conductivity in binary and more complex semiconductors, in which precipitation of the superconducting phase is possible during the technological processing or under external impact.
PL
Przedstawiono stratność typowych blach prądnicowych i jej zależność od częstotliwości przemagnesowania oraz od maksymalnej wartości indukcji występującej w czasie procesu magnesowania.
EN
The paper presents lossiness of typical generator sheets and its dependence on magnetization frequency and maximum value of induction that occurs during magnetization process.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań kompozytów wykonanych na bazie stopu amorficznego o składzie chemicznym Fe60Co10Y8Zr1B20 i żywicy epoksydowej. Badane próbki miały kształt walców o takich samych wymiarach i takiej samej zawartości Epidianu 100. Amorficzny stop objętościowy został niskoenergetycznie rozkruszony i rozdzielony na trzy frakcje: 20 - 50 μm, 50 - 100 μm i 100 - 200 μm a następnie zespolony przy użyciu Epidianu 100. W wyniku przeprowadzonych badań mikrostruktury stwierdzono, że kompozyt na bazie metalicznego stopu jest amorficzny. Stwierdzono również, że rozwinięcie powierzchni dla kompozytu złożonego z metalicznych drobin o frakcji 20 - 50 μm było najmniejsze. Mikrotwardość badanych próbek, niezależnie od wielkości metalicznych drobin była porównywalna. Na podstawie analizy badań magnetyzacji w funkcji natężenia pola magnetycznego wykazano, że wartość pola koercji dla badanych kompozytów rośnie wraz z rozkładem wielkości cząstek metalicznych. Pokazano również, że wielkość frakcji ma znikomy wpływ na wartość magnetyzacji nasycenia.
EN
The paper presents the studies of composites, made from amorphous alloy particles with the chemical composition of Fe60Co10Y8Zr1B20 and epoxy resin. The investigated samples had cylindrical shapes of the same size and contained the same weight content of Epidian 100. The volumetric amorphous alloy was low energy-grinded and separated into three fractions: 20 - 50 μm, 50 - 100 μm and 100 - 200 μm. According to the microstructure studies, it was found that the metal-based alloy is amorphous. It was also found, that the development of the surface of the composite, made up of particles of metallic fraction of 20 - 50 microns, was the lowest. The microhardness of the studied samples, regardless of the size of the metallic particles, was comparable. Based on the analysis of the studies of magnetization as a function of magnetic field strength it was shown that the coercivity field value for the analyzed composites increases with increasing fractions of the metal particles. It was also shown that the fraction size has little effect on the value of the saturation magnetization.
19
Content available remote Matematyczny model pętli histerezy magnetycznej
PL
W artykule został zaprezentowany matematyczny model pętli histerezy magnetycznej. Zostały wyprowadzone równania matematyczne opisujące pętlę, wykorzystujące funkcje parametryczne oraz funkcje B = f(H). Uzyskane wyniki zilustrowano przykładami, w tym również aproksymacją charakterystyki magnesowania badanej próbki rzeczywistej.
EN
In this article the mathematical model of B-H loop has been presented. The formulae describing the B-H loop using the parametric functions and functions B = f(H) have been carried out. Obtained results have been illustrated by an examples including the approximation of B-H loop of real material sample.
EN
In this paper the results of the structural and magnetic investigation of Fe61Co10Y8Zr1B20 alloy after solidification and isothermal annealing was presented. The isothermical annealing was carried out at 700 K for 1 h and 770 K for 3.5 h. For the structural investigation was performed by X-ray diffractometer equipped with a copper lamp. The results of (XRD) measurements showed the material in the state after the solidification and heat treatment is amorphous. Static hysteresis loops and initial magnetization curve was measured using vibrating magnetometer (VSM). The quality and quantity of structural defects in the sample after heat treatment was determined by indirect method using analyze the initial magnetization curve in accordance with the theory of Kronmüllera. These studies have shown that the annealing process has big influence to change significantly quantity of defects in amorphous structure as a result, there are changes of magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization and field μ0Ms coercivity Hc.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań strukturalnych i magnetycznych stopu Fe61Co10Y8Zr1B20 w stanie po zestaleniu oraz po izotermicznym wygrzewaniu w temperaturze 700 K przez 1h i 770 K przez 3,5 h. Badania struktury wykonano przy użyciu dyfraktometru rentgenowskiego wyposażonego w lampę miedzianą. Wynik pomiarów (XRD) wykazał, że material w stanie po zestaleniu i obróbce termicznej jest amorficzny. Statyczne pętle histerezy i krzywą pierwotnego namagnesowania zmierzono za pomocą magnetometru wibracyjnego (VSM). Analizując krzywą pierwotnego namagnesowania i wykorzystując pośrednią metodę wyznaczania defektów strukturalnych zgodnie z teorią H. Kronmüllera wyznaczono jakość i ilość tych defektów w próbce w stanie po zestaleniu i po izotermicznym wygrzewaniu. Badania te wykazały że proces wygrzewania istotnie wypływa na zmiany zdefektowania struktury amorficznej w wyniku czego zachodzą zmiany parametrów magnetycznych takich jak magnetyzacja nasycenia μ0Ms i pole koercji Hc.
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