Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 60

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 3 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  ATM
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 3 next fast forward last
EN
European Commision adopted in July new regulations about laying down airspace usage requirements and operating procedures concerning performance based navigation. It is next step in realization of the the global program PBN ICAO. At the 36th General Assembly of ICAO held in 2007, the Republic of Poland agreed to ICAO resolution A36-23 which urges all States to implement PBN. In future aviation concepts the use of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) is considered to be a major Air Traffic Management (ATM) concept element. ICAO has drafted standards and implementation guidance for PBN in the ICAO Doc 9613 “PBN Manual”. The Based Performance Navigation Concept represents and shift from sensor-based to performance based navigation connected with criteria for navigation: accuracy, integrity, availability, continuity and functionality depending on the phase of the flight. Through PBN and changes in the communication, surveillance and ATM domain, many advanced navigation applications are possible to improve airspace efficiency, improve airport sustainability, reduce the environmental impact of air transport in terms of noise and emission, increase safety and improve flight efficiency.
EN
Nowadays, air transport is in an intense development phase. In order to optimize air communication and make it even more economical and environmentally friendly, attempts are made to undertake such activities as, e.g., SESAR project, which aims to develop and implement a modern ATM system. One of the parts of this project is the research on minimizing fuel consumption and emissions of pollutants in the engine exhausts. In the paper there is therefore presented the methodology for determining emission of those pollutants for the longest stage of the flight - the cruise phase. First, the value of the thrust required for the flight of an exemplary aircraft was deter-mined, and then the values of the engines trust and specific fuel consumption were computed. Additionally, it was necessary to determine the Emission Indexes (EI) of CO, NOx, HC and CO2 for the cruise phase, based on known such indexes for the LTO. Total emissions of these pollutants for the mission adopted to conduct research - a 1000 km long cruise - were determined. These emissions were computed for the exemplary aircraft per one kilometre, as well as per one hour of flight for various cruising altitudes and flight speeds.
EN
Among the most important problems currently faced by air transport, we can distinguish the adverse impact of aircrafts on the natural environment, as well as the rising costs of transport. One of the possibilities to improve this situation is better adjustment of aircraft characteristics to the performed transport tasks, taking into account all the requirements and limitations that exist in air traffic and the adverse impact of air transport on the natural environment. It is reflected in the research tasks conducted under the SESAR program. The aspiration to minimize the adverse impact of aircrafts on the environment is executed, among others, through determining such trajectories that are characterized by minimal fuel consumption or minimal emission of harmful substances in the engines exhausts. These goals are corresponding with the research conducted and described in the paper. The main aim of the work was to analyse the impact of wind speed and direction on the emission of harmful substances of a jet aircraft performing a flight on a given route. For research purposes, the route between two Polish cities Gdansk and Rzeszow was considered. The distance between the two airports was divided into sections for which wind direction and strength were determined (read from the windy.com website). Next, the aircraft performance was determined and the fuel consumption and the amount of harmful compounds (CO2, NOx, CO and HC), emitted in the engines exhausts were determined for the route from Gdansk to Rzeszow (under favourable wind conditions) and on the return route - from Rzeszow to Gdansk (under unfavourable wind conditions). For comparative purposes, emission of these substances for windless conditions was also determined. The results are presented in tables and depicted in the graph, as well as discussed in the conclusions of the paper.
EN
The dynamic development of the air transport market has led to a significant increase in air traffic in a highly fragmented and relatively small European airspace. This situation could, in the near future, render the currently functioning European air traffic management (ATM) system obsolete and incapable of providing the high safety standards demanded by the ICAO and Eurocontrol. Recognizing the urgency in finding a solution to this problem, the EU gas launched the Single European Sky (SES) initiative, along with its technological pillar, the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) programme, which seeks to enhance air traffic safety, support the sustainable development of the air transport system and improve the overall performance of ATM and air navigation services, so that they meet the requirements of all airspace users. This paper presents a selection of the SESAR programme’s key technological solutions, such as approaches based on area navigation (RNAV)/Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and the “remote tower” concept, which have been developed to maximize the safety and efficiency of the new European ATM system.
5
Content available remote Infrastruktura krytyczna portu lotniczego zdeterminowana implementacją PBN ICAO
PL
Lotnicza transformacja implikuje zmiany zdeterminowane rezolucją A-37 ICAO, nakazującą globalne i krajowe wprowadzenie PBN (Performance Based Navigation). Konsolidując wysiłki ekonomiczno - finansowe kraje europejskie realizują program SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research) stanowiący techniczne i technologiczne wsparcie systemu zarządzania ruchem lotniczym (ATM) wdrażanego w ramach Jednolitej Europejskiej Przestrzeni Powietrznej. W 2020 roku w wyniku realizacji tego programu, powinno nastąpić trzykrotne zwiększenia przepustowość ATM przy jednoczesnej poprawie wskaźników bezpieczeństwa, 10% redukcja negatywnego wpływu lotnictwa na środowisko naturalne, 50% redukcja kosztów ATM. Realizowana ostatnia faza programu SESAR jest zdefiniowana w przepisach rozporządzenia wykonawczego Komisji (EU) Nr 409/2013. Podkreślić należy, że transformacja lotnicza determinuje działania w infrastrukturze krytycznej portu lotniczego, w celu osiągnięcia wymaganego w programie SESAR poziomu. Podczas implementacji nowych technik i technologii, wprowadzania zmian organizacyjnych, strukturalnych wymagane jest identyfikowanie i szacowania możliwości wystąpienia ryzyka, w celu wyeliminowania lub złagodzenia skutków jego zagrożenia. Toteż w celu zapewnienia odpowiedniego poziom bezpieczeństwa wykonuje się „Safety case”.
EN
The aviation transformation is entailing determined changes with resolution A-37 ICAO, ordering the global and domestic PBN introduction (Performance Based navigation). Consolidating efforts ekonomiczno financial European countries are carrying - out SESAR program (European Sky Singles Research ATM) constituting technical and technological backing up of the system the management with the air traffic (ATM) implemented in frames of the Uniform European airspace. In 2020 as a result of the completion of this program, should take place triple of increasing bandwidth ATM at the simultaneous improvement in indicators of the safety, 10% reduction in the negative influence of aviation on the natural environment, 50% reduction in costs Atm. the last phase carried out of the SESAR program is defined in provisions of the executive regulation of the Committee (EU) No. 409 / 2013. To underline he belongs, that the air transformation is determining action in the critical infrastructure of the airport, in order to reach the level required in the SESAR program. During the implementation of new techniques and the technology, of implementing organizational, structural changes identifying is required and of estimating the possibility of the appearance of the risk, in the destination of eliminating or cushioning effects of his threat. Hence to the purpose of the right assurance the level of the safety is being carried out “Safety case”.
PL
Artykuł omawia trendy we współczesnych systemach ATM na przykładzie rozwiązań wdrażanych w systemie PEGASUS_21. System PEGASUS_21 wykorzystuje mechanizm przewidywania trajektorii, który pozwala wykorzystać go w szerszym zakresie niż tylko dozorowanie radarowe. Nowe funkcje obejmują m.in.: wyznaczanie sekwencji sektorów i selektywną prezentację list sektorowych, elektroniczną koordynację, średnioterminowe przewidywanie konfliktów, przewidywanie kolizyjności z dynamicznie aktywowanymi elementami przestrzeni, ocenę obciążenia sektorów. Równolegle wdrażane są również nowe funkcje niezależne od trajektorii, takie jak wdrożenie scentralizowanego systemu przydziału kodów transponderów CCAMS, oraz projekt uaktualnienia planu lotu FPL 2012.
EN
This paper describes new trends in ATM systems, illustrated by solutions developed in PEGASUS_21. PEGASUS_21 heavily relies on trajectory prediction algorithms, allowing to extend its features far beyond simple surveillance. New features include: sector sequence designation and selective displaying of sector lists, silent coordination, medium term collision detection, predicting collisions with dynamic airspace structures, dynamic assessment of future sectors load. At the same time other features are being implemented, not depending on trajectory prediction – such as implementation of centralized codes assignment project – CCAMS, or updating of flight plan form contents - FPL 2012.
PL
Krótko o działaniach dla zmniejszania zagrożeń wynikających z podatności sygnałów SOS na zakłócenia. Systemy wspomagania GNSS - obszarowe WAAS, EGNOS oraz lokalne naziemne GBAS i pokładowe ABAS. Stosowane w programie UniTaS IV metody - w GBAS anten z szybko sterowaną wiązką, zmniejszających wpływ zakłóceń na sygnały SOS oraz w ABAS - systemu nawigacji inercjalnej wykorzystującej czujniki mikroelektromechaniczne dla podtrzymania ciągłości informacji o pozycji samolotu, mimo przejściowych przerw w dostępności SOS. Parę słów o doskonałym narzędziu - aviationGATE opracowanym w ramach UniTaS dla testowania w realnej scenerii nowo opracowywanych naziemnych i pokładowych systemów wspomagania oraz poprawy efektywności nawigacji satelitarnej przy wprowadzaniu satelitów nowej generacji, jeszcze przed skompletowaniem konstelacji tych satelitów. Zwięzłe omówienie tendencji zmian środków technicznych i systemów ATM. Zastępowanie w nawigacji obszarowej stacji radiolokacyjnych oraz radiolatarni NDB systemem ADS-B i WAM, zaś w operacjach zbliżania - nawigacją satelitarną i systemami MLT oraz lądowania - stopniowym wprowadzaniu systemów GLS. Parę słów o programie SESAR, o działalności jednostek badawczych i firm światowych przodujących w postępie ATM oraz o modernizacji polskiej infrastruktury ATM i potencjalnych możliwościach ponownego włączenia się polskiej elektroniki w działalność na rzecz modernizacji ATM.
EN
The paper continues with a brief account of efforts aimed at minimizing hazards caused by the vulnerability of SOS signals to interference. Looking specifically at GNSS augmentation systems - wide-area (WAAS, EGNOS), ground-based (GBAS), as well as aircraft-based (ABAS) - those methods introduced by the UniTas IV program are discussed: namely, the use of adaptive beamsteering antennae for GBAS (aimed at attenuating signal interference) and microelectromechanical inertial navigation sensors for ABAS (providing constant positional information of aircraft despite intermittent signal failure). Next, the paper explores the excellent aviationGATE tool (another UniTas IV development), which allows both testing of newly-elaborated ground and onboard augmentation systems in realistic scenarios, as well as improvement to satellitte navigation effectiveness under conditions of next-generation satellite replacement (even prior to constellation completion). This is followed by an overview of the changing trends in technical means and systems related to ATM: replacement of radars and NDB beacons in area navigation with the ADS-B and WAM systems, and, in approach manoeuvres with satellite navigation and MLT, the gradual introduction of GLS landing systems. The section concludes with a look at the SESAR program, the role of research institutes and global manufacturers in progress of ATM, and, finally, the modernization of Polish ATM infrastructure and the potential for a renewed contribution of Polish electronics in the continuing development of ATM.
8
Content available remote Transformacja zarządzania europejską przestrzenią powietrzną
EN
Started in the mid-1990s and still proceeding process of the European airspace management optimization covers a complex of legislative and institutionaltechnical actions, which are initiated mainly by the ECAC, EU and Eurocontrol, and carried out by the Member States of these organizations. The effect of the actions taken so far have resulted in an increasingly effective and efficient air traffic management system, which provides increased safety and efficiency of flights, decreases delays in air traffic and contributes to the overall improvement of the air carriers functioning and the economy of the EU. Successful completion of the modernization objectives covered by the SES and SESAR programmes will make the European ATM system able to meet the future needs of airspace users.
9
Content available remote Harmonizacja operacyjnego ruchu lotniczego w Europie
EN
Provisions concerning operational air traffic (OAT) have not been yet established at national level only. In the context of the objectives of the SES programme, the lack of common rules limits the freedom and flexibility of cross-border military aviation activities of the EU/NATO Member States, both within the functional airspace blocks (FABs), and throughout European airspace. To facilitate the military aviation exercise international flights, according to the instrument flights rules (OAT-IFR), Eurocontrol has developed harmonised flight rules in controlled airspace of ECAC. The provisions of EUROAT are not only guidance for crews of military aircraft, but also enable air traffic controllers to predict actions taken by the pilots. The specificity of these provisions is that they only determine certain minimum standards, whilst leaving Member States the ability of introducing the necessary derogations or additions for better adaptation to the local organization of air traffic services. The effect of the implementation of EUROAT provisions, planned for the end of 2011, will increase safety and efficiency of military aviation operations in the space available for air navigation, without negative impact on the constantly increasing traffic of civilian aircraft.
10
Content available remote Czynnik ludzki a automatyzacja w zarządzaniu ruchem lotniczym
EN
The purpose of the article is to present selected aspects of human factors and automation in the management of air traffic and its impact on the level of safety of flight operations. In the first part of this paper the author examines various definitions and interpretations of the human factor in the general sense and in aviation and air traffic management. Then the role and functions of the human in ATM system and the characteristics of the selected elements of human factors in aviation operations are presented. In particular, these elements are discussed that have a direct impact on the safety of flights: required qualifications of air traffic controllers, human errors, safety culture, situational awareness, teamwork, and the effects of automation. The final part includes key issues of integration of the human factor in the ATM system life cycle. In summary, the author points out that modernization and development of ATM systems result in evolutionary changes to the relationship between teams of human and technical equipment, which are currently two basic and necessary components of these systems.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wybrane problemy w zakresie kształtowania ruchu lotniczego w przestrzeni powietrznej. Istotą zarządzania przestrzenią powietrzną jest systemowe podejście do ruchu lotniczego, taboru lotniczego, portów lotniczych oraz naziemnych i pokładowych urządzeń i systemów nawigacyjnych wraz z odpowiednią organizacją obszarów kontrolowanych lotnisk. Rozwój infrastruktury transportu lotniczego staje się obecnie priorytetem wzrostu gospodarczego w Europie. Rozwój ten zależy również od efektywnego prowadzenia wielkich programów takich jak GALILEO (radionawigacja satelitarna) czy ITER (synteza jądrowa). Dlatego też istnieje konieczność wprowadzenia zmian uwzględniających nowe podejście do zarządzania europejską przestrzenią powietrznią.
EN
This paper presents selected problems in the formation of air traffic in the ATM. The essence of ATM is a systematic approach to air traffic, aircraft fleet, airports and ground and airborne equipment and navigation systems, along with the appropriate organization of areas controlled airports. The development of air transport infrastructure is a priority for economic growth in Europe. This development also depends on the efficient operation of major programs such as GALILEO (satellite radionavigation) or ITER (nuclear fusion). Therefore, there is a need for changes to take account of new approaches to governance in the European air space.
EN
The aim of the article is to explain the nature of Functional Airspace Blocks (FABs), to present the process of their creation in Europe and to provide a brief presentation of ATM various military aspects. The establishment of (FABs) is one of the main means of Single European Sky (SES) regulations to improve European air traffic management (ATM) performance. In this paper the author evaluates the FAB concept proposed in the SES I and SES II legislative packages. The SES I regulation stated that airspace should be reconfigured on the operational basis regardless of existing boundaries. However, the integration of service provision within FABs has not delivered the expected results so far. The modified SES II legislation reinforces the FAB concept, the objective of which is to optimize and integrate the provision of air navigation services (ANS) and related ancillary functions. The article discusses also the FAB initiatives which were declared by EU Member States to the European Commission in 2008. All FABs should be in line with the SES legislative requirements and SESAR programme to achieve operational improvements for European airspace use. Nevertheless, in their progress there are significant differences in scope of activity, timescale and arrangements for implementation. Finally, the author analyses military users’ requirements towards the air traffic management functions at FAB level.
13
Content available remote System zarządzania ruchem lotniczym wobec wymagań lotnictwa wojskowego
EN
Lessons learned from the conflicts in the end of 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries underline that flexibility, impetus and momentum of air operations create new environment within command and control (C2), including air traffic management (ATM). The ATM system along with C2 system influence the efficiency and safety of air operations. The aim of the article is to present military aspects of the air traffic management process and to determine the military aviation requirements, which refer to A TM system comprising ongoing changes to Polish airspace. Firstly, the author analyses air traffic management in reference to system approach. Secondly, he points out all military services aviation demands, in detail, in the scope of the airspace management (ASM), air traffic services (ATS) as well as aeronautical information service (AIS). Next, he focuses on the military aspects of the European ATM system’s modernization process. Finally, general implications and conclusions concerning the Polish airspace utilisation by military aviation are presented.
EN
We compare thc number of lost cells in switches managed by the PushOut mechanism and scheduled under an arbitrary service policy, by applying the comparison of stochastic processes in the strong stochastic ordering sense. New telecommunication networks will provide Quality of Service differentiation. This implies buffer management mechanisms such as the PushOut mechanism to warrant quality for loss-sensitive sessions. Using sample-path arguments, we present the relationships between the speed of scheduling policies and the number of lost cells under PushOut mechanism.
EN
The paper presents the methodology used for detecting the signatures of natural selection at the molecular level from single nucleotide polymorphism data. The results obtained from widely used approach, based on statistical testing departures from neutral evolution model, can be obscured by the presence of alternative hypotheses generating the similar to natural selection results of the tests. These hypotheses include population growth and geographic substructure. Especially for human population these alternatives are of non-negligible importance. In the paper we show how to deal with this problem, both by the analysis of a battery of statistical tests giving indication about the age of the predominant mutations, and by application of non conventional null hypotheses that assume different population scenarios. Since the critical values of the tests are known only for panmicting, constant size population, the second approach demands the intensive computer simulations of coalescence process to obtain analogous critical values for different scenarios used as a null. The methodology with the problem of detecting signatures of natural selection in four genes implicated in human familial cancers has been illustrated.
16
Content available remote Recovery using precalculated paths based routing in ATM networks
EN
The ATM technology serves as basis for many communication networks. The generally applied PNNI protocol enables to use sophisticated traffic engineering techniques. A progressive approach is such a routing strategy that applies precalculated paths in order minimize the reaction time for a new call request. As an advanced technique, more precalculated paths can be stored for each destination in every swith, which increase the possibility of the successful cal setup. Generally , the well-known K shortest path algorithm is used for this purpose that calculates the K cheapest paths based on an appropriate cost function. Although this method performs well in normal operation, it does not ensure that there is a bypass path among the stored ones when a network element fails along the currently used path. In this study we proposed a new path calculation concept based on algorithm of Edmonds and Karp, aiming at reducing the restoration time in case of failure. We investigate the performance of the novel method through simulations.
PL
Technologia ATM służy jako podstawa wielu sieci komunikacyjnych. Stosowany w niej najczęściej protokół PNNI pozwala na wykorzystanie złożonych technik inżynierii ruchu. Coraz częściej stosuje się strategię wyboru drogi wykorzystującą wcześniejsze wyliczanie ścieżek, w celu zmniejszenia czasu odpowiedzi na żądanie nawiązania nowego połączenia. Rozwój techniki pozwala na zapamiętywanie w każdym węźle coraz większej liczby takich obliczonych uprzednio ścieżek, co zwiększa prawdopodobieństwo ich wykorzystania. Do ich obliczenia stosuje się dobrze znany algorytm K najkrótszych ścieżek, wykorzystujący założoną funkcję kosztów. Opisane podejście działa dobrze przy normalnej pracy sieci, nie pozwala jednak znaleźć nowych, uzupełniających ścieżek dla przełączenia ruchu, gdy zawodzi jeden z elementów aktualnie wykorzystywanej ścieżki. Niniejszy artykuł proponuje nową metodę obliczania ścieżek, opartą na algorytmie Edmondsa i Karpa, pozwalającą na zmniejszenie czasu nawiązywania nowego połączenia po upadku pracującej ścieżki. Przydatność metody jest badana za pomocą modeli symulacyjnych.
17
Content available remote Mechanizmy kontroli nasilenia ruchu a jakość usług w sieciach TCP/IP/ATM
PL
W sieciach TCP/IP/ATM stosowane są algorytmy kontroli ruchu na poziomach poszczególnych protokołów, które powinny pozwalać na optymalne wykorzystanie zasobów sieci, jak i zapewnienie wymaganych dla wszystkich użytkowników kategorii usług oraz zabezpieczenie się przed niekontrolowanym przeciążeniem ruchu w sieci. Algorytmy te mogą jednak interefować ze sobą, co może dawać nie zawsze korzystny ich wpływ na wydajność sieci.
EN
Traffic management is a key problem in designing high speed networks. The goal of traffic management is to control network congestion, efficiently utilize network resources and deliver quality of services to users, especially in TCP/IP/ATM networks. TCP and ATM implements a variety of flow and congestion control mechanisms, which can effect mutually interfere
PL
Przedstawiono wkład firmy Alcatel w modernizację przemysłu telekomunikacyjnego w Polsce. Zaprezentowano osiągnięcia w budowie systemów komutacyjnych, transmisyjnych, dostępowych, radiowych i innych. Bez tak znaczącego udziału Alcatela w kształtowaniu wizerunku telekomunikacji w Polsce - jej rozwój z pewnością nie byłby tak znaczący i dynamiczny.
EN
The article describes Alcatel's input in the modernisation process of the telecommunication industry in Poland. It has been done from the historical point of view. There have been presented the achievements in switching, transmission, access and radio systems deployment. The shape of Polish telecommunication would not have been so significant and dynamic without such a huge input of Alcatel company.
PL
Przedstawiono rys historyczny rozwoju przewodowych technik transmisji sygnałów. Omówiono media transmisyjne: kable symetryczne i współosiowe o przewodach miedzianych oraz kable optotelekomunikacyjne ze światłowodami. Scharakteryzowano techniki transmisyjne: wielokrotne systemy analogowe FDM oraz systemy cyfrowe PCM, PDH i SDH oraz ATM. Omówiono zastosowanie cyfrowych technik transmisji w sieciach dostępowych, metropolitalnych oraz szkieletowych. Podkreślono rolę transmisji światłowodowej w sieciach WDM i DWDM.
EN
Historical outline of development of wired signal transmission techniques is presented. Following transmission media are discussed: symmetric cables, coaxial cables with cooper wires and optotelecommunication cables with optic fibers. Fallowing transmission techniques are also characterized: multiple analog systems FDM, digital systems PCM, PDH, SDH and ATM. Application of digital transmission techniques in access, metropolitan and backbone networks are discussed. The role of fiberoptic transmission in WDM and DWDM networks is stressed.
PL
Scharakteryzowano problemy współpracy technik ISDN i ATM. Wskazano na potrzebę zapewnienia efektywnej współpracy tych technik w szerokopasmowym systemie łączności wojsk lądowych SZ RP. Dokonano analizy standardów ITU-T oraz ATM Forum opisujących powyższą współpracę. Przedstawiono również opis trzech dostępnych komercyjnych rozwiązań technicznych tego problemu, które zostały praktycznie przetestowane w laboratorium WIŁ.
first rewind previous Strona / 3 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.