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EN
Floods are a great concern for people and infrastructure, and this is an is‑sue which has increased in several regions around the globe in recent years. This study aims to evaluate flood risk areas and create a flood risk map using in‑tegrated remote sensing data and a geographic information system (GIS) in the Wasit governorate – eastern Iraq. Specifically, GIS‑based multi‑criteria analy‑sis (MCA) was used to map flood hazard areas using a four‑criteria layer which is as follows: flow accumulation, slope, rainfall, and elevation. These four layers are standardized and combined using the overlay approach in ArcGIS software and a final map was produced. The study area was divided into five zones based on the results map, namely: very low, low, medium, high, and very high, according to the flood risk area. The resulting map indicates that over 60% of the study area is likely to experience a high and very high level of propensity of flooding. This study could be useful for government planners and decision‑makers to predict potential flooding areas and enhance flood management plans.
EN
This study used a spatial distribution analysis to identify the risky areas in the Çanakkale Strait – one of the narrowest waterways with high marine traffic – in terms of ship accidents. To accomplish this, a point density analysis, as part of the geographic information systems (GIS) methodology, was used to create accident density distributions and thematic maps. A total of 162 marine accidents in the Çanakkale Strait between 2007 and 2018 were taken into account. Detailed technical data of accidents were obtained from accident reports provided by the Turkish Maritime Search and Rescue Coordination Center (TMSRCC). The results showed that, among the 162 cases, bulk carriers have the highest accident rate, and most accidents at the Nara Turn were caused by engine failure. In addition, accidents due to navigational failure occurred in every region of the strait. Remarkably, factors directly and indirectly related to human error were still the determining factors in marine accidents. As a result, the risk of marine accidents was higher in the narrow portions of the waterway, and navigation was difficult, especially in areas such as the Nara Turn Point. In future research, it is recommended to consider a wider period of activities using different methods to provide more comprehensive results.
EN
This study proposes a simple method for obtaining a celestial fix, developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) under the framework of an ECDIS system. The underlying principle is dependent on the most fundamental theory in celestial navigation; the circle of position (COP) of the celestial bodies is plotted to find the fix. Through the spatial data processing, analysis, and visualization capabilities available in GIS, a celestial fix may be obtained directly from plotting. This eliminates the limitations associated with finding the fix manually using a paper map, but also avoids the cumbersome work and inaccuracy of the traditional Intercept Method (IM) or the complicated, and often obscured, computation involved in numerical methods. The proposed method is simple and accurate, and it applies to problems involving two or more celestial bodies and high-altitude observations. It provides a reference for the development of a celestial positioning module in an ECDIS system, and could also be integrated into an educational program on electronic celestial navigation.
PL
Kwestia zapewnienia odpowiedniego pokrycia sygnałem multipleksu jest kluczowym aspektem zarówno dla nadawców publicznych jak i prywatnych, a w szczególności lokalnych stacji zainteresowanych procesem cyfryzacji. W pracy przedstawiono geoinformatyczne narzędzie, umożliwiające badanie zasięgu lokalnych stacji nadawczych radiofonii cyfrowej DAB+. Analizę przeprowadzono dla pionierskiej w Polsce stacji LocalDAB we Wrocławiu. Wyniki opisanych prac mogą być pomocne dla naukowców i profesjonalistów działających we wspomnianej dziedzinie.
EN
The subject of providing high coverage of the digital multiplex is an important factor to both public and private broadcasters, especially local stations interested in the digitalization process. This work describes a geoinformatic tool, dedicated to coverage analysis of local DAB+ broadcasting stations. The analysis involved the Polish pioneer LocalDAB station in Wrocław. Results of carried out research may be of interest to scientists and professionals active in the aforementioned field.
EN
Scarcity of freshwater is one of the major issues which hinders nourishment in large portion of the countries like Ethiopia. The communities in the Dawe River watershed are facing acute water shortage where water harvesting is vital means of survival. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal water harvesting areas by considering socioeconomic and biophysical factors. This was performed through the integration of soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model, remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technique based on multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). The parameters used for the selection of optimal sites for rainwater harvesting were surface runoff, soil texture, land use land cover, slope gradient and stakeholders’ priority. Rainfall data was acquired from the neighbouring weather stations while information about the soil was attained from laboratory analysis using pipette method. Runoff depth was estimated using SWAT model. The statistical performance of the model in estimating the runoff was revealed with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.81 and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.76 for monthly calibration and R2 of 0.79 and NSE of 0.72 for monthly validation periods. The result implied that there's adequate runoff water to be conserved. Combination of hydrological model with GIS and RS was found to be a vital tool in estimating rainfall runoff and mapping suitable water harvest home sites.
EN
This work describes original methods of improving the quality of Digital Elevation Models (DEM), obtained by means of satellite altimetry data. Shown are subsequent steps of geometric correction of global raster DEM, such as SRTM, SRTM DLR and ASTER GDEM, which are commonly available. According to the authors of this analysis, methods proposed here can be used in geoinformation projects.
PL
Stosowana przez nasz zespół metoda cyfrowej analizy widoczności polega na obiektywnych kryteriach oceny oddziaływania na krajobraz jego elementów. Znalazła uznanie w środowisku zawodowym i kilkukrotnie była wykorzystywana jako narzędzie służące generacji danych wyjściowych dla ekspertyz krajobrazowych. Pozwala ona na wybór optymalnej lokalizacji obiektu, określenie jego maksymalnych wymiarów, wyznaczenie biernej i czynnej ekspozycji danego terenu czy obiektu, ocenę chłonności widokowej określonego obszaru i obliczenie bryły dopuszczalnej kubatury wprowadzanych tam inwestycji. Atrakcje krajobrazowe znajdujące się w terenie determinują parametry modelu analizy widoczności i wymagania dla jakości i szczegółowości modelu terenu. W artykule omówione są stosowane algorytmy, parametry ekspozycji czynnych i biernych stosowane w modelu analizy i wstępne wytyczne dla jakości cyfrowego modelu terenu, w którym możliwe jest przeprowadzanie cyfrowych analiz widokowych.
EN
The method of visibility digital analysis consists in objective criteria for the assessment of the elements impact on landscape. It enables the choice of object optimum localization, determination of its maximum dimensions, appointing of passive and active exposition for a given object or terrain, visual absorption capacity estimation for the analysed area and calculation of acceptable volume of new investments introduced into this area. This paper describes the results of combining a visibility analyses model with a digital model of the visually attractive terrain, included in GIS. Landscape attractions, lying in the terrain, determine visibility analysis model parameters, and requirements concerning terrain model quality and detail. In the paper we can find description of algorithms used, parameters of passive and active expositions, applied to analysis model, as well as, the directives for the digital terrain model, basing on which visual analyses are possible.
PL
Praca podejmuje zagadnienia związane z możliwościami, jakie daje wykorzystanie systemów informacji przestrzennej (z ang. GIS - Geographic Information Systems) w rolnictwie, zarówno w ujęciu mikro, jak i makro gospodarczym. Połączenie informacji dotyczących szeroko rozumianej produkcji rolnej z konkretną sytuacją przestrzenną daje praktycznie nieograniczone możliwości analityczne, służące optymalizacji cyklu wytwórczego, łącznie z etapem dystrybucji płodów rolnych. Dzięki temu otrzymujemy narzędzie wpływające na poprawę jakości i efektywności pracy, a co za tym idzie maksymalizację dochodów. Dodatkowo autorzy pracy zwracają uwagę na uniwersalność metod stosowanych w ramach rozwiązań GIS, dzięki czemu mogą z niej korzystać zarówno organy centralne, odpowiadające za realizację polityki rolnej Państwa, jak i indywidualni producenci rolni.
EN
The paper takes up issues related to possibilities resulting from the use of spatial information systems (GIS - Geographic Information Systems) in agriculture, both from micro- and macroeconomic perspective. Linking of information concerning widely understood agricultural production with specific spatial situation gives practically unlimited analytical capabilities, used to optimize manufacturing cycle, including farm produce distribution stage. Owing to this, we obtain a tool that improves quality and efficiency of work, and consequently guarantees income maximisation. Additionally, the authors of this paper draw attention to versatility of methods employed as part of GIS solutions. This makes them useful both for central authorities responsible for implementation of the State agricultural policy, and individual agricultural manufacturers.
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