Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 157

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 8 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  landslide
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 8 next fast forward last
1
Content available remote Innovative technique for road slope stabilisation
EN
The paper describes an innovative method for stabilisation and greening of newly formed road slopes. Meandrically arranged thick ropes made from textile waste covered with soil mixed with randomly distributed wool and polyester fibres were applied for stabilisation. The ropes were installed on the slope in autumn. Hydroseeding was performed the following spring. Behaviour of the slope during several months was regularly monitored. In the first period – during autumn and winter – the ropes in combination with fibre-reinforced soil reduced the danger of local landslides and soil erosion. After hydroseeding the system provided water supply needed for seed germination. During grass growth the fertilising effect of nitrogen compounds released as a result of wool biodegradation was revealed. Finally, a stable slope covered with high grass grown in a relatively short time was achieved.
PL
W artykule opisano badania przeprowadzone w zakresie stosowania innowacyjnej metody stabilizacji i zazieleniania nowo uformowanych skarp drogowych. Do wykonania stabilizacji skarpy wykorzystano ułożone meandrycznie grube sznury wykonane z odpadów tekstylnych, które zostały przykryte warstwą gruntu wymieszanego z losowo rozmieszczonymi włóknami wełnianymi i poliestrowymi. Sznury zainstalowano na skarpie w okresie jesiennym. Hydrosiew wykonano następnej wiosny. Stan skarpy regularnie monitorowano na przestrzeni kilku miesięcy. W początkowym okresie – w miesiącach jesiennych i zimowych – zastosowane sznury w połączeniu ze zbrojeniem rozproszonym gruntu z włókien zmniejszyły niebezpieczeństwo powstania osuwisk i erozji gruntu. Po wykonaniu hydrosiewu system zapewnił nawodnienie niezbędne do kiełkowania nasion. W trakcie wzrostu trawy uwidoczniło się użyźniające działanie związków azotu uwalnianych wskutek biodegradacji włókien wełnianych. W efekcie końcowym uzyskano stabilną powierzchnię skarpy porośniętą wysoką trawą wyhodowaną w stosunkowo krótkim czasie.
EN
The paper describes the geomorphological and geological structure of the cliff Baltic bank in Jastrzębia Góra. The detailed description and analysis of the landslide develo¬ped in the selected cross-section of the cliff is provided. Extensive complex investigations involving multiple techniques are described. These methods include the borehole drilling and inspection of the soils composing the slope, laboratory tests of the shear strength parameters by the triaxial compression method, slope stability calculations basing on the finite difference method and inclinometric measurements of the displacements in the borehole performed on the slope. The results prove that the extent of the landslide is limited to the upper part of the slope. The stability factor lower than 1.0 and the continuous displacements measured in the borehole indicate the recent cliff instability. Therefore the works for slope stabilization are strongly recommended.
EN
The basic assumptions determining the methodology for testing soil strength parameters have been known for almost 250years (Coulomb, 1773). Nevertheless, obtaining reliable and unambiguous parameter values for calculations is still a difficult problem. The main problem results from the fact that soil strength parameters are not a material constant. This means that the values of the angle of internal friction and soil coherence are dependent on the research methodology used. The article presents the impact of the method of determination of soil strength parameters on the assessment of slope stability. The earlier literature recommends adapting the method of testing samples as much as possible to real conditions. This allows the geologist to have some freedom in choosing the research methodology. The PN-EN1997-2: 2008 standard puts more emphasis on a uniform test methodology. In the interpretation of Eurocode 7, due to the need to determine accurately effective stresses, "only strength tests of soils completely saturated with water or dry soils are considered". Stability analyses performed for a small, still active landslide in Kojszówka have shown that the use of only effective parameters for slope analyses may not be fully reliable.
EN
Situated in the northern part of Algeria, Ouarsenis is one of several area affected by landslide phenomena. Indeed, 60 houses, a stadium and a lot of sports infrastructures are affected by the landslides. In this perspective, we have chosen a model of landslide with an area of 166 700 m2 affecting the southern part of the Bordj Bou Naama city. In order to characterized the landslide structure, we used multisource data (geological, topographical, geophysical and geotechnical). For modeling the 3D landslide surfaces we used three geometric models which are generated from different techniques of interpolation as Inverse Distance Weight (IDW), Minimum Curvature (MC) and Kriging (KO) and applied to the same input data set. The root of the mean square error (RMSE) and visual appearance of the morphology are used to select the best model. Indeed our results show that the KO represents the best model that gives a good result. Quality control is also performed to ensure that the model is suitable for hydro-mechanical modeling. This model show that the total volume of soils moved is ~9.8*105 m3, in which the volume of geological levels is 828 500 m3, 143440 m3 and 11 434.32 m3 respectively for the embankments, colluviums and Brown shale. The bleu shale is far from to be affected by this landslides, indeed the deepest zone that the rupture area affects is located at 12 m of depth. These results seem to be very important in order to plan remediation work in this area.
EN
High magnitude flash flood has occurred several times in some areas in Central Sulawesi Province after the 2018 Palu Earthquake, one of them is in the Bangga River, Sigi Regency, Indonesia. It has caused massive impacts such as damaging agricultural and plantation areas and submerging public facilities and infrastructure and even causing fatalities. The flood carries a variety of materials, especially high concentration sediments which are thought to originate from eroded soils due to landslides induced by a 7.5 magnitude earthquake. These materials are eroded and transported by the flow at the upstream watershed due to heavy rainfall. This study intends to investigate the potential of landslides, factors that trigger floods and increased flooding after the earthquake. This research was conducted by investigating the landslides potency based on field surveys and interpretation of the latest satellite imagery, analyzing the characteristics of rainfall as a trigger for flooding, and predicting the flood potency as the primary impact of these two factors. Rainfall-flood transformation was simulated with the HEC-HMS Model, one of the freeware semi-distributed models commonly used in hydrological analysis. The model input is the configuration of river networks generated from the National DEM (DEMNAS), hourly rainfall during floods and other watershed parameters such as land cover, soil types and river slope. The similar simulation was also carried out on the condition of the watershed before the earthquake. Based on the results of the analysis, It can be inferred that flash floods in the Bangga River are mainly caused by heavy rainfall with long duration and landslide areas in the upper watershed triggered by the 2018 Palu Earthquake with an area of approximately 10.8 km2. The greatest depth of rainfall as a trigger for flooding is 30.4 mm with a duration of 8 hours. The results of the study also showed that landslides in the upper watershed could increase the peak flood by 33.33% from 118.56 m3/s to 158.08 m3/s for conditions before and after the earthquake.
6
Content available Monitoring środowiska gruntowego w Polsce
PL
W artykule przedstawiono systemy monitoringu środowiska przyrodniczego o zasięgu ogólnokrajowym, związane ze środowiskiem gruntowym. Pierwszy to monitoring chemizmu gleb ornych, ujawniający jakość gleb rolniczych w Polsce. Monitorowane jest 216 punktów. Problem stanowi głównie zakwaszenie gleb oraz niedobór przyswajalnego fosforu. Drugi to monitoring suszy rolniczej. Jest oparty na wyznaczaniu klimatycznego bilansu wodnego w powiązaniu ze zdolnościami retencyjnymi gleb. Stwierdzenie suszy uprawnia do uzyskania państwowej pomocy finansowej. Trzeci to monitoring osuwisk, który dotyczy głównie obszaru Karpat Polskich. Wyznaczane są tereny zagrożone ruchami gruntu, a w obrębie osuwisk analizowane są przemieszczenia powierzchniowe (pomiary GPS) i wgłębne (pomiary inklinometryczne). Opisano zakres każdego monitoringu, a także podano liczne informacje metodyczne. Zwrócono uwagę na praktyczne aspekty działań monitoringowych. Wyniki każdego monitoringu są w różnym zakresie dostępne do wiadomości publicznej, co umożliwia ich dyskutowanie.
EN
The article presents nationwide environmental monitoring systems related to the ground environment. The first system is the monitoring of chemical properties of arable soil, aiming to estimate the quality of agricultural soils in Poland. Totally 216 points are being monitored. The problem is mainly soil acidification and a deficiency of available phosphorus. The second one is monitoring of agricultural drought. It is based on the determination of the climate water balance in connection with soil retention capacity. When a drought is confirmed it entitles to receive state financial assistance. The third system is the landslides monitoring, which mainly concerns the area of the Polish Carpathians. The areas endangered by ground movements are indicated, and within landslides surface of ground displacements (GPS measurements) and deep movements (inclinometric measurements ) are analyzed. The scope of each monitoring was reviewed, as well as numerous methodological information was given. The attention was paid to practical aspects of the monitoring activities. The results of each monitoring are available to be public message in varying degrees, which makes it possible to discuss them.
EN
The main objective of this work is to present an innovative method of numerical modeling of anchored piles system acting as a road protection against landslide, called the “2D/3D method”. Firstly, short description of the problem and “state of the art” review are included. An effective methodology of the design supported by the numerical analysis, solving the problem of interaction of a periodic system of piles and the unstable soil mass is presented, for which some detailed information about proposed numerical approach is given. The key idea of 2D/3D method is to join the pile with the 2D plane strain continuum by fictitious connectors of Winkler type with P-Y properties identified during the analysis of a subsidiary 3D problem. Practical example of usage of proposed approach to a real case of a road endangered by a landslide then protected by the piles system is presented. On the base of this example, a discussion about important design issues like internal forces in piles (mainly bending moments) and anchors (tensile forces) or overall stability of the soil-structure system is done.
8
Content available Distinct Element Simulation of a Landslide Process
EN
The paper presents a numerical simulation of the development of a catastrophic landslide in a sandstone quarry and methods of reconstructing the quarry to its previous condition from before the landslide. The important objective of the paper is to present the capabilities of the numerical method used in the analysis of the landslide process, namely the Distinct Element Method (DEM). This method is poorly known, though it is capable of solving important geotechnical problems in which massive displacements are modelled. The features of the method are presented on the basis of a case study. Therefore a numerical analysis is carried out to show the performance of DEM in generating a displacement of several dozen meters in the example of a catastrophic landslide that occurred some years ago in a sandstone quarry. This engineering problem makes it possible to describe and analyse the mechanisms, causes and consequences of the landslide.
EN
This article presents the results of digital terrain model analysis and field observations related to occurrence of characteristic forms in landslide surface that may indicate the geological setting. Based on these observations, three characteristic structures were selected occurring on many landslides in the Carpathian Mountains and the Carpathian Foredeep. The former are the wrinkle structures visible on the digital terrain model associated with movement along the bedded surface. The other are the streak structures linked to the occurrence of gravels and sands on the clays. The third mogul type structures are related to cylindrical sliding surfaces formed in clay.
EN
The article presents the history of landslide research in Poland, with particular reference to the 21st century. An overview of the published works shows the evolution of the interests of scientists from the work describing selected landslides to methodological studies. In all, 2350 articles that have been published till now include books, articles and abstracts of conferences. The leading research centers include: the Polish Geological Institute – National Research Institute, the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow and the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
EN
Landslide recognition is an important task for designers and contractors during the road construction process. The problems that contractors often face is insufficient recognition of the geological structure (at the design stage), too small area of purchased land under the "ZRiD’'decision, or the inability of fast responding to emerging threats. The studies described in this article shed more light on the complexity of slope deformation as a result of landslide processes. During the constructing of the expressway S-7, the problems related to deep landslide processes occurred, which most probably were associated with poorly recognized old “rocky-weathering material” type of landslide. The geological survey performed during the construction of this road, confirmed the occurrence of deep (>20 m) displacements, recorded by the inclinometer measurements. These deep displacements are linked to a large landslide with a main scarp located in the region of Mt. Cymbalowa Góra.
EN
The area of Poland, including the Carpathian Mountains, is located in a zone where landslides cause large material damage. This issue can be considered using different time scales. Using various dating methods, it was possible to distinguish periods of increased landslide activity. Among others, the radiometric methods are the most common. Based on the 14C dated landslides in Szczawnica-Biafy Stream, Zapadle near Szymbark, Rychwatd near Żywiec and on data published by Margielewski (2006), it was possible to hypothesize that landslides in the Carpathians have been developing over 13,000 years, i.e. since the Oldest Dryas. This is related to the beginning of degradation of the permafrost, which can be considered as the inception of the development of large rock landslides. On the basis of the presented data, it can also be stated that these landslides have been active up to modern times and their development is very long. An example of this is the landslide in Zapadle. The position of the landslide tongue, which is subjected to erosion, is of great importance, which promotes its further activity. Permanent removing of the colluvial material by a stream and its supplementing by subsequent new displacements from the scarp causes that the landslides can be active for a very long period of time.
13
Content available Osuwiska na stokach Magury Witowskiej (Podhale)
EN
The landslide on the northern slopes of Magura Witowska is an example ofa consequent-structural type oflandslide. It has been developed due to several favorable conditions like: monoclinal layer deposition where the dip angle and direction of collapsing layers are close to those of slope exposition. Moreover, shale packages are commonly present in the bedrock. In the lower part of the landslide an elongated basin filled with peat sediments is situated. The 8-m long profile was recovered with an Instorf sampler for 14C dating and pollen analysis purposes. The results of radiocarbon dating and pollen analysis point to Subboreal and Subatlantic age of these sediments. Undisturbed biogenic sedimentation, lack of minerogenic intercalations together with the unbroken course of pollen succession suggest that the studied landslide has not undergone any significant active events since its formation.
PL
Na podstawie analizy wybranych przypadków katastrof osuwiskowych oraz literatury przedmiotu podjęto próbę zdefiniowania autorskiego pojęcia geomorfologicznego OMI (Osuwiska Medialnie Istotnego), które wprowadza specyficzną metodę klasyfikacji ruchów masowych w 10-stopniowej skali. Na podstawie opracowanych przypadków i analizy statystycznej danych sporządzono wzór kategoryzujący ruchy masowe, podobnie jak się to czyni w przypadku trzęsień ziemi, huraganów, czy innych zjawisk przyrodniczych o znamionach klęski żywiołowej. W publikacji przedstawiono wykorzystanie skali OMI do porównania kilku wybranych przypadków.
EN
Values of rainfall thresholds on selected shallow landslide slopes (Dziat, Gwoździec) located in the Nowy Wiśnicz Foothills are determined using a physl cally-based slope stability model considering a long-term period of analysis (GeoSlope Inc. software). Slope stability analysis included determination of the impact of rainfall on changes of stress state within the soil substrate and their influence on estimation of mass movement risk. The slope stability calculation results have shown that the rainfall threshold values are a function of many variables, primarily the hydraulic properties of soil and rock substratum, temporal distribution of precipitation, and soil moisture content conditions in the period proceeding rainfall. The results of the calculations indicate that, in extreme cases, accumulated rainfall threshold values for the same slope can range from ~100 to 500 mm. Estimated rainfall threshold values were lower than those values reported in the literature for the Polish Carpathians, but are similar to those determined by Guzetti et al. (2007) for Central and Southern Europe.
EN
This study identifies zones with significant changes in pore water pressure influenced by landslide processes. Measurements were taken in the near-surface strata of the Carpathian flysch, in colluvium of the Siercza landslide, near Kraków. Measurement of pore water pressure in flysch deposits is complicated due to the strongly heterogeneous properties of the medium and by variable water conditions, which are strongly influenced by rainfall intensity. Pore pressure profiling was performed in six series using a cone penetration test with a NOVA Acoustic cone. The tests were carried out in the colluvium to a depth of -6.0 m under varying water conditions. The cone pore pressure results were compared to results of inclinometer measurements in the research area. Five zones with significant differences in pore pressure have been identified. Changes in both cone pore pressure and inclinometer displacement are evident at a depth range from 1.5 to 2.5 m. Two slip surfaces are likely present in this section. Such information can be used in engineering practice for more reliable assessment of slope stability in the Carpathian flysch.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wpływ działalności górniczej na rozwój ruchów masowych na przykładzie czterech osuwisk. Pierwsze z nich znajduje się w Rydułtowach, na obszarze niecki osiadań spowodowanej podziemną eksploatacją węgla kamiennego. Osuwisko to zagraża najstarszemu tunelowi kolejowemu w Polsce, a jego uaktywnienie było prawdopodobną przyczyną zniszczenia tunelu w 1857 r. Kolejne dwa osuwiska pośrednio są związane z podziemnym ługowaniem soli w krakowskich Swoszowicach. Ostatni z przykładów to osuwisko rozwinięte w nieczynnej kopalni iłów Zesławice, będące świadectwem wpływu powierzchniowej eksploatacji i skarpowania zboczy na rozwój osuwisk.
EN
The article presents the influence of mining activity on development mass movements on the example four landslides. The first of these is located in Rydułtowy, in the area of mine subsidence caused by the underground exploitation of coal. The landslide threatens the oldest railway tunnel in Poland, and its activation was the probable cause of the destruction of the tunnel in 1857. Another two landslides are indirectly connected with underground salt leaching in Swoszowice (district of Kraków). The last of the examples is a landslide developed in the dormant open-cut mining Zesławice, a testimony to the impact of surface exploitation and undercutting of slopes for the development landslides.
EN
The paper presents a 3D (spatial) analysis of deformation processes in the landslide slope Bystrzyca in Szymbark near Gorlice (Low Beskid – Carpathians; N 49°37′ 09″, E 21°05′ 49″) carried out by the computer code FLAC3D based on the finite difference method. The numerical analysis was performed to determine the influence of the orientation of layers and discontinuities and of hydrogeological conditions on slope deformations and the failure mechanism during sliding processes. The massif is modeled as an elasto-plastic medium obeying the Coulomb-Mohr criterion. Two variants of hydrogeological conditions are analyzed, namely the “dry slope” (without water) and the “wet slope” (entirely saturated). The influence of the orientation of discontinuities (modeled as “ubiquitous”) on the landslide mechanism is investigated as well. Few orientations of discontinuities with respect to the dip direction of the slope surface are considered, namely consequent, insequent, and subsequent (two variants in each case). The results show a clear impact of the pattern of discontinuities and hydrogeological conditions on the deformational behavior of the landslide and the shape of the slip surface. The 3D approach and results of the numerical simulation of the landslide movement prove the necessity of 3D modeling in some cases.
EN
Landslides are complex phenomena, and the main factors that have a significant impact on their behavior are changes in slope inclination geometry and changes in water conditions. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate current conditions of the landslide in Brzozówka, near Cracow (Poland), and analyzing how different saturations of soil influence the stability of the landslide. The combination of geophysical and geotechnical research, such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), cone penetration testing, drilling and laboratory tests as well as a comprehensive analysis of their results, provided reliable information on the geological structure and geotechnical parameters of the landslide. The results were used in numerical simulations of the landslide stability, in which a two-phase model (soil and water) was assumed that included the effective soil strength parameters and the transient flow conditions as well as a partial saturation zone. The sliding surface obtained from the numerical modeling was almost flat, which was confirmed by the ERT method. It was proved that the landslide occurred when the saturation of the upper part of the slope exceeded 0.8. Obtained results are useful for engineering practice.
EN
This study presents a comparison of data acquisition, processing and interpretation between passive seismic interferometry (SI) and active multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) methods, both using surface waves for estimation S-wave velocity field. Measurements have been taken in the same geological engineering conditions on Just-Tegoborze landslide on the south of Poland. This comparison study has an important meaning from landslide hazard evaluation point of view. The landslide is located in Magura Nappe in Outer (Flysch) Carpathians. SI was based on registration of local seismic noise generated by high traffic on the state road which intersects the landslide. The main processing step was cross-correlation of seismic noise between every pair of receivers. It led to obtain series of empirical Green’s functions for Rayleigh surface wave. However, in MASW method, seismic energy was released by an impact of 5 kg sledgehammer in a metal plate. Both methods included analysis of dispersion curves of Rayleigh surface wave. The inversion of picked fundamental modes was applied using genetic algorithm and resulted in 1D S-wave velocity models. The last step of interpretation included model visualization as the 2D S-wave velocity sections for studied profiles. Both MASW and SI methods allowed to estimate S-wave velocity field in Just-Tegoborze landslide subsurface. Dispersion images obtained from both methods provided similar phase velocity and frequency ranges. On S-wave velocity sections, the greater depth range was observed for SI method; however, lateral resolution was better for MASW. Slip surfaces in colluvial layer were not observed on either SI or MASW S-wave velocity sections. Only results obtained from SI allowed to distinguish probable slip surface located deeper, i.e. on the contact with less weathered flysch bedrock.
first rewind previous Strona / 8 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.