Purpose: The purpose of the article is to present the issues of cultural values of modern Europe in reference to their ancient sources (Plato, Aristotle), as well as to indicate correlations between the value of European culture and the axiology of sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on a critical analysis of the literature on the subject. It presents in detail the issues of justice and responsibility, indicating Europe as a "community of responsibility". Justice is considered as a moral, legal and economic value, taking into account the generation and intergenerational perspective, as well as community and individual value. Responsibility, as in the case of justice, is shown in relation to the present and future generations. The subject and object of responsibility were defined and the main relational references of this moral and legal value were characterized. The article also refers to the basic documents constituting the concept of sustainable development. Findings: The analysis of the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development showed that in the concept, it can be seen that justice and responsibility are two basic values that are mutually conditioning and constitute the basis for the actual implementation of the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development, improvement of people's quality of life and ensuring security in its various dimensions. Originality/value: The article is addressed to a wide range of readers who deal with the practical implementation of the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development. The article can also provide a didactic background for teaching social subjects and humanities. There is an original approach to ethical values in the context of the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development.