Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are human-invented chemicals that were created in the middle of the 20th century. They were synthesized for the first time in 1949, and because of their exceptional surfactant properties, they have been widely used in many industrial applications and daily life products. The common use of PFASs resulted in their worldwide dissemination in natural environment. PFASs are reported to be ubiquitous in surface and drinking waters, but also may be present in soils, animals, milk and milk-products, plants, food. Contaminated drinking water and food are the most significant exposure sources to these chemicals. Ingested PFASs are bio-accumulative and have adverse effect on health of humans as well as animal organisms. This paper reviews the most significant information on the origin, properties, distribution, environmental fate, human exposure, health effects, and the environmental regulations on PFASs and summarizes the latest advances in the development of novel methods for the effective removal of these chemicals from the aqueous environment. Recognized (reverse osmosis, adsorption on activated carbon) and most promising developing removal methods such as adsorption on biomaterials (plant proteins, chitosan beds), mineral adsorbents (LDHs, hydrotalcite), ionexchange resins, and photocatalytic degradation have been emphasized.