Polymers such as poly(methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, and SU-8 epoxy resin replace silicon as the major substrate in microfluidic system (or BioMEMS) fabrication. Chemical-mechanical polishing is an important technology for many advanced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microoptoelectromechanical system applications. In this study, the chemical-mechanical polishing of polycarbonate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and SU-8 polymers was investigated. Four types of slurry were tested for chemical-mechanical polishing of polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate). Experiments were then designed and performed to investigate the effects of two key process parameters. Experimental results show that an increase in head load or table speed causes an increase in material removal rates. Within the chosen experimental parameter ranges, the variation of table speed introduced a more significant change in material removal rates than that of head load. An analysis of variance was also carried out, and it was found that the interaction of head load and table speed had a significant effect (95% confidence) on the surface finish of polished poly(methyl methacrylate) samples, while table speed had a significant effect on the surface finish of polished polycarbonate samples. Chemical-mechanical polishing is also a process well suited for polishing SU-8 structures with high aspect ratios. Polished polycarbonate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and SU-8 surfaces had nanometer-order surface roughness, acceptable for most MEMS applications.