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EN
The work presented the assessment of household wastewater treatment plants with drainage systems on the quality of groundwater in dug wells and deep water wells in the area of 3 selected communes (Drelów, Dębowa Kłoda and Urszulin), located in the Lublin province in south-eastern Poland. The investigations of the physicochemical composition of water from selected 28 dug wells and 2 deep water wells were conducted from June to July 2020, involving 9 measurement series. The microbiological studies consisted in 4 measurement series. The composition of the wastewater from primary settling tanks discharged to soil via drainage systems located in the vicinity of considered wells was also examined on a single occasion. The studies indicate that the water from wells are significantly polluted with ammonia, nitrites, as well as compounds of natural origin: iron and manganese. The presence of microbiological pollution of fecal origin was noted. The studies clearly indicate the possible pollution of the analyzed well waters with domestic sewage discharged to soil via drainage systems. Therefore, it necessary to take the actions aimed at improving the quality of groundwater in the Lublin province, including limitation of drainage systems, especially in the areas with unfavorable subsurface and hydrological conditions as well as low water supply coverage. The need to introduce changes in legal regulations and strategies for the development of technical infrastructure in counties, favoring the most efficient, as well as simple and inexpensive technologies, was indicated.
EN
The purpose of this study was to assess the groundwater contamination from a sewage sludge landfill. The analysis was carried out in 2017 in accordance with the requirements of the national legislation for monitoring landfills and priority pollutants. The samples of groundwater from the landfill were taken from 25 observation wells, from depths of 45–60 m. The status and dynamics of changes in the landfill groundwater quality were estimated according to the data from the groundwater observation wells of the city observation network with regard to the chemical composition of groundwater and national standards of groundwater quality. The forecast estimates of a low level of pollutants entering groundwater through the soils characterized by low filtration properties were not justified. The concentration of heavy metals in groundwater was within the following range: Fe > Mn > Zn > Al > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd > Hg. The excess concentration of the nitrogen-containing pollutants was observed within the range from 1.5 to 76 (on average 10 times) above the background value. The organic contamination of landfill groundwater (COD) is 2–9 times and BOD5 – 1.5–3 times higher than the average background value of groundwater observation wells in the city network. The probable cause for the pollutants entry into groundwater is associated with lithogenous and exogenous fracturing of the rocks and insufficient efficiency of the existing anti-filtration system of the landfill.
PL
Żelazo i mangan to wskaźniki bodaj najbardziej kojarzone z jakością wód podziemnych. Właściwie, mówiąc o ujęciach głębinowych, w pierwszej kolejności zwraca się uwagę na zawartość tych dwóch pierwiastków. Żelazo występuje w wodzie w postaci rozpuszczonej Fe+2. W takiej formie nie jest w ogóle zauważalne – woda zawierająca żelazo dwuwartościowe jest przejrzysta, nie wykazuje oznak zawartości tego składnika. Jednakże bardzo łatwo przekształcić żelazo(II) w widoczne, w postaci kłaczków (mętności) żelazo(III) – poprzez napowietrzanie.
PL
Na podstawie danych zawartych w opracowaniu GUS „Ochrona środowiska 2019” omówiono charakterystykę wód w Polsce. Zarządzanie zasobami wodnymi jest realizowane z uwzględnieniem podziału państwa na obszary dorzeczy, regiony wodne i zlewnie. Jednostkami organizacyjnymi odpowiedzialnymi za gospodarowanie wodami w regionie wodnym są Regionalne Zarządy Gospodarki Wodnej (RZGW). Przedstawiono dane i bilanse zasobów wód powierzchniowych oraz zasoby eksploatacyjne wód podziemnych. Największy udział w poborze wody (69%) przypadał na cele produkcyjne, a na potrzeby eksploatacji sieci wodociągowej wynosił 21,5%. Produkcja wody przez zakłady wodociągowe w 2018 r. oparta była głównie o zasoby wód podziemnych (73%, tj. 1552,2 hm3), które są zdecydowanie lepszej jakości. Zużycie wody na potrzeby gospodarki narodowej i ludności było zróżnicowane w poszczególnych województwach i miastach. Omawiając gospodarowanie wodą w sieci wodociągowej przedstawiono długość sieci wodociągowej rozdzielczej (307 690,4 km), liczbę przyłączy do budynków mieszkalnych (5 682,4 tys.) oraz zużycie wody dostarczanej przez sieć wodociągową w gospodarstwach domowych w Polsce w przeliczeniu na jednego mieszkańca (33,3 m3/rok). Wartości te zmieniały się na przestrzeni ostatnich lat.
EN
The data derived from the work by the Statistics Poland entitled “Environment 2019” provided a basis for discussing the characteristics of water resources in Poland. Water resources management takes into account the division of the country into river basin districts, water regions and drainage basins. Regional Water Management Boards (Polish: Regionalne Zarządy Gospodarki Wodnej (RZGW)) are the organizational units responsible for water management in the water region. Data and balance of surface water resources (by RZGW) were presented, as well as exploitable underground water resources. The largest share in water intake (69%) was for production purposes, whereas 21.5% was for the operation of the water supply system. In 2018 water production by municipal waterworks was mainly based on groundwater resources (73%, i.e. 1552.2 hm3), which are of far better quality. Water consumption for the needs of the national economy and population varied in individual voivodships and cities. The discussion on water management in the water supply network included the length of water supply distribution network (307690.4 km), the number of connections to residential buildings (5682.4 thousand units) and the consumption of water supplied by the water supply network in households in Poland per one inhabitant (33.3 m3/year). These values have been changing over the course of recent years.
PL
Przez dziesięciolecia polityka surowcowa kraju była stawiana na pierwszym miejscu, daleko przed bezpieczeństwem zaopatrzenia ludności w wodę przeznaczoną do spożycia. Przedsiębiorstwa wodociągowe chcąc sprostać temu zadaniu musiały nauczyć się współpracować z zakładami górniczymi. W takich warunkach 85 lat temu swoją działalność rozpoczęły Wodociągi Chrzanowskie – w czasach gdy górnictwo miało kluczowe znaczenie dla gospodarki kraju, a wpływ eksploatacji górniczej na środowisko gruntowo-wodne był marginalizowany.
6
Content available Permeability coefficient tests in non-cohesive soils
EN
The paper aims to comparison the permeability coefficient in non-cohesive soils by the method of test pumping and based on tests in a consolidometer. The tests were carried out on 18 types of non-cohesive soils with different fraction. Pumping tests were carried out according to the standard method i.e. by making one well with a diameter of 400 mm and installing two piezometers at different distances from the well. The water table change was measured in piezometers during water pumping from the well. Tests in the consolidometer were carried out on soil samples that were first compacted to the same density index as in the test site. The tests were carried out with a continuous inflow of water from below with constant gradients of 0.50. The tests presented in the paper allow to verify and compare the values of the permeability coefficient in non-cohesive soils determined in the field and laboratory tests.
EN
The Polish hydrogeology had started its development at the end of the 19th century, before Poland was liberated. The needs for country restoration after the world war and for ensuring water supply for communities and industry required construction of many water intakes and water reservoirs. On the other hand, the development of ore deposits, e.g. hard coal seams, needed dewatering of mines and quarries. The Polish pioneer hydrogeologist was R. Rosłoński (1880-1956). He organized the Hydrology Department at the Polish Geological Institute (PGI) in 1919. After World War II, the Hydrogeology and Engineering Department was established at the Geological Institute in Warsaw. Dozent F. Rutkowski was the head of the unit for more than 10 years. Professors C. Kolago, J. Malinowski, A. Różkowski and B. Paczyński introduced in practice a number of hydrogeological studies, including hydrogeological cartography, groundwater resource balances, recognition of groundwater resources of well fields and hydrogeological units of Poland, mining hydrogeology, and the principles of groundwater protection in Poland. Hydrogeological data banks were also first introduced at the PGI. The last 20 years of hydrogeology at the PGI were strongly connected with Poland's accession to the European Union and with the implementation of European directives to the water management system in practice. For this reason, the state hydrogeological survey has been established at the PGI.
EN
The paper focuses on the problem of water draining from brown coal pits, which has occurred since the 1950s in the Gniezno Lakeland in the western part of central Poland. Threats to hydrogeological systems and related lake systems under conditions of mining-induced drainage near the lakes located in the Powidz Landscape Park (PLP) are indicated. The lowering of water level in the PLP lakes exceeds 5 m, as compared to the pre-mining-induced drainage state. Such a rapid change may cause ecological disaster for these deep-water, healthy lake ecosystems with abundant submerged macrophyte (Charophyte) habitats (Natura 2000 protected area). Considering the regional context, the causes of hydrodynamic pressure leading to degradation of Lake Wilczyńskie and neighbouring, hydrologically connected lakes, are presented. The proposed mitigation actions for improving the ecological state of these lakes are presented in the contexts of (1) water balance assessment, (2) hydrotechnical issues related to the redi¬stribution of water from the Slesiňski Canal (the Warta River - Lake Goplo) through water pipeline transmission, and (3) the accelerating groundwater reclamation of the Jóźwin IIB open mine pit area.
EN
An important task of the Polish Geological Institute acting as the state geological and hydrogeological surveys is to collect geological data and information for the entire country. One of the most important components of the Institute's data processing system is the HYDRO Bank, whose information resources include attribute and spatial information on groundwater intakes. Since its establishment in the early 1970s, the HYDRO Bank has been using IT high technologies. Currently, the database resources are being updated and made available exploiting the web application SPD PSH enabling users to access information in a controlled way using a web browser. The information from the database is the basis for the majority of national studies in the field of hydrogeology, cartography, environmental protection, and regional development, carried out by geological enterprises, research institutes, universities, and government administration.
EN
A crucial part of every adaptation planning and disaster risk reduction is estimation of vulnerable areas and risk in the future. Only a well-developed monitoring system could bring valuable information to create possible scenarios to set up adaptation plans. Monitoring systems of meteorological conditions, surface water, groundwater, landslides, seacoast, agricultural drought as well as their standards and methodologies, are crucial for establishing an effective warning system of every country, and thus are the subject of research conducted by national institutes. Therefore, the conditions of this national research (getting trained staff, equipment etc.) is essential to provide reliable information for a national adaptation plan and for economic assessment of climate change impacts. Poland has significant experiences in monitoring systems, data collecting and visualizing, as well as in the development of scenarios and risk maps. Methodologies and capacity building, necessary for their use, along with experiences and lessons, learned to get valuable information for disaster risk reduction, were presented by the authors from the research during the 24th session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 24) in Katowice (December 2018). The presentation contributed to the global adaptation process through experience sharing that is important for the relevant research conducted in the least developed countries.
EN
The aim of the study was to propose a range of interpretation of the results of qualitative groundwater monitoring by using geochemical indicators to assess the degree of anthropogenic groundwater pollution. The location, scope and frequency of groundwater testing dedicated to the possibility of indicating the degree of pressure resulting from the activity in the field of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation is proposed. On the basis of multistage monitoring research in the area of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, the qualitative groundwater base state was determined and change trends were characterized at each subsequent testing stage. Anthropogenic transformations of groundwater chemistry are the result of many overlapping factors, which is why the reason of water quality change is difficult to identify. The very statement of the presence of high values of physico-chemical parameters in waters does not have to prove the influence of the monitored object on their composition. It is proposed to use geochemical indicators: enrichment factor, pollution factor, geoaccumulation factor, and pollution load indicator to assess the degree of anthropogenic pollution of groundwater in the area of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. The geochemical indicators, which are proposed for use, enable the identification of substances of anthropogenic origin in waters and the detection of even the initial degree of anthropopressure on their composition in specific mining activities.
EN
The interaction between groundwater and surface water plays an important role in the function of riparian ecosystems and sustainable water resource management. Hydraulic fracturing, an unconventional oil and gas well stimulation method, has increased dramatically in North America in an effort to exploit previously inaccessible shale oil and gas reserves. Hydraulic fracturing often requires several thousand cubic meters of water to fracture the source formations. Use of such a high volume of water has raised considerable public concern over the sustainability of this activity and the potential impacts on surface water and groundwater. This paper provides a review of the published literature addressing the effects of water withdrawal for hydraulic fracturing on surface water and groundwater. The potential effects of such withdrawal are: decreased volume of water in rivers, streams, lakes and aquifers; alteration of natural flow regimes; regional water shortages during periods of drought; creating conflicts with other water users in water-stressed regions; inadequate downstream water availability; reduced downstream water quality for human uses, due to less water availability for dilution; and degradation of habitat and aquatic ecosystem function, impacting local wildlife. This review demonstrates that relatively little attention has been paid to quantify and understand these interactions, and suggests that there is a significant need for further research in this area to address the currently limited availability of data.
EN
Our scientific research is based on oxidation reactions and monitoring of chemical reaction kinetics in the Velekinca groundwaters plant in Gjilan municipality, Kosovo. The GW of this plant contains high concentration of manganese so we need to use potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as one of the most power oxidants in the water treatment plant. In our research the high concentration of Mn in groundwaters is 0.22–0.28 mg∙dm–3 and this concentration is not in accordance with the WHO. Chlorine is one of the most common disinfectants used in the water treatment industry because it has a low cost and immediate effect on the destruction of microorganisms, the concentration of chlorine (Cl2) in our research is 0.1–0.32 mg∙dm–3. The speed of chemical reactions in the technology of GW is extremely important because sometimes in the elimination of chemical pollutants using oxidizing agents often form intermediate species. The speed of reactions indicates how fast chemical bonds are formed in the creation of a product, and this depends on the rate of reaction (XA). The focus for the research is to study the potassium permanganate and chlorine gas reactions in water if it forms intermediate products (intermediate species) due to the high speed of reactions. Scientific research conclusion, intermediate species in the oxidation reactions of Mn and water disinfection with Cl2(g) it is impossible to cause a high rate of chemical reactions from the reaction rate (XA = 1%) to the reaction rate (XA = 99%). The maximum speed at the highest XA Cl2 is from 4.405∙10–11 to 8.87∙10–10 mol∙dm–3∙s–1, while at Mn is (2.030–4.034)∙10–7 mol∙dm–3∙s–1.
EN
This study presents the hydrochemical composition of groundwater under long-term irrigation of Wonji plain (Ethiopia) and its quality status for drinking purpose. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 groundwater monitoring tube wells installed at different parts of the sugarcane plantation and then analysed for the major physico-chemical quality parameters (pH, EC, major cations and anions) following standard test procedures. The status of groundwater for drinking was compared with WHO and other quality standards. Analytical analysis results indicated that majority of the considered quality parameters are rated above the prescribed tolerable limits for drinking set by WHO. About 97% of the water samples has water quality index in the range of very poor to unfit for drinking. The contamination index is in the ranges of low (–1.0) to high (3.6). In general, the groundwater of the area is unsuitable for human consumption without proper treatment such as boiling, chlorination, filtering, distillation, desalinaization, defluoridation, deionization, demineralization (ionexchange) and membrane processes. Since the TDS concentration is relatively small (<2000 ppm), demineralization process alone can be sufficient to bring the water to an acceptable level.
EN
Perceiving the spatiotemporal relationship of land use changes and groundwater resources is crucial for the effective and sustainable management of the plains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between land use changes and groundwater depth fluctuations in the forbidden plains of northern Hamedan. In the present study, the land use maps for 1989, 1997, 2005, 2013 and 2018 were extracted and categorized from Landsat satellite images and then evaluated for accuracy. In addition, groundwater depth distribution maps were prepared by kriging method for five years from piezometric data. The correlation and relationship between land use changes and groundwater depth fluctuations were determined by REGRESS methods. The findings from kriging method indicated that the intensity of groundwater decline during the last three periods of study (2005, 2013 and 2018) becomes more severe in the study area. Land use change trends indicate a sharp decline in the orchards, pasture lands, barren lands and a relative decline in the irrigated agricultural land, and consequently, increasing in non-irrigation and residential farmland. In addition, the average annual depth of groundwater level during the past 29 years decreased to 1.57 m and 0.87 m in the Kabudrahang and Razan Plains, respectively. The r value of REGRESS method during five study periods was the minimum 0.015 and maximum 0.15 in the Kabudrahang Plain and minimum 0.06 and maximum 0.15 in the Razan Plain, respectively. The results of the study indicated that climate changes cannot be considered as the reason for declining the groundwater in the study area. However, along with the relative impacts of land use changes, the role of managerial factors, the prominent example of which is the non-expert location of the Shahid Mofatteh Hydroelectric Power Station, which supplies underground water to cool the generators, should be considered. The present study can be effective in the management, planning, and policy of groundwater resources, land use location, and spatial planning in the areas facing severe water shortages, especially in the northern plains of Hamedan because this study indicates the importance of underground water in arid and semi-arid regions.
EN
The paper presents the analysis of the geo-ecological state of groundwater within an urban territory on the example of Saint Petersburg. The paper considers two key sites, characterized by different levels of contamination of the underground environment (Primorsky and Krasnogvardeisky districts of Saint Petersburg) and provides an assessment of the main natural and man-made sources of the groundwater contamination within the territory of the selected districts. The composition of groundwater was studied in the zones with different pattern of contamination (cemeteries, liquidated landfills, industrial areas, etc.). The negative impact of the man-made sources of contamination on the state of groundwater was determined. The recommendations for arranging hydrogeological groundwater monitoring in metropolitan areas were developed.
EN
The fractured groundwater aquifers, predominantly found in South Africa, show varying groundwater chemical characteristics in various locations. The hydrochemistry of groundwater is affected by the weathering of rock formations in contact and anthropogenic activities. Determination of groundwater chemistry is important for aquifer protection and overall groundwater management. A hydrochemical analysis is a useful tool for identification of water types, chemical composition, its suitability for specified purposes, and an important requirement for water use licensing applications. The hydrochemical data of groundwater from 79 boreholes near Leliefontein, Kamiesberg local municipality of South Africa, were analysed, using integrated statistical, geostatistics and spatial interpolation methods. The result shows Na+ and Cl− to be the abundant cation and anion. The mean concentration of Na at Leliefontein was 267.39 mg/l, and that of Cl was 574.81 mg/l. The ionic concentrations in groundwater was in sequence of Cl− > Na+ > HCO3− > SO42− > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > NO3− > Si > K+ > F-. The analysis indicated that the cation exchanges in groundwater are influenced by limited silicate weathering, with calcite and dolomite dissolution. Geostatistical and spatial analysis interpolation for the major cation (Na) and major anion (Cl), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Water Quality Index (WQI) was performed using Inverse Distance Weighing method. The hydrochemical data for the Leliefontein groundwater were analysed to classify water for domestic use (drinking) and agriculture (irrigation) purposes, based on the recommended guidelines of the South African National Standard (SANS). The study area was characterised by high salinity of three water types, viz, Na-Cl seawater type, Ca-Cl reverse ion-exchange water type, and Na-HCO3 base ion-exchange water types. About 70–80% of the boreholes in Leliefontein met the requirement for irrigation application for Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and salinity hazard analysis, while the groundwater generally required further treatment before domestic use.
EN
As open-pits occupy the land only temporarily, post-mining planning for sustainable land reuse represents an important stage and it can be done since the pre-exploitation stage. !ere are more possibilities to reuse former open pits depending on the nature and location of ore deposits. Coal open-pits are o"en reused as artificial lakes. Depending on local hydrology and hydrogeology the flooding process of former open-pits may be done naturally or artificially (combined). Reuse of the remaining gaps of open-pits requires a good evaluation of possibilities and limitations specific to the area. !e classification of open pits and their remaining gaps in terms of hydrogeological conditions is necessary for a better post-mining planning of the area. !is paper proposes a multicriterial classification of open pits and their remaining gaps taking into account the hydrogeological conditions and the action of some hydrogeological parameters that have an important contribution in establishing the approach to their flooding process. !e most important hydrogeological conditions of the region are investigated (the hydrogeological structure, types and number of aquifers, nature of aquifer rocks, hydrodynamic characteristics of the region) and the results are processed for the development of a multicriteria classification. Depending on the results of hydrogeological classification of open pits and their remaining gaps, the possibility of natural and/or artificial flooding can be established or, contrary, the need to consider a different reuse direction, other than flooding. !e proposed classification is useful as in literature no multicriteria classification exist, most of them being focused on single criterion classification. In this paper, more open-pits and their remaining gaps were analyzed from a hydrogeological point of view and classified based on the proposed classification which takes into account more evaluation criteria.
PL
Ponieważ odkrywki zajmują teren tylko tymczasowo, planowanie prac po zakończeniu eksploatacji w celu zrównoważonego ponownego wykorzystania gruntów stanowi ważny etap i można to zrobić już na etapie przedeksploatacyjnym. W zależności od charakteru i lokalizacji złóż rudy istnieje więcej możliwości ponownego wykorzystania dawnych wyrobisk odkrywkowych. Odkrywki węgla są często ponownie wykorzystywane jako sztuczne jeziora. W zależności od lokalnej hydrologii i hydrogeologii proces zalewania byłych odkrywek może odbywać się w sposób naturalny lub sztuczny (łączony). Ponowne wykorzystanie pozostałych odkrywek wymaga dobrej oceny możliwości i ograniczeń specyficznych dla tego obszaru. Klasyfikacja odkrywek i pozostałych wyrobisk pod względem warunków hydrogeologicznych jest niezbędna dla lepszego planowania terenu po zakończeniu eksploatacji. W artykule zaproponowano wielokryterialną klasyfikację odkrywek i pozostałych wyrobisk z uwzględnieniem warunków hydrogeologicznych i oddziaływania niektórych parametrów hydrogeologicznych, które mają istotny wpływ na zapełnianie wyrobiska wodą. Badane są najważniejsze warunki hydrogeologiczne regionu (budowa hydrogeologiczna, rodzaje i liczba warstw wodonośnych, charakter skał wodonośnych, charakterystyka hydrodynamiczna regionu), a wyniki są przetwarzane w celu opracowania wielokryterialnej klasyfikacji. W zależności od wyników klasyfikacji hydrogeologicznej odkrywek i pozostałych wyrobisk, można ustalić możliwość naturalnego i / lub sztucznego zalania lub przeciwnie, konieczność rozważenia innego kierunku ponownego wykorzystania. Zaproponowana klasyfikacja jest innowacyjna, ponieważ w literaturze opisano do tej pory klasyfikacji wielokryterialnej, a większość publikacji skupia się na klasyfikacji jednokryterialnej. W niniejszej pracy więcej odkrywek i wyrobisk poeksploatacyjnych przeanalizowano z hydrogeologicznego punktu widzenia i sklasyfikowano w oparciu o zaproponowaną klasyfikację uwzględniającą ocenę wielokryterialną.
EN
In the Canary Islands, groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Groundwater mines have been the system used by the engineers of the archipelago to collect water from the ground. The Canary Islands are volcanic with soils characterized by being rich in uranium, the disintegration of which gives rise to radon gas. In this study, radon gas levels in the mines on two islands of the archipelago have been measured to study exposure to this gas in the galleries. Results show values much higher than the European regulatory limit concentrations.
EN
In spite of enormous investment for water harvesting in Maharashtra, the issue of water defciency persist. Therefore, with the proper understanding of recent (1975–2014) hydrometeorological characteristics in the semiarid region of Maharashtra, the study endeavored to suggest management strategies to optimize the water resources. To understand the inherent characteristics of rainfall, runof, dam storages and groundwater, statistical techniques including descriptive statistics, correlation, regression and Student’s t test were applied. The monsoon rainfall has notable control over the water resources. As the study region characterized by signifcantly low water availability with high variability which is accountable for higher frequency and intensity of drought, it should be prioritized while formulating a judicial plan for water management. The major rivers of Maharashtra follow the unimodal pattern of rainfall. Whereas the study area displays a peculiar character of the bimodal and unimodal regimes of rainfall and runof, respectively, this highlights the role of hydrological losses. However, it also indicates that there is a wide scope to harvest surface water, particularly during the months of September and October. Interestingly, the inter-annual variability in the extreme rainfall and runof events over the study basins is observed to be higher in India. Most of the water (>50%) received during fashy rainfall events drains out through fashy discharges. The impoundment of this water and modifed irrigation schedule by considering the recent hydrological characteristics may diminish the variability and defciency of surface and subsurface water. Furthermore, for the precise forecast of water availability in the study area, ENSO condition needs to incorporate, as it has a signifcant connection with rainfall and runof.
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