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EN
The tribological properties of the nitride layer applied to the low-alloyed steel were investigated in this research. Experimental work included determination if the chemical composition, wear resistance, Rockwell, Vickers and nano-indentation tests, both of the substrate material – the low-alloyed steel and the deposited nitride layer. From the results obtained in those experiments authors concluded that applying the nitride layer does not significantly improve the tribological properties of the tested lowalloyed steel samples, thus this process is not recommended for achieving that purpose.
EN
Regional economic resilience, which is a necessary and indispensable component for ensuring both regional and overall sustainability, is understood principally in relation to the system’s structure and overall functioning ignoring human agency and its bounded rationality. This leads to missing important and potentially crucial elements fostering or hindering resilience, and consequently to designing resilience enhancing programs with low effectiveness. This paper argues that the focus of the resilience concept should shift from the system structure to the behavior of agents, since any outcome at the macro level is a product of the myriad of interacting behaviors. The structure of the system and all the context matters as the options for the behavior and which options are chosen depends on the internal factors of the decision maker. A framework, depicting the mechanism how the above mentioned factors interact and determine behavior thus consequently influencing resilience is proposed. An exemplary analysis of how to use the framework is also presented.
PL
Regionalna resilencja ekonomiczna rozważana jest przede wszystkim w odniesieniu do struktury systemu i ogólnego funkcjonowania, ignorując ludzkie działania i związaną z nimi racjonalność. Jest niezbędnym elementem zapewniającym regionalną i ogólną zrównoważoność, w szczególności w jej wymiarze ekonomicznym. Jednak wąskie podejście do niej w konsekwencji prowadzi do utraty ważnych, potencjalnie kluczowych elementów wspierających lub utrudniających resilencję, a zatem opracowywane tak programy mające zwiększać resilencję charakteryzuje niska skuteczność. W tym artykule sugeruje się, że celem koncepcji resilencji powinno być przesunięcie ze struktury systemu na behawior, ponieważ każdy wynik na poziomie makro jest wynikiem niezliczonych zachowań. Struktura systemu i cały kontekst ma znaczenie, ponieważ opcje zachowania i dokonany wybór zależą od wewnętrznych czynników decydenta. Zaproponowano ramy obrazujące mechanizm interakcji wyżej wymienionych czynników i determinujące zachowanie, a tym samym wpływające na resilencję. Przedstawiono także przykładową analizę korzystania z frameworka.
EN
The limits of the present linear economy model (take-make-waste) are well illustrated by the textile and clothing sector, one of the most indispensable consumer goods industries. Although a huge increase in the number of publications on the circular economy can be observed, the number of papers analyzing consumers’ attitudes and behavior toward circular fashion, especially the ones comparing consumers from different regions, is still limited. The article aimed to assess consumers’ attitudes toward circular fashion and draw a cross country comparison in this respect. The research focused on the three pillars of the latest EU Sustainable Product Policy Framework, i.e., designing sustainable products, empowering consumers, and circularity in production processes. An online survey and convenience sampling were used to collect valid responses from two countries (i.e., Canada and Poland) with different cultures, levels of economic development, and approaches to environmental and social issues. The results showed that significant differences between the countries emerged to a greater extent regarding consumers’ attitudes toward environmental labels for fashion products and sustainable buying behavior. The Polish respondents perceived the need for such labels to a greater extent. The Canadian ones, on the other hand, turned out to be more willing to choose sustainable clothing and reduce consumption. The differences between the countries were much less conspicuous as regards circular cues and circularity in fashion production processes. They appeared only in the case of clothing durability and the impact of production processes on air quality. Those aspects turned out to be more important for Polish respondents.
EN
The tendency for people in Jakarta to use public transportation is still relatively low. A study from Jabodetabek Transportation Management Agency shows that only 24 percent of road users chose public land transportation modes (Transjakarta bus and train) from a total of 47.5 million trips in Jabodetabek by 2015. Public transportation trips in Jabodetabek are all people's journeys or the journey to employee work destination located in buffer towns around Jakarta. Employees are among the elements of society that use public transportation. The economic conditions of factory employees that encourage them to work overtime cause differences in attitudes between factory employees and office employees toward using public transportation modes. This study aims to determine the factors that encourage factory employees to choose the mode of transportation to the workplace and analyze their attitude toward using public transportation mode. The results show that the number of factory employees who prefer public transportation mode is still little. However, their potential to move into public transportation is substantial due to the belief in the commitment of the Jakarta government to fixing the public transportation system. Most factory employees also agree that public transport can reduce congestion in Jakarta. There is a need to apply a strategy of the transit development (TOD) to reach public places and places of work.
PL
Artykuł podejmuje próbę określenia zależności pomiędzy poziomem inteligencji płynnej a typami zachowań i przeżyć związanych z pracą w grupie kierowców z uwzględnieniem ich wieku. Badaniami zostali objęci kierowcy samochodów ciężarowych, którzy uczestniczyli w badaniach okresowych w zakresie psychologii transportu. Badania obejmowały ocenę sprawności intelektualnej oraz czynników osobowościowych z uwzględnieniem poziomu zaangażowania zawodowego, radzenia sobie ze stresem i obciążeniami w pracy oraz emocjonalnego stosunku do pracy. Zastosowano Test Matryc Ravena w wersji Standard oraz Kwestionariusz Avem. Wykazano, że wyższy poziom inteligencji płynnej sprzyja podejmowaniu zachowań w pracy typu „oszczędnościowego”, natomiast niższy – wiąże się z tendencją do zachowań ryzyka typu A (nadmiernego przeciążenia pracą). Wiek nie różnicował badanych osób w kontekście radzenia sobie ze stresem i obciążeniami w pracy. Starsi kierowcy preferowali strategię opartą na rezygnacji w sytuacji porażki. Autorzy wnioskują, aby uwzględniać badanie inteligencji i wzorców zachowań związanych z pracą w diagnostyce przydatności do zawodu kierowcy.
EN
The article attempts to assess the relationship between the level of fluid intelligence and types of behaviors and experiences related to work in a group of drivers, due to their age. The research covered drivers of lorries who participated in periodic research in the field of transport psychology. The research included the assessment of intellectual performance and personality factors, taking into account the level of professional involvement, coping with stress and workload as well as emotional attitude to work using the Raven’s Standard Matrices Test and the Avem Questionnaire. It has been shown that a higher level of fluid intelligence is conducive to behavior in “savings” type of work, while a lower one is associated with a tendency to type A (excessive workload) behavior. It was observed that age did not affect the subjects in the context of coping with stress and workloads. Older drivers preferred resigning when failing. Authors concluded that to assess the level of fluid intelligence and types of behavior and experiences connected with drivers’ work in the suitability diagnostics for the driver’s profession.
EN
Transport strategy in European Union supports public transport against individual transport. The reason is using of public transport is possible to fulfil all the goals of the EU strategy in the field of road safety. The paper deals with the issue of supporting public passenger transport and it is integration with the aim of ensuring the sustainable mobility of population. The aim of this paper is to identify the importance of public passenger transport and define method for creating effective integrated transport systems. The paper points to the importance of public passenger transport and the reasons why the population prefers cars. Based on the analysis, it is arguable that public passenger transport without mutual integration is not capable enough to compete with individual motoring. Contribution proposes the process integration of public passenger transport as a key elements in increasing road safety. Contribution confirms the hypothesis that the integration of public passenger transport and achieving a higher use of public passenger transport of population can contribute to improving of road safety.
EN
Amplitude and frequency content are two important features of earthquakes that are different for near and far-fault earthquakes and in most of the standards, the effects of near-field earthquakes in loading are not considered. Therefore, study and comparison of these effects on structures is necessary. In this paper, structural operation against near and far fault earthquakes for two near sites and two far sites is investigated. For this purpose and in order to achieve an operation point of a structural model with six staircases with a mean lateral bending frame resistant system seismic hazard information is analyzed with regards to special plan spectrums of 2 different sites using near and far faults. An evaluation of the effects due to near and far fault earthquakes based on the Iran’s standard 2800 ranges on operation point and the comparison of operation effects of near and far fault spectrums with Iran’s standard are results of this research work. After the presentation of results obtained from time history analyses, some suggestions are proposed for design correction based on the regulations in near -field earthquakes.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań ankietowych dotyczących zachowań, reakcji oraz odczuć ratowników górniczych pod wpływem stresu. Każda akcja ratownicza jest analizowana indywidualnie ze względu na czynniki, które mają wpływ na jej przebieg. Z punktu psychologii ważnym elementem jest zachowanie ratownika, jego reakcje nie tylko przed, jak i w czasie akcji, ale również po przeprowadzonej akcji ratowniczej. Dzięki ankiecie można było zanalizować odczucia ratowników biorących udział w akcjach ratowniczych.
EN
The article presents the results of the survey on the behavior, response and feel under stress. Each rescue operation is analyzed individually due to the factors that influence its course. From the point of psychology, an important element is to maintain a lifeguard, his reactions not only before and during the action but also carried out the rescue operation. With the survey you could analyze feelings of rescuers involved in the rescue operations.
EN
This paper studies the solution space of systems of algebraic and difference equations, given as auto-regressive (AR) representations A(σ) β (k) = 0, where σ denotes the shift forward operator and A(σ) is a regular polynomial matrix. The solution space of such systems consists of forward and backward propagating solutions, over a finite time horizon. This solution space can be constructed from knowledge of the finite and infinite elementary divisor structure of A(σ) . This work deals with the inverse problem of constructing a family of polynomial matrices A(σ) such that the system A(σ) β (k) = 0 satisfies some given forward and backward behavior. Initially, the connection between the backward behavior of an AR representation and the forward behavior of its dual system is showcased. This result is used to construct a system satisfying a certain backward behavior. By combining this result with the method provided by Gohberg et al. (2009) for constructing a system with a forward behavior, an algorithm is proposed for computing a system satisfying the prescribed forward and backward behavior.
EN
Introduction: The occurrence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has significantly increased in the last few years. One of the common problems in this group are eating disorders and ailments from the gastrointestinal systems. According to some studies, these problems have a significant impact on the occurrence and severity of symptoms in the neurological system, so it is crucial to increase the attention paid on the role of diet in the treatment of this disease. One of the theories connects ASD with disorders of the digestive system and the intestinal bacterial flora. This theory is based on the gut-brain axis, which means the interaction between the gastrointestinal and nervous systems. Objectives: To demonstrate the differences in behavior habits, interest in nutrition, and frequency of consumption of food products between children suffering from ASD and healthy children. Materials and methods: The study was conducted among 44 children suffering from ASD and 33 healthy children as a control group. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was specially designed for this study. The questionnaire contained questions about eating habits and the frequency of consumption of selected food products. Results: Parents of healthy children showed more interest in their children’s way of feeding and nutritional recommendations compared to parents of children with ASD (4% and 11.3%, respectively). In addition, 24.3% more children with ASD consulted with a nutritionist compared to the control group. Complaints of the digestive system were 21.1% more likely by children with ASD. Children suffering from ASD were characterized by a higher intake of red meat and giblets and less frequent consumption of milk and milk products compared to the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the study group and the control group in terms of frequency of consumption of products, which are the source of gluten, artificial food additives-preservatives, and artificial colors. Conclusions: There are differences in the habits and eating behaviors and the frequency of consumption of selected food products between a group of children with ASD and a group of healthy children.
EN
Amplitude and frequency content are two important features of earthquakes that are different for near and far-fault earthquakes and in most of the standards, the effects of near-field earthquakes in loading are not considered. Therefore, study and comparison of these effects on structures is necessary. In this paper, structural operation against near and far fault earthquakes for two near sites and two far sites is investigated. For this purpose and in order to achieve an operation point of a structural model with six staircases with a mean lateral bending frame resistant system seismic hazard information is analyzed with regards to special plan spectrums of 2 different sites using near and far faults. An evaluation of the effects due to near and far fault earthquakes based on the Iran’s standard 2800 ranges on operation point and the comparison of operation effects of near and far fault spectrums with Iran’s standard are results of this research work. After the presentation of results obtained from time history analyses, some suggestions are proposed for design correction based on the regulations in near -field earthquakes. Keywords: Near-field earthquakes, moment frames, affect, behavior, Accelerogram compatibility with structural mechanism spectrum.
PL
Wstęp i cele: Kadra pracownicza jest fundamentem każdego zakładu pracy. Każdy człowiek posiada inne cechy charakteru, które warunkują jego integrację z przedsiębiorstwem, postawę pracowniczą, przestrzeganie norm i zasad obowiązujących w zakładzie pracy. Bezpieczne zachowania kształtowane są między innym poprzez szkolenia z zakresu bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy. Celem pracy jest omówienie wpływu cech osobowościowych na bezpieczeństwo pracy. Materiał i metody: Materiał stanowi literatura związana z cechami psychologicznymi człowieka a miejscem pracy. Stosując metodę analizy tekstu przedstawione zostaną różnorodne cechy osobowościowe oraz ich wpływ na bezpieczeństwo w zakładzie pracy. Wyniki: Analizując dokumenty powypadkowe nasuwa się wniosek, iż wypadkowość związana jest w dużej mierze z negatywnymi postawami wobec przepisów bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy, lekceważeniem lub tolerowaniem zagrożeń, niską ochroną życia i zdrowia, czyli głównie w sferze psychiki, ogólnej mentalności i poczuciu odpowiedzialności za siebie, rodzinę czy zakład pracy. Wnioski: Kształtowanie bezpieczeństwa w zakładzie pracy jest procesem, w którym odpowiedzialność za bezpieczeństwo biorą wszystkie strony. Decydujące znaczenie ma dobranie odpowiedniej kadry pracowniczej.
EN
Introduction and aim: The employees is the foundation any workplace. Each person has a different character traits that determine its integration into the company, the attitude of employee compliance with the standards and rules in the workplace. Safe behaviours are formed among others by training in health and safety. The aim is to discuss the impact of personality traits on safety. Material and methods: The material is literature related to human psychological traits and work. Using the method of text analysis will be presented a variety of personality traits and their impact on safety in the workplace. Results: By analyzing the accident documents conclusion is that the accident rate is associated largely with negative attitudes towards health and safety at work, neglecting or tolerating risks, poor protection of life and health, which is mainly in the realm of the psyche, the general mentality and sense of responsibility for yourself, family or workplace. Conclusions: Shaping the safety in the workplace is a process in which they take responsibility for the safety of all parties. The crucial factor is choosing the appropriate personnel.
EN
The article aims to investigate the managers’ leadership styles in the North-Eastern Romanian companies. The research is based on the questionnaire method, where 50 managers were questioned on how they communicate decisions and set conflicts in their companies. The collected data have been analysed from different angles of statistical methods in order to bring forward managers’disimulated behaviors. Additionally, it presented the potential correlations between the leadership styles and implementation. It was showed that managers act dictatorially in decision communication and make compromises in disputes with employees. From the results of the research it was also argued that managers have a dissimulated behavior and provided desirable answers.
PL
Celem artykułu jest zbadanie wiodących stylów menedżerów w północno-wschodnich firmach Rumunii. Badanie opiera się na metodzie kwestionariuszowej, gdzie 50 menedżerów było pytanych o to, jak komunikują decyzje i rozwiązują konflikty w swoich firmach. Zgromadzone dane zostały przeanalizowane pod różnymi kątami z wykorzystaniem metod statystycznych w celu uchwycenia udawanych zachowań menedżerów. Dodatkowo przedstawiono potencjalne korelacje między wiodącymi stylami i ich stosowaniem w praktyce. Wykazano, że menedżerowie działają w sposób dyktatorski w komunikowaniu decyzji i osiągają kompromisy w sporach z pracownikami. Na podstawie wyników badań stwierdzono również, że menedżerowie wykazują udawane zachowania i dostarczają oczekwanych odpowiedzi.
EN
We analyze group size, swimming direction and the orientation of fin whales relative to a fast ferry in the Bay of Biscay. Fin whale groups (≥3 individuals) were on average closer to the vessel than single individuals and pairs (F1,114 = 4.94, p = 0.028) and were more often observed within a high-risk angle ahead of the ferry (binomial probability: p = 7.60 × 10−11). Also, small groups tend to swim in the opposite direction (heading of 180°) of the ferry at the starboard side (binomial test: p = 6.86 × 10−5) and at the portside (binomial test: p = 0.0156). These findings provide valuable information to improve shipping management procedures in areas at high risk for collisions.
EN
Developing a game universe usually involves creation of various units which can be both, encountered by a player or controlled by him. There is a number of works considering autonomous behaviors of units wandering around the game world. When it comes to the units controlled by the player, they are often deprived of autonomy and are strictly controlled by the player. This paper presents a concept of units behavior depending on their inner state, where player can only give orders, make request and proposal which result cannot be strictly predicted.
PL
Wytwarzanie środowiska gry często wymaga tworzenie rożnych jednostek, które mogą być zarówno spotkane jak i kontrolowane przez gracza. Istnieje wiele sposobów modelowania autonomicznych zachowań jednostek wędrujących po świecie gry. Jednak gdy dochodzi do jednostek kontrolowanych przez gracza, często brakuje im autonomii przez co są rygorystycznie kontrolowane przez gracza. Poniższa praca przedstawia koncept jednostek, których zachowanie zależy od ich wewnętrznego stanu a gracz jedynie wydaje rozkazy, zadania i składa propozycje, których rezultat nie może być dokładnie przewidziany.
PL
W artykule przedstawione zostały wybrane zagadnienia postępowania z odpadami, zarówno promieniotwórczymi, jak i konwencjonalnymi, powstającymi w okresie eksploatacji elektrowni jądrowych. Ponadto w pracy dokonano charakterystyki procesu postępowania z powstającymi w okresie eksploatacji odpadami promieniotwórczymi, z uwzględnieniem: zasady 3R, nowoczesnych metod przetwarzania odpadów promieniotwórczych oraz stosowanych do przemieszczania pojemników. Dane dotyczące wielkości poszczególnych rodzajów odpadów, ilości zużywanych pojemników do transportu odpadów promieniotwórczych zostały zaprezentowane dla przykładowej elektrowni jądrowej wykorzystującej reaktor wodny ciśnieniowy o elektrycznej mocy zainstalowanej netto 1330 MWel.
EN
The paper presents selected aspects of the waste, both radioactive and conventional, generated during the service life of nuclear power plants. In addition, the paper presents the characteristics of the process of dealing with generated during the service life radioactive waste, including: 3R concept, modern methods of the treatment of radioactive waste and used for them transport containers. The data on the size of the different types of waste, the quantity consumed containers for the radioactive waste transport are presented for the nuclear power plant that uses pressurized water reactor with a net installed electric power 1330MWel.
PL
W artykule zidentyfikowano i poddano analizie kluczowe czynniki wpływające na zachowanie pracowników w organizacji zarządzanej procesowo. Badania pozwoliły na pozyskanie wiedzy z zakresu zachowania pracowników organizacji, istotnej w podejmowaniu złożonych decyzji przez menedżerów przedsiębiorstwa. Zwrócono uwagę na nowatorskie kwestie, związane z wykorzystaniem trudno mierzalnych czynników, takich jak inteligencja emocjonalna.
EN
In the article have been identified and analysed the key factors influencing the behavior of employees in the organization process-managed. The study allowed us to acquire knowledge of the behavior of employees in the organization, significant in making complex decisions by managers of the company. Drew attention to the novel issues associated with the use of difficult to measure factors such as emotional intelligence.
18
Content available remote Modelowanie mechanicznego zachowania cieczy używanej w tłumikach drgań
PL
W pracy rozważa się możliwość zastosowania tzw. ułamkowych modeli reologicznych do opisu dynamicznego zachowania cieczy o bardzo dużej lepkości. Ciecz ta jest często stosowana w pasywnych tłumikach drgań. Bierze się pod uwagę ułamkowe modele reologiczne o trzech i czterech parametrach. Posłużono się rezultatami własnych badań w procedurze identyfikacji parametrów modeli. Dyskutuje się wpływ temperatury cieczy i wpływ amplitudy drgań na wartości parametrów modeli. Wykazano, że ułamkowy, trójparametrowy model Maxwella umożliwia wystarczająco dokładny opis dynamicznego zachowania rozpatrywanej cieczy.
EN
In the paper the possibility of using the fractional rheological models to description of dynamic behavior of fluid of high viscosity is discussed. The considered high viscosity fluid is often used in the passive dampers. The fractional rheological models with three and fourth parameters are taken into account. The experimental data taken from our own experiments are used in the identification procedure. The influence of temperature of fluid and the influence of amplitude of vibration on values of model parameters are also presented and discussed. It was found that the fractional Maxwell model with three parameters is able to sufficiently well describe the dynamic behavior of considered fluid.
EN
The purpose of the study is to compare Developmental leadership with Lean leadership; document the differences and similarities and examine if you can combine these theories to achieve better results in the organization. A literature review is used. The result indicates more similarities than differences between Developmental leadership and Lean leadership behavior. The major difference is that Developmental leadership focuses on making the leader conscious of their own behavior and develop (possibly change) their behavior. Through new behaviors their co-workers and organization also gain developmental advantages. There is no further purpose described in Development leadership theory. Lean leadership also concentrates on behaviors, but clearly declares an override purpose; continuous improvement with focus on eliminating waste in the value stream. Lean leadership behaviors share a similar purpose, and focus on making leaders aware of what incorrect behaviors can cost or cause the organization. Even if Lean leadership does not have this clear and distinct relationship it is an underlying element in one of the two key principles - respect for people, which permeates both models. The two studied models seem to be quite similar and both focus on role models and frequency of developmental/value creating behaviors. The proposed comparative study should be oriented towards practical application in management positions.
20
Content available Dekompozycja systemu sterowania robota-kasjera
PL
W artykule przedstawiono formalną metodę specyfkacji systemów sterowania na przykładzie robota kasjera. Robot ten wykorzystuje aktywną wizję do realizacji swoich zadań. Aktywna wizja polega na wykonywaniu ruchów kamerą w celu aktywnego pozyskiwania informacji o otoczeniu. W tym konkretnym przypadku rozpoznawane są kody kreskowe na opakowaniach znajdujących się na ladzie.
EN
The paper presents a formal method of specifcation of control systems on the example of a robot cashier. The idea of this controller was based on the active vision paradigm. Its aim is to analyze selected scene fragments, in this case in order to identify the object by reading its barcode. The specifcation contains a set of diverse, but simple, behaviors which when integrated create a controller capable of realizing the robot's goal.
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