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EN
This paper presents the problems related to smelting gray and ductile cast iron. Special attention is paid to the metallurgical quality of cast iron. It depends on the type of furnace, charge materials and the special combination of charge, overheating and holding temperature, melting time, modification and spheroidization method. The evaluation of metallurgical quality has been performed by using derivative-thermal analysis (DTA). During the smelting process and secondary metallurgy, the ITACA system was used allowing to obtain information on alloy characteristic temperatures (Tliquidus, TeMin, TeMax, Tsolidus), VPS value, recalescence value, IGQ coefficient, nucleation gauge, porosity etc. The results of investigations and calculations are displayed in the form of graphs and dependencies. It has been shown that the derivative-thermal analysis (DTA) is an effective complement of chemical analysis and it has been found that both the increase in temperature and metal holding time have a negative impact on the metallurgical quality of liquid metal. The metallurgical quality can be improved by using proper composition of charge materials and modifiers.
EN
The article presents research on solid particle erosive wear resistance of ductile cast iron after laser surface melting. This surface treatment technology enables improvement of wear resistance of ductile cast iron surface. For the test ductile cast iron EN GJS-350-22 surface was processed by high power diode laser HPDL Rofin Sinar DL020. For the research single pass and multi pass laser melted surface layers were made. The macrostructure and microstructure of multi pass surface layers were analysed. The Vickers microhardness tests were proceeded for single pass and multi pass surface layers. The solid particle erosive test according to standard ASTM G76 – 04 with 30°, 60° and 90° impact angle was made for each multi pass surface layer. As a reference material in erosive test, base material EN GJS-350-22 was used. After the erosive test, worn surfaces observations were carried out on the Scanning Electron Microscope. Laser surface melting process of tested ductile cast iron resulted in maximum 3.7 times hardness increase caused by microstructure change. This caused the increase of erosive resistance in comparison to the base material.
EN
This article is a description of the progress of research and development in the area of massive large-scale castings - slag ladles implemented in cooperation with the Faculty of Foundry Engineering of UST in Krakow. Slag ladles are the one of the major castings that has been developed by the Krakodlew (massive castings foundry) for many years. Quality requirements are constantly increasing in relation to the slag ladles. Slag ladles are an integral tool in the logistics of enterprises in the metallurgical industry in the process of well-organized slag management and other by-products and input materials. The need to increase the volume of slag ladles is still growing. Metallurgical production is expected to be achieved in Poland by 2022 at the level of 9.4 million Mg/year for the baseline scenario - 2016 - 9 million Mg/year. This article describes the research work carried out to date in the field of technology for the production of massive slag ladles of ductile cast iron and cast steel.
EN
The study presented in this paper concerned the possibility to apply a heat treatment process to ductile cast-iron thin-walled castings in order to remove excessive quantities of pearlite and eutectic cementite precipitates and thus meet the customer’s requirements. After determining the rates of heating a casting up to and cooling down from 900°C feasible in the used production heat treatment furnace (vh = 300°C/h and vc = 200°C/h, respectively), dilatometric tests were carried out to evaluate temperatures Tgr, TAc1 start, TAc1 , TAr1 start, and TAr1 end. The newly acquired knowledge was the base on which conditions for a single-step ferritizing heat treatment securing disintegration of pearlite were developed as well as those of a two-step ferritization process guaranteeing complete disintegration of cementite and arriving at the required ferrite and pearlite content. A purely ferritic matrix and hardness of 119 HB was secured by the treatment scheme: 920°C for 2 hours / vc = 60°C/h / 720°C for 4 hours. A matrix containing 20–45% of pearlite and hardness of 180–182 HB was obtained by applying: 920°C for 2 hours or 4 hours / vc = 200°C/h to 650°C / ambient air.
EN
An investigation was conducted to determine the role of Co particles in the WC-Co coating produced with the High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) spraying on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties in a system of type: WC-Co coating/ductlile cast iron. The microstructure of the thermal sprayed WC-Co+Co coating was characterized by scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopes as well as the analysis of chemical and phase composition in microareas (EDS, XRD). For analysis of the quality and adhesion of coatings, the scratch-test was applied. It was found that as a result of the HVOF spray of WC-Co powders with the addition of Co particles, the coatings of low porosity, high hardness, a very good adhesion to the substrate, compact structure with partially molten Co particles and finely fragmented WC particles embedded in a cobalt matrix, coming to the size of nanocrystalline sizes were obtained. Moreover, the results were discussed in reference to examination of bending strength considering cracking and delamination in the system of (WC-Co+Co)/ductile cast iron as well as hardness and wear resistance of the coating. It was found that the addition of Co particles was significantly increase resistance to cracking and wear behaviour in the studied system.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań, dotyczące wpływu modyfikacji składu chemicznego powłok WC-Co (poprzez domieszkowanie cząstkami Co), wytworzonych techniką natryskiwania proszkowego naddźwiękowego z dużymi prędkościami (HVOF) na mikrostrukturę, właściwości mechaniczne i użytkowe układu typu: powłoka WC-Co/żeliwo sferoidalne. Mikrostruktura powłok WC-Co+Co była analizowana za pomocą mikroskopu świetlnego, skaningowego i transmisyjnego wraz z przeprowadzeniem badań składu chemicznego i fazowego powłok w mikroobszarach przy wykorzystaniu techniki EOS i XRO. Do analizy jakości i przyczepności powłok zastosowano test zarysowania. Stwierdzono, że w wyniku natryskiwania techniką HVOF proszków WC-Co z dodatkiem cząstek Co, powłoki charakteryzują się niską porowatością wysoką twardością bardzo dobrą przyczepnością do podłoża, zwartą budową z częściowo stopionymi cząstkami Co i silnie rozdrobnionymi cząstkami WC osadzonymi w kobaltowej matrycy, dochodzącymi do wymiarów nanometrycznych. Ponadto w pracy przedstawiono wyniki dotyczące wytrzymałości na zginanie układu WC-Co+Co/żeliwo sferoidalne w zestawieniu z analizą pękania i delaminacji powłoki w obszarze granicy rozdziału, oraz wynikami pomiarów twardości i odporności na zużycie powłoki. Stwierdzono, że dodatek cząstek Co znacznie zwiększa odporność na pękanie i zużycie w badanym układzie.
EN
The article presents results of the research on laser alloying of the ductile cast iron EN-GJS 350-22 substrate with the mixture of titanium powder with addition of 5 wt.% of tungsten. The aim of the process was to obtain surface layer with the in-situ composite structure. Laser alloying process was carried out using high power diode laser (HPDDL) with rectangular laser beam focus and uniform power density distribution in one axis of the beam focus (top-hat profile). The tests included determination of the influence of process parameters on the dimensions of the alloyed beads, metallographic macroscopic and microscopic observations, microhardness measurements of the laser alloyed layers and EDS chemical composition tests.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań nad stopowaniem laserowym żeliwa sferoidalnego EN-GJS 350-22 mieszaniną proszku tytanu z dodatkiem 5 %wag. wolframu. Celem procesu było uzyskanie warstwy wierzchniej o strukturze kompozytowej metodą in-situ. Proces stopowania przeprowadzony został z wykorzystaniem lasera diodowego dużej mocy HPDDL o ognisku prostokątnym i równomiernym rozkładzie gęstości mocy w jednej osi ogniska (top-hat profile). Badania obejmowały określenie wpływu parametrów procesu na wymiary ściegów stopowanych, obserwacje makroskopowe i mikroskopowe, pomiary mikrotwardości uzyskanych warstw wierzchnich oraz badania składu chemicznego EDS.
EN
The goal of this article is non-destructive ultrasonic testing of internal castings defects. Our task was to cast several samples with defects like porosity and cavities (where belongs mostly shrinkages) and then pass these samples under ultrasonic testing. The characteristics of ultrasonic control of castings are presented in the theoretical part of this article. Ultrasonic control is a volume non-destructive method that can detect internal defects in controlled materials without damaging the construction. It is one of the most widely used methods of volume non-destructive testing. For experimental control were made several cylindrical samples from ferritic grey and ductile cast iron. Because of the form and dispersion of graphite of grey cast iron it was not possible to make ultrasonic records on this casting with probe we used, so we worked only with ductile cast iron. Ultrasonic records of casting control are shown and described in the experimental part. The evaluation of the measurement results and the reliability of the ultrasonic method in castings control is listed at the end of this article.
EN
The article describes the detection of a defect in a cast iron casting. It analyzes the cause of the crack in the Turbine Component casting. In this article, we are focusing on a particular turbine casting that is commonly used in automobiles as one of the components for turbochargers. The turbine is a casting made of ductile cast iron with a visible crack on the naked eye. The formation of cracks in castings is a common but undesirable phenomenon in the foundry practice. It is important to identify the errors, but also to know the cause of defects in castings. The solution is a detailed error analysis. In this paper I used metallographic analysis and magnetic powder method. The crack formation is due to tension in the casting, which results in tensile, shear, or shear forces. The crack formation kinetics is difficult because it is still very low during hardening and shortly after the casting is overloaded. The crack is most often due to core resistance or shrinkage molds that begin after the surface layer is tightened when the strength of the material is negligible to the end of the crystallisation.
EN
The paper deals with the issue of potential for improvement of resistance of wood chip fine grinders to abrasive wear by providing them with WCCoCr coating applied with the use of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The study focused on establishing parameters of the technological process of spraying a 250–270 μm thick coating onto surface of ductile cast iron castings used to date as grinder linings. The presented data include results of microstructure examination, chemical composition analysis, HV hardness measurements, and scratch tests for both previous and new variant of linings. The obtained scratch test results indicate that the material of the coating is characterized with definitely lower susceptibility to scratching. The scratch made on coating was 75–84 μm wide and 7.2–8.2 μm deep, while the scratch on cast iron was distinctly wider (200–220 μm) and deeper (8.5–12.8 μm). In case of cast iron, the range of variability in scratch width and depth was definitely larger. This can be explained with large difference in hardness of individual components of microstructure of cast iron and significantly larger plastic deformation of cast iron compared to the coating revealed in the course of indenter motion over surfaces of the two materials. It has been found that application of WCCoCr coating offered better resistance of lining surfaces to scratching which can be considered a rationale for undertaking in-service tests.
EN
Diode laser surface alloying process was used to the in-situ synthesis of TiC-reinforced composite surface layers on the ductile cast iron substrate. The obtained composite surface layers were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and XRD diffraction. It was found that the morphology and fraction of TiC phase is directly dependent upon both the concentration of titanium in the molten pool and also the solidification rate. With increasing titanium content, the fraction of TiC increases, whereas the fraction of cementite decreases. The TiC phase promotes a heterogeneous nucleation of primary austenite grains, what reduces a tendency of cracking in the alloyed layers.
EN
The paper presents the results of experimental-simulation tests of expansion-shrinkage phenomena occurring in cast iron castings. The tests were based on the standard test for inspecting the tendency of steel-carbon alloys to create compacted discontinuities of the pipe shrinkage type. The cast alloy was a high-silicone ductile iron of GJS - 600 - 10 grade. The validation regarding correctness of prognoses of the shrinkage defects was applied mostly to the simulation code (system) NovaFlow & Solid CV (NFS CV). The obtained results were referred to the results obtained using the Procast system (macro- and micromodel). The analysis of sensitivity of the modules responsible for predicting the shrinkage discontinuities on selected pre-processing parameters was performed, focusing mostly on critical fractions concerning the feeding flows (mass and capillary) and variation of initial temperature of the alloy in the mould and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) on the casting - chill interface.
EN
This article deals with the technology and principles of the laser cutting of ductile cast iron. The properties of the CO2 laser beam, input parameters of the laser cutting, assist gases, the interaction of cut material and the stability of cutting process are described. The commonly used material (nodular cast iron - share of about 25% of all castings on the market) and the method of the laser cutting of that material, including the technological parameters that influence the cutting edge, are characterized. Next, the application and use of this method in mechanical engineering practice is described, focusing on fixing and renovation of mechanical components such as removing the inflow gate from castings with the desired quality of the cut, without the further using of the chip machining technology. Experimental samples from the nodular cast iron were created by using different technological parameters of laser cutting. The heat affected zone (HAZ), its width, microstructure and roughness parameter Pt was monitored on the experimental samples (of thickness t = 13 mm). The technological parameters that were varied during the experiments included the type of assist gases (N2 and O2), to be more specific the ratio of gases, and the cutting speed, which ranged from 1.6 m/min to 0.32 m/min. Both parameters were changed until the desired properties were achieved.
EN
The objective of the research was to determine the influence of boron on the crystallization process and microstructure of ductile cast iron. In the case of ductile cast iron it is a vital issue because even as little as trace presence of boron changes the properties of ductile cast iron in a significant way. With the use of a new ATD-4 (TDA) tester and CRYSTALDIGRPAH converter it was possible to measure the crystallization process parameters of the same alloy with four different contents of boron in one mould. Four samples with different boron contents were extracted, their microhardness was measured and quantitative analysis of microstructure was conducted. Obtained results allowed to state that with increasing content of boron the amount of graphite precipitates decreases, the amount of pearlite precipitates increases, the shape of graphite precipitates deteriorates and hardness increases. It is also planned to perform additional testings with boron contents between previously tested values.
EN
Studies were carried out to determine the effect of heat treatment parameters on the plastic properties of unalloyed ausferritic ductile iron, such as the elongation and toughness at ambient temperature and at – 60°C. The effect of austenitizing temperature (850, 900 and 950°C) and ausferritizing time (5 - 180 min.) at a temperature of 360°C was also discussed. The next step covered investigations of a relationship that is believed to exist between the temperature (270, 300, 330, 360 and 390°C) and time (5, 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240 min.) of the austempering treatment and the mechanical properties of unalloyed ausferritic ductile iron, when the austenitizing temperature is 950°C. The “process window” was calculated for the ADI characterized by high toughness corresponding to the EN-GJS-800-10-RT and EN-GJS-900-8 grades according to EN-PN 1564 and to other high-strength grades included in this standard. Low-alloyed cast iron with the nodular graphite is an excellent starting material for the technological design of all the ausferritic ductile iron grades included in the PN-EN-1624 standard. The examined cast iron is characterized by high mechanical properties stable within the entire range of heat treatment parameters.
PL
W pracy zawarto wyniki badań powłoki ochronnej ukształtowanej podczas zabiegu cynkowania zanurzeniowego na powierzchni wyrobu z żeliwa sferoidalnego. Wytop żeliwa sferoidalnego gatunku EN-GJS-600-3 został przeprowadzony w warunkach przemysłowych, natomiast formy odlewnicze wykonano w warunkach przemysłowych i laboratoryjnych w celu uzyskania zróżnicowanego parametru chropowatości powierzchni analizowanych odlewów, który został określony za pomocą profilometru. Zabieg cynkowania zanurzeniowego przeprowadzono na stanowisku laboratoryjnym w Pracowni Inżynierii Powierzchni Odlewów w Katedrze Inżynierii Stopów i Kompozytów Odlewanych na Wydziale Odlewnictwa AGH w Krakowie. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań dokonano oceny wpływu chropowatości powierzchni odlewu na kinetykę wzrostu powłoki cynkowej. Stwierdzono, że chropowatość powierzchni ma istotny wpływ na grubość powstającej powłoki cynkowej.
EN
In terms of economically and ecologically hot dip galvanizing Fe–C alloys is one of the best ways of protecting ferrous alloys from the destructive effects of atmospheric corrosion. The article contains the results of the protective coating formed during hot dip galvanizing treatment on the surface of a ductile cast iron. Melting of cast iron EN-GJS-600-3 grade was carried out in industrial conditions, while the molds were made in industrial and laboratory conditions to obtain varied surface roughness parameter of castings, which has been tested on a profilometer. Hot dip galvanizing was performed in Laboratory of the Engineering of Casting Surface, Department of Engineering of Cast Alloys and Composites. Based on the performed studies assesses the impact of the obtained surface roughness of castings on the kinetics of growth of the zinc coating. It was found that the surface roughness has a significant impact on the thickness of the zinc coating.
EN
In the paper the history of development of cast iron pipes was presented. The specific structural construction of cast iron and ductile cast iron and the resulting different properties were discussed. It was indicated that reduction in the wall thickness does not impact the durability, as it depends on the quality of protective coatings in the case of ductile cast iron pipes.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono historię rozwoju rur żeliwnych. Pokazano szczególną budowę strukturalną żeliwa szarego i żeliwa sferoidalnego oraz wynikające z tego zróżnicowane właściwości. Wykazano, że zmniejszenie grubości ścianek nie wpływa na zmniejszenie trwałości, ponieważ trwałość w przypadku rur z żeliwa sferoidalnego zależy od jakości powłok ochronnych.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono porównanie mikrostruktury powłoki cynkowej otrzymanej na powierzchni odlewu z żeliwa sferoidalnego gatunku EN-GJS-5007 podczas zabiegu cynkowania zanurzeniowego w procesie „niskotemperaturowym” 450°C oraz „wysokotemperaturowym” 580°C. Zbadano kinetykę wzrostu powłoki cynkowej, zidentyfikowano wzrastające fazy Fe-Zn oraz występowanie wydzieleń „twardego cynku” w powłoce.
EN
The paper presents a comparison of the zinc coating microstructure obtained on EN-GJS-500-7 grade ductile cast iron surface during the hot dip galvanizing in the "low temperature" 450 °C and "high temperature" 580 °C. The kinetics of growth of the zinc coating was investigated. The phases of Fe-Zn and the presence of precipitates "hard zinc" in the coating have been identified.
EN
The paper proposes a methodology useful in verification of results of dilatometric tests aimed at determination of temperatures defining the start and the end of eutectoid transformation in the course of ductile cast iron cooling, based on quenching techniques and metallographic examination. For an industrial melt of ductile cast iron, the effect of the rate of cooling after austenitization at temperature 900°C carried out for 30 minutes on temperatures TAr1 start and TAr1end was determined. The heating rates applied in the study were the same as the cooling rates and equaled 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300°C/h. It has been found that with increasing cooling rate, values of temperatures TAr1start and TAr1end decrease by several dozen degrees.
PL
Przedmiotem badań była analiza wpływu zawartości Si w wybranym gatunku stali oraz żeliwa sferoidalnego na kinetykę wzrostu powłoki cynkowej podczas cynkowania zanurzeniowego. Badaniu zostało poddane żeliwo gatunku EN-GJS-500-7 o zróżnicowanej osnowie metalowej oraz stal typu S235JR, natomiast zabieg cynkowania został wykonany w temperaturze 450°C. Przeprowadzono analizę oraz pomiary grubości powłoki ochronnej ukształtowanej na powierzchni wyrobów z tych dwóch rodzajów stopów Fe-C oraz dodatkowo wyznaczono zależność wzrostu warstwy ochronnej od czasu i od rodzaju metalizowanego stopu.
EN
The object of the study was to analyze the influence of the Si content in the selected grade of steel and ductile cast iron on the growth kinetics of the zinc coating during hot-dip galvanizing. The study was conducted on cast iron EN-GJS-500-7 Grade of various metal matrix and steel S235JR. Galvanizing treatment was carried out at a temperature of 450°C. The analysis and measurement of thickness of the formed protective coating were performed. Furthermore determined the relationship between growth protective layer and time, according to the type of metallized alloy.
PL
Omówiono znaczenie wykresów CTPc i CTPi w procesach obróbki cieplnej żeliwa sferoidalnego, szczególnie przy wytwarzaniu żeliwa ADI. Dokonano przeglądu literatury dotyczącej zagadnienia. Badania własne obejmowały opracowanie wykresów CTP dla czterech rodzajów żeliwa sferoidalnego różniących się głównie zawartością dodatków niklu, miedzi i molibdenu, odpowiednio: 1,55% Ni i 0,73% Cu; 2,26% Ni i 1,44% Cu; 1,60% Ni i 0,69% Cu oraz 1,50% Ni i 0,45% Mo. Zamieszczono mikrostruktury produktów przemiany przechłodzonego austenitu z wybranych próbek wykorzystanych do budowy wykresu CTPc-4. Na podstawie analizy otrzymanych wykresów omówiono wpływ Ni, Cu i Mo na temperaturę i czas poszczególnych przemian fazowych żeliwa sferoidalnego podczas chłodzenia anizotermicznego i izotermicznego. Uzyskano właściwości żeliwa ADI z dodatkami 1,55% Ni i 0,73% Cu spełniające wymagania dla 4 gatunków wg normy EN-PN 1563.
EN
The presented paper is a description of the significance of CCT and TTT diagrams in the processes of heat treatment of ductile cast iron, and especially during the production of ADI. A review of literature in the subject was made. Own research included drawing up TTT diagrams for four types of ductile cast iron which mainly differed with respect to the content of nickel, copper and molybdenum additions, respectively: 1.55% Ni and 0.73% Cu; 2.26% Ni and 1.44% Cu; 1.60% Ni and 0.69% Cu, as well as 1.50% Ni and 0.45% Mo. Presented are microstructures of products of overcooled austenite transformations from the selected samples used for the construction of a CCT-4 diagram. On the basis of the analysis of the achieved diagrams, the influence of Ni, Cu and Mo on temperature and time of particular phase transformations in ductile cast iron during anisothermal and isothermal cooling is discussed. Properties of ADI with additions of 1.55% Ni and 0.73% Cu were determined which meet the requirements for four types pf cast iron according to the standard EN-PN 1563.
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