Purpose: the main purpose of the article is to compare Polish and Chinese mine rescue services. It tries to bring closer the organization of mine rescue in Poland and in China and constitutes a development of the research work of the author's article entitled "Motivation to work in rescue services of young mining staff" (Hetmańczyk, 2017, pp. 19-24), indicating the main factors motivating young mining staff to work in the rescue services. Design/methodology/approach: theses presented in the article have been verified using: literature review, critical literature analysis, document research and comparative analysis. Findings: based on content of this article, it will be highlighted the need to seek new solutions to increase the efficiency of mine rescue. In the opinion of experts and practitioners in the area of security, the next "jump" may lead to the intensifying of preventive measures aimed at human beings, mainly focused on making changes in the consciousness of mining crews. In practice, this would mean including within the scope of preventive measures, those which have a major impact on the skills, motivation, and attitude to issues related to safe operation. Finally, the mine rescue system, through prevention and training, will strengthen safe mining practices. Originality/value: the article enriches knowledge and develops discussion in the area of mine rescue. Thanks to the knowledge presented in the article, it can be concluded that role and the rank of mining rescue lies not only in the dimension of tasks that it has to perform, but also importantly in the dimension of new challenges that determine the need to constantly adapt mining rescue to dynamically changing organizational and technical conditions, both underground and on the surface of mine sites.