Anatase, as an important titanium resource, is attracting more and more attention in research and application. In this study, an efficient process of comprehensively extracting the titanium and other valuable elements from the anatase mineral was proposed. The effect of particle size, stirring speed, initial sulphuric acid concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, and reaction temperature on the leaching rate of titanium from anatase was investigated. Under appropriate two-stage countercurrent leaching conditions, with the first stage of the liquid-to-solid ratio of 1/3 g/cm3, reaction temperature of 120 °C, initial acid concentration of 11 mol/dm3, residence time of 30 min, stirring speed of 200 rpm, and the second stage of the liquid-to-solid ratio of 1/3 g/cm3, reaction temperature of 200 °C, initial acid concentration of 13 mol/dm3, residence time of 30 min, and stirring speed of 200 rpm, over 99% TiO2, 99% Al2O3, and 97% Sc2O3 were extracted respectively with quartz still remained in the residue. X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to characterize the anatase samples before and after the leaching. Additionally, the leaching kinetics analysis indicated that both acid concentration and temperature were the most significant parameters for the leaching process. And, the titanium leaching reaction rate was controlled by the diffusion of reactants through the residual layer.