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EN
This paper presents a preliminary physical and mathematical model which describes the specific action of an automatic, short recoil operated firearm with an accelerator. The model includes the characteristic stages of the automatic action for a short recoil operated firearm (during one half of a single shot cycle), which enables simulation and assessment of the effect of the firearm’s system design parameters on the recoil velocities in specific recoil assembly components.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wstępny model fizyczny i matematyczny opisujący specyfikę pracy automatycznej broni palnej działającej na zasadzie krótkiego odrzutu lufy (KOL) z przyspieszaczem. Model ten uwzględnia okresy charakterystyczne działania automatyki broni z KOL (w trakcie połowy cyklu jednego strzału), umożliwiając przeprowadzenie symulacji pozwalających na ocenę wpływu parametrów konstrukcyjnych układu na prędkości odrzutu poszczególnych elementów zespołu odrzucanego.
EN
This paper presents the results of experimental determination of the impact of floats on the aerodynamic characteristics of an OSA model in symmetric flow. The studies have been performed in the low-speed wind tunnel at the Military University of Technology (MUT, Warsaw, Poland). The aircraft model was examined at the dynamic pressure q = 500 Pa in the following angle of attack range α = -28⁰÷28⁰. The investigations have been performed for an aircraft model under plain configuration with floats and without floats. The influence of elevator and flap inclination on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model has also been analysed. The obtained values of aerodynamic drag coefficient, lift coefficient, pitching moment coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio have been presented in the form of tables and graphs. The studies performed demonstrated that the use of floats causes the increase of aerodynamic drag coefficient ϹD, maximum lift coefficient Ϲ Lmax as well as critical angle of attack α cr. The decrease of lift-to-drag ratio has also been observed. Its value in the case of the model with floats was up to 20% lower than in the model without floats. The studies also showed that the model equipped with floats had a lower longitudinal static stability margin than the model without floats.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań doświadczalnych wpływu pływaków na charakterystyki aerodynamiczne modelu samolotu OSA w opływie symetrycznym. Badania wykonano w tunelu aerodynamicznym małych prędkości WAT. Model zbadano przy ciśnieniu dynamicznym q = 500 Pa w zakresie kątów natarcia α = -28⁰÷28⁰. Badania wykonano dla modelu samolotu w konfiguracji "gładkiej" w wersji z pływakami i bez pływaków. Zbadano również wpływ wychylenia usterzenia poziomego oraz klap na podstawowe charakterystyki aerodynamiczne badanego modelu. Uzyskane wartości współczynnika oporu aerodynamicznego, współczynnika siły nośnej, współczynnika momentu pochylającego oraz doskonałości aerodynamicznej przedstawiono w formie tabel i wykresów. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że zastosowanie pływaków powoduje wzrost wartości zarówno współczynnika siły oporu aerodynamicznego, maksymalnej wartości współczynnika siły nośnej jak i wartości krytycznego kąta natarcia α kr. Zauważalny jest także spadek wartości doskonałości aerodynamicznej która dla modelu z pływakami jest nawet o 20% mniejsza od doskonałości uzyskanej dla modelu bez pływaków. Badania pokazały również, że model wyposażony w pływaki ma mniejszy zapas stateczności statycznej podłużnej niż model bez pływaków.
EN
On 15 December 2017, Fabryka Broni “Łucznik” - Radom Sp. z o.o. (FB Radom), a subsidiary of Polska Grupa Zbrojeniowa S.A., delivered the first batch of 1,000 MSBS Grot C 16 FB M1 calibre 5.56 mm standard (basic) assault rifles (version A0) to the Polish Territorial Defence Force and thus initiated the process of deployment of the assault rifle in the Polish Armed Forces. MSBS Grot was developed by Polish design and process engineers at FB Radom and the Military University of Technology (MUT, Warsaw, Poland) who by mediation of the proper Armament Acquisition and Development Department collected the improvement suggestions and operational feedback from 2.5 years of testing by operators from the armed forces. The suggestions and feedback were thoroughly analysed and discussed during periodic meetings attended by the representatives of the Territorial Defence Force (TDF) Command, the Special Forces Component Command, the 3rd Regional Military Representation (RMR), MUT, and FB Radom. Based on the conclusions from the testing period and the results of theoretical and instrumental testing of the solutions proposed for implementation, the MSBS Grot assault rifles show systematic improvements up to the current version, A2. This paper presents the design of the MSBS Grot Version A0 assault rifle and the construction and processing modifications for version A1 and version A2. During the optimisation effort backed by theoretical and instrumental testing, there was special focus on the assurance of high operating safety and reliability, plus the required ergonomics of the assault rifle under various operating conditions. The paper also presents the avenues for further potential improvements of MSBS Grot.
PL
W dniu 15 grudnia 2017 roku Fabryka Broni „Łucznik” - Radom Sp. z o.o. (FB Radom), wchodząca w skład Polskiej Grupy Zbrojeniowej S.A., dostarczyła Wojskom Obrony Terytorialnej pierwszą partię liczącą 1 000 sztuk 5,56 mm karabinków standardowych (podstawowych) MSBS GROT C 16 FB M1 (w tzw. wersji A0), początkując proces jego wprowadzania do uzbrojenia Sił Zbrojnych RP. Broń została opracowana przez polskich konstruktorów i technologów z FB Radom i Wojskowej Akademii Technicznej (WAT), którzy przez 2,5 roku użytkowania karabinków zbierali od żołnierzy – za pośrednictwem Gestora sprzętu wojskowego (SpW) - doświadczenia, propozycje i uwagi z eksploatacji. Były one wnikliwie analizowane i dyskutowane podczas cyklicznych spotkań z udziałem przedstawicieli: Dowództwa Wojsk Obrony Terytorialnej, Dowództwa Komponentu Wojsk Specjalnych, 3 Rejonowego Przedstawicielstwa Wojskowego, WAT i FB Radom. Na podstawie podjętych wniosków oraz wyników przeprowadzonych badań teoretycznych i instrumentalnych proponowanych do zastosowania rozwiązań, karabinki MSBS GROT konsekwentnie udoskonalano, uzyskując obecnie broń w wersji A2. W pracy przedstawiono konstrukcję karabinka MSBS GROT w wersji A0 oraz zmiany konstrukcyjno-technologiczne jakie w nim wprowadzono, uzyskując wersję A1, a następnie wersję A2. Podczas prac optymalizacyjnych, popartych badaniami teoretycznymi i instrumentalnymi, szczególną uwagę zwrócono na zapewnienie wysokiego bezpieczeństwa użytkowania i niezawodności działania oraz pożądanej ergonomii karabinka w różnych warunkach eksploatacji. Ponadto zaprezentowano kierunki dalszych, możliwych udoskonaleń karabinka MSBS GROT.
EN
This paper presents the general principle of operation of delayed blowback small arms, their classification by the applied blowback delay, and a discussion of the existing designs. An analysis was carried out to rate the specific design solutions. The results of this work will be used in further investigations into and testing of delayed blowback firearms.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono ogólną zasadę działania broni strzeleckiej wykorzystującej odrzut zamka półswobodnego, dokonano jej podziału w zależności od rodzaju zastosowanego opóźnienia, a także omówiono występujące konstrukcje. Na podstawie przeprowadzonej analizy dokonano oceny rozwiązań. Wyniki posłużą do dalszych rozważań i badań broni z zamkiem półswobodnym.
EN
This paper presents the concepts for an anti-collision system intended for trams. The purpose of the anti-collision system is to develop and provide information to support the driver’s decision to initiate the braking of a tram. The anti-collision system is based on the processing of data from multiple sources (obstacle detection, image processing, and visual light communication system) and an expert system. The information about the road situation is visually presented on HUD (Head-up Display) of the driver.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono koncepcje systemu antykolizyjnego przeznaczonego dla pojazdów szynowych. Zadaniem systemu jest wypracowanie informacji wspomagającej motorniczego w podjęciu decyzji o rozpoczęcie procesu hamowania. System opary jest na wykorzystaniu informacji z wielu źródeł (układu wykrywania przeszkód, układu rozpoznania obrazowego, układu komunikacji świetlnej) i na podstawie algorytmu zaimplementowanego w systemie eksperckim, zobrazowaniu informacji dla motorniczego na wyświetlaczu przeziernym.
6
Content available remote Analysis of the causes of porosity identified by non-destructive testing
EN
Product quality management refers to a set of activities, which allow checking the product quality and eliminating any inconsistencies. In eliminating incompatibilities its necessary to identify their root causes. It is possible by using the selected quality management techniques. As it was shown, it is very useful after analyses the incompatibilities identified by popular non-destructive tests (NDT), which are used to check an incompatible product. It was concluded that practice quality management techniques after NDT are necessary because NDTs are effective in finding incompatibilities in the product (without its destruction) but not identifying their causes. The aim of the study was the analysis of using the selected quality management techniques (Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method) to identify the source of the porosity which was detected by the fluorescent method. The problem was identified in an enterprise localized in the Podkarpacie region. But after identifying the incompatibility in the product, no further analyses to find the root cause of the problem occurrence were made. After the NDT (fluorescent inspection method) on the product (made from 410 steel) used in the aviation industry, the porosity was identified. Because the root cause of porosity was not known, the sequence of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method was used. These methods were used in an adequate way (first the Ishikawa diagram and second the 5Why method) because only in this way it is possible to find the root cause of the problem. By the Ishikawa diagram, the potential causes and two main causes (i.e. inadequate preparation, water in molding sand) were identified. The source of the porosity (contaminated material) was found through the 5Why method. It was concluded that the selected quality management techniques (Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method) were useful in finding the root cause of the porosity of the product. Additionally, the paper proposed the use of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method after the NDT test, and this sequence was effective in finding the root causes identified by NDT tests, so it can also be used to solve other problems with incompatibilities.
EN
The analysis of product quality is an indispensable action in developing enterprises. In case of mechanical products, the non-destructive tests (NDT) are effective way to make control. Non-destructive tests allow making assessing product quality with-out destroying it. Due to the dynamically growing requirements of customers and necessary, the improvement actions for demanding organizations important is to make a complex analysis of quality products. Such an action was proposed to a production and service company located in Podkarpacie region of Poland. The aim was to analyze the quality of the mechanical lever and improvement the process of non-destructive tests, in order to identify the source of nonconformity with using quality management techniques. These activities were to demonstrate that the sequence (NDT and selected quality management techniques) would allow the detection of unconformities on the product surface and also identify the source of this unconformity. In the enterprise, the quality research of the product using fluorescent and magnetic-powder methods was made. After identified the unconformity on the product the additional actions which could point the source of unconformity were not practicing. The proposition of improvement in the NTD was use appropriately selected quality management techniques (Ishi-kawa diagram and 5Why method) after identified the unconformity. The mechanical lever was tested, which its surface using the magnetic-powder method was analyzed. After identified unconformity (scratch) using the Ishikawa diagram, the potential causes were identified and four main causes were selected (i.e.: uncleaned pattern, impurities during production, poor molding mass, poorly carried out product production method). It has been shown that sequence of NDT, Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method allows to identify the unconformity on product surface and source its creation. This sequence could be practicing to analyze other product in production and services enterprises.
EN
Meeting the required quality level of products taking into account customer requirements is the essence of thriving enterprises. In this context, it is necessary to make decisions that take into account mentioned the quality level but also the cost aspect relevant to both customer and producer. It was concluded that it is possible to make analyse in which connected the quality level with the cost aspect will condition the make the best choice. Therefore, the aim of work was to propose the pro-quality method of choice by using the ordered fuzzy numbers connected with cost-quality analysis (AKJ). The subject of the study were machines used in pad printing technique, so-called pad print, which choice resulted from their problematic choice to specific and often variable working conditions. As part of the method by using ordered fuzzy numbers, using the Fuzzy TOPSIS method (The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) the most favorable machine by quality was determined. Subsequently, a pro-quality machine choice was made, and this choice combined the obtained quality level with the purchase cost through the use of cost-quality analysis. The proposed method is some kind of new approach to making the best decision, where the aspect of quality with the cost was connected. Therefore, the proposed method can be used to solve different types of decision problems in production and services enterprises.
PL
Występujące w przedsiębiorstwach niezgodności wyrobów powinny być analizowane w efektywny sposób, tak aby możliwe było zidentyfikowanie źródła powstania tych niezgodności. Jest to możliwe za pomocą odpowiednio dobranej sekwencji technik zarządzania jakością. Sekwencją tą jest diagram Ishikawy i metoda 5Why. Celem pracy było przeanalizowanie niezgodności wyrobu (wada płyty meblowej) i wskazanie źródła jej powstania za pomocą sekwencji technik: diagramu Ishikawy i metody 5Why. Problem z niezgodnością w płytach meblowych zidentyfikowano w przedsiębiorstwie zlokalizowanym na Podkarpaciu, w którym produkowano meble i fronty meblowe. Wybór niezgodności dotyczącej wady płyty meblowej uwarunkowany był częstotliwością występowania problemu (ponad 470 sztuk płyt meblowych/9 miesięcy). Z kolei dobór sekwencji technik diagramu Ishikawy i metody 5Why wynikał z ich potwierdzonej skuteczności do analiz niezgodności wyrobów w ramach wskazania źródła ich powstania. Za pomocą diagramu Ishikawy określono potencjalne przyczyny niezgodności dotyczącej płyty meblowej, spośród których wskazano trzy przyczyny główne (wyeksploatowana maszyna, złe magazynowanie oraz złe układanie płyt meblowych na paletach). Kolejno, za pomocą metody 5Why zidentyfikowano źródło analizowanej niezgodności (tj. zła organizacja pracy, brak okresowych TMP maszyny), po czym zaproponowano działania doskonalące. Zaproponowana sekwencja technik diagramu Ishikawy i metody 5Why może być praktykowana w innych przedsiębiorstwach zarówno do analiz różnego rodzaju wyrobów, jak i niezgodności.
EN
The incompatibilities of products that are occurring in enterprises should be analyzed in an effective way, so as to could identify the root of occurred these incompatibilities. It is possible by adequate selected sequence of quality management techniques. This sequence is the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. Therefore, the aim of the work was to analysed the incompatibility of the product (defect of furniture board) and identified the root of it occurred by using the sequence of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. The problem with the incompatibility of furniture board was identified in enterprise localized in Podkarpacie, in which the furniture and furniture fronts were produced. The choice of incompatibility of the furniture board was conditioned by the frequency of occurred the problem (above 470 pieces of furniture boards/9 months). In turn, the selection of the technique sequence of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method was resulted from their proven effectiveness to analyze of incompatibilities of products as an indication of the source of their origin. By the Ishikawa diagram the potential causes of incompatibility of furniture fronts were identified, from which the three main causes were selected (worn out machine, bad storage, an incorrect arrangement of furniture boards on pallets). Subsequently, the source of the incompatibility was identified using the 5Why method (i.e. poor work organization, no periodic TMP machines), after which the improving actions were proposed. The proposed technique sequence of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method can be practice in other enterprises to analyze different types of products and incompatibilities.
10
EN
Currently, effective quality management of manufactured products is a factor determining the development of manufacturing companies. However, the identification of the source of non-compliance and the analysis of its causes are sometimes underestimated and are not followed by appropriate methodologies. The study aimed to streamline and improve the production process of aluminium pistons for passenger cars by solving the problem related to a significant number of non-compliant products. The analysis of types of nonconformities identified through penetration testing was performed. The use of histogram, brainstorming session and Pareto-Lorenz diagram was proposed, which allowed identifying the causes of the problem. The presented solution shows the practical effectiveness of a sequence of selected instruments to solve production problems. The proposed sequence of methods can be implied in other qualitative analyses in different companies.
EN
3D printing is a very popular technology for rapid production and prototyping. The rapid development of various 3D printing techniques began at the beginning of the 21st century. The concepts of rapid manufacturing and prototyping have gained new meaning due to unlimited shaping possibilities and the wide range of printing materials available. The possibility of obtaining a material object in accordance with the documentation relatively quickly, redefined the production process, especially in the case of a unit or small-lot production. One of the variants of 3D printing - FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) technology has become the most popular, thanks to the wide possibilities of hardware modification and the low price of printing devices. 3D printing is used in almost all industries. The article presents examples of 3D printing applications in various areas of engineering activities, including medical applications. An example of an approach to implementing 3D printing technology in an organization was also presented. A description of the developed training resources is provided to quickly train all process participants - the people responsible for the 3D printing process itself and potential recipients. The implementation of 3D printing technology in an organization is not only associated with the purchase of appropriate equipment, but it is also necessary to ensure an appropriate level of knowledge, which avoids confusion and makes the expectations of potential technology recipients real.
PL
Druk 3D to bardzo popularna technologia szybkiego wytwarzania i prototypowania. Szybki rozwój różnych technik druku 3D rozpoczął się z początkiem XXI wieku. Dzięki praktycznie nieograniczonym możliwościom kształtowania i dostępnej szerokiej gamie materiałów do druku, pojęcia szybkiego wytwarzania i prototypowania nabrały nowego znaczenia. Możliwość stosunkowo szybkiego uzyskania obiektu materialnego zgodnego z projektem, przedefiniowała proces produkcyjny zwłaszcza w przypadku produkcji jednostkowej czy małoseryjnej. Dzięki szerokim możliwościom modyfikacji oraz niskiej cenie urządzeń drukujących jedna z odmian druku 3D - technologia FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) stała się najbardziej rozpowszechniona. Druk 3D znajduje zastosowanie praktycznie w każdej gałęzi przemysłu. W artykule przestawiono przykłady zastosowań druku 3D w różnych obszarach działalności inżynierskiej, w tym w zastosowaniach medycznych. Przedstawiono także przykład podejścia powalającego na wdrożenie technologii druku 3D w organizacji. Przedstawiono opis opracowanych zasobów szkoleniowych pozwalających w szybki sposób przeszkolić wszystkich uczestników procesu - osoby odpowiedzialne za realizację samego procesu wydruku 3D jak i potencjalnych odbiorców. Wdrożenie technologii druku 3D w organizacji, nie wiąże się jedynie z zakupem odpowiedniego sprzętu, konieczne jest zapewnienie odpowiedniego poziomu wiedzy, co pozwala uniknąć nieporozumień i urealnia oczekiwania potencjalnych odbiorców w zakresie rzeczywistych parametrów wydruków 3D.
EN
Machinery faults are a problem that incorrectly diagnosed may result in the increase of waste. The fault mentioned in the article was identified at an opencast facility located in Podkarpacie. The purpose of the study was to analyse the defect identified on the excavator arm using quality management techniques. These techniques were the Ishikawa diagram and the 5Why method. In the plant, unit faults on various types of machines were detected. The fracture on the excavator arm was identified, however, the cause of the problem was not known. Potential causes of the fault and the main cause of the problem (material fatigue) were detected using the Ishikawa diagram. The root cause of the material fatigue, the long-term and repetitive operation of the excavator during the excavation of the deposit, was identified by the 5Why method. The proposed processes can be used to identify the root causes of various faults both in the mining industry as well as production and service plants.
EN
Refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) is a solid state joining technology that has the potential to replace processes such as the open-air fusion bonding technique and rivet technology in aerospace applications. Selection of proper RFSSW parameters is a crucial task which is important to ensure the mechanical strength of the joint. The aim of this paper is to undertake numerical modelling of the RFSSW process to understand the physics of the welding process, which involves large deformations, complex contact conditions and steep temperature gradients. Three-dimensional fully coupled thermo-mechanical models of RFSSW joints between Alclad 7075-T6 aluminium alloy sheets have been built in the finite-element-based program Simufact Forming. The simulation results included the temperature distribution and the stress and strain distributions in the overlap joint. The results of numerical computations have been compared with experimental ones. The numerical model was able to predict the mechanics of material flow during the joining of sheets of Alclad aluminium alloys using RFSSW. The predictions of the temperature gradient in the weld zone were in good agreement with the temperature measured experimentally. The numerical models that have been built are capable of simulating RFSSW to reduce the number of experiments required to set optimal welding parameters.
14
Content available Modelling of the low-pressure gas injector operation
EN
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in alternative sources of power supply for internal combustion engines. Lique-fied petroleum gas injection systems are among the most popular. It becomes necessary to know mathematical descriptions of the opera-tion of individual components. The article presents a mathematical model that describes the operation of the low-pressure gas injector. Valtek plunger injector was chosen as the test object. The mathematical description includes three parts, i.e. electric, mechanical and pneumatic. The electrical part describes the generation of electromagnetic force by a circuit with a coil, in the mechanical equilibrium equa-tion of forces acting on the plunger, and in the pneumatic part the air pressure on the plunger. The calculations were performed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, creating current waveforms, acting forces and plunger displacement. Correctness of mathematical descrip-tion and determined in the course of opening and closing time calculations were related to the values declared by the manufacturer, show-ing differences below 3%. The presented mathematical model can be modified for other injector design solutions.
EN
The article presents research results referring to the influence of supply pressure on the functional parameters of the impulse low-pressure gas-phase injector. The study was done on the original stand for flow test of gas-phase injectors. In the indirect evaluation, with the initial parameters and the length of the forced impulse, the current line, acceleration and pressure sensor courses were used. Apart from the volumetric flow rate, the analysed parameters were the time periods of the injector opening and closing process. Those time segments were composed of response time and opening/closing time, the sum of which gives time of full opening. Functional relationships describing the volumetric flow rate, time of full opening and closing are presented, which are helpful not only in comparative tests of different injectors, but also in modelling the operation of gas injector or algorithms of gas supply control system. The reference to the volumetric flow rate allowed to indicate possible causes of variability of this parameter depending on the supply pressure.
EN
The analyses of the nonconformity of products are made in order to achieve the desired level of their quality. This is also the case in the analyzed enterprise located in south-eastern Poland. Due to production character in this enterprise to identify the incompatibilities of products the non-destructive tests are used. In the current approach to quality after identified the nonconformities the cause her arise were determined, it was noted in order to use by statistical analyzes. Unfortunately, no deeper qualitative analyzes were made which could specify the source of its creation. Therefore, it was considered that it is necessary to propose to use (near current actions according to nondestructive tests) the sequence of quality management instruments. In order to improve the quality control actions, the sequence of techniques which complement each other, i.e. non-destructive tests, Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method, was proposed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sequence, the rear cover of the bearing turbine was selected as the subject of the analysis. The choice was conditioned by the unit character of production, which till now was discouraged a detailed analysis of sources of nonconformities. After analyzed the product with used the fluorescent method the nonconformities were identified on the rear cover of the bearing turbine, which was the porosity cluster. In order to identify the causes these nonconformities the Ishikawa diagram was drawn up. Next, the selected main causes (i.e. supplier of the product and nonconformities created during the production of the product) were analyzed the 5Why method in order to identify the source cause of the problem. In this case, it was the nonconformity material from the supplier. The proposed sequence, which uses the minimal resources let to show the wide range of information, which should be used to the improvement of quality. The presented the set of activities can be practised in each of the enterprises to analyze quality problems in order to identify the nonconformities and their causes.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań zużycia pierścieni prowadzących w układzie kinematycznym standardowej docierarki jednotarczowej. Do analiz wykorzystano metodę sztucznych baz Vickersa.
EN
In the paper results of research on wear of conditioning rings in kinematics system of typical single-disk lapping machine are presented. Vicker’s artificial base method is used in the analysis.
PL
Omówiono analizę kinematyki docierania powierzchni płaskich w układach jedno- i dwutarczowych. Przedstawiono opracowane modele standardowych układów kinematycznych. Wyznaczono zakresy zmienności prędkości docierania i wartości przyspieszeń w analizowanych układach kinematycznych.
EN
In the paper presented analysis of kinematics of plane surfaces lapping in single-disc and double-disc configurations. The models of standard kinematic systems have been demonstrated. The ranges of variability of machining speed and acceleration in the analyzed kinematic systems were determined.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wybrane zagadnienia wpływu sekwencji występowania różnych wartości obciążenia na trwałość zmęczeniową elementów konstrukcji. Dokonano w nim analizy różnic w trwałości zmęczeniowej elementów przy obciążeniu blokami cykli o różnych amplitudach występującymi w różnej kolejności. Głównym celem badań było sprawdzenie możliwości wykorzystania prostej maszyny zmęczeniowej GUNT WP140 do badania wymienionych zjawisk w trakcie zajęć laboratoryjnych w procesie dydaktycznym. Uzyskane rezultaty badań potwierdziły obserwacje opisane w analizowanej literaturze, dotyczące wpływu sekwencyjności obciążeń na trwałość zmęczeniową.
EN
The paper presents selected problems of the effects of load sequencing on the fatigue life of the structure. Authors performed an analysis of differences in fatigue life of elements for different order blocks of cycles with various stress amplitudes. The main goal of the work was to examine the possibility of using simple construction fatigue-testing machine GUNT WP140 for study abovementioned phenomena during laboratory classes in didactic process. Presented results confirmed the observations described in the analyzed literature related to effects of load sequencing on the fatigue life.
EN
As part of continuous quality improvement in well-managed enterprises, identifying unconformity should initiate actions to find their causes. Therefore, it was proposed to the enterprise located in Podkarpacie to use in the sequential way the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. The aim was to analyse of unconformity (porosity cluster) on the turbine outlet nozzle and identify the root of its creation. In the enterprise, the quality analysis of the products with a fluorescent method was carried out, but after identifying the unconformity, non-analysis of their reason for their occurrence was not practiced. Therefore, it was intentional to propose the use of sequence i.e. Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method to identify the root of unconformity. The subject of study was the turbine outlet nozzle, on which the fluorescent method the porosity cluster was identified. With the use of the Ishikawa diagram, the main cause of the problem was pointed (unconformity during production), and by the 5Why method the root cause of the problem, i.e. unconformity material from the supplier, was identified. The proposed method sequence is a simple and effective way to make analyses of unconformities and it can be used in different products and service enterprises.
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