Nanostructured materials are considered as promising scaffolds for advanced tissue engineering. The reason is that the nanostructure of a material resembles the nanoarchitecture of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), e.g., its organization into nanofibres, nanocrystals, nanosized folds of ECM molecules, etc. On nanostructured surfaces , the cell adhesion - mediating ECM molecules adsorb in an appropriate geometrical orientation which gives cell adhesion receptors access to specific sites in ECM molecules, such as amino acid sequences like Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) , which serve as ligands for these receptors [1 - 3]. In addition, these materials enhance the adsorption of vitronectin, which is recognized preferentially by osteoblasts over other cell types [1 - 3]. Nanostructured materials have therefore been considered as suitable particularly for bone tissue engineering. Our studies have focused on carbon and hydroxy apatite nanoparticles as components of substrates for colonization with human bone - derived cells in vitro. Carbon nanoparticles, namely nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and fullerenes C 60, have been used in the form of films deposited on carbon, glass, silicon and metallic substrates [3-4]. These films were o f continuous (NCD) or micropatterned (C 60 ) morphology , and have been intended for surface modifications of bone and dental implants , or for creating surfaces enabling regionally -selective cell adhesion and directed cell growth . NCD films were also doped with boron, which resulted in improved adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation (measured by the production of collagen I, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase content) of human osteoblast-like M G 63 cells . These beneficial effects can be explained by the increased electrical conductivity of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films, and can be further enhanced by active electric stimulation of cells. Some nanoparticles were also incorporated into polymeric matrices, e.g. foils of a terpolymer of polytetra fluoroethylene, poly vinyldi fluoride and poly- propylene ( carbon nanohorns, carbon nanotubes ) or nano fibres prepared by an electrospinning technique from polylactide, PLA (hydroxyapatite nanoparticles ) or poly( lactide-co-glycolide), PLGA (nanodiamond). All these composite substrates promoted the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in an extent similar to or even better than standard cell cultivation substrates , such as polystyrene dishes or microscopic glass coverslips. The adhesion and growth of MG 63 cells was particularly improved on the terpolymer of polytetrafluoroethylene, polyvinyldifluoride and polypropylene enriched with 4 wt. % of single-wall carbon nanohorns or multi-wall carbon nanotubes [3, 4]. The osteogenic differentiation of MG 63 cells (measured by concentration of osteocalcin) was enhanced on nanofibrous polylactide scaffolds loaded with 15 wt % of hydroxyapatite. On PLGA nanofibrous scaffolds loaded with approx. 23 wt. % of diamond particles, the number of initially adhering MG 63 cells on day 1 after seeding and the following growth dynamics of the cell swere similar to the values on pure PLGA scaffolds . However, the cells on PLGA meshes reinforced with nanodiamond formed larger and more numerous talin-containing focal adhesion plaques. In addition, these plaques in cells on PLGA-nanodiamond scaffolds were localized not only at the cell periphery but also in the central part of the cells (FIG (1). Thus, it can be concluded that nanoparticle-modified materials are more promising than their non-modified counterparts f or colonization with bone cells, f or construction o f bone implants and f or bone t issue engineering.