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European semi-natural calcareous grasslands are species-rich ecosystems, considered as priority habitats by the European Union (92/43/EEC Directive) and judged worthy of conservation. They are in strong decline in extension and are threatened by abandonment throughout Europe. It is known that grasslands management (grazing, mowing) acts as driving force in plant community diversity, which in turn is an important conservation aim of European environmental policies. The area of current pastoral landscape (about 1000 ha) of the North Adriatic (Cicarija, Croatia) was studied in order: 1/ to understand which factors drive floristic differentiation . environmental features and/or grassland management conditions, 2/ to identify indicator species sets linked to those factors and 3/ to appraise the effects of management type on the coenological and functional composition of indicator species. 73 phytosociological releves were carried out; for each of them field data (altitude, aspect, slope and land form), productivity measurements and information on grassland management were collected. Redundancy analysis (RDA) identified a productivity-related soil moisture gradient as the environmental driving force of grassland floristic differentiation. Indicator species analysis (ISA) detected the indicator species sets related to environmental features and management type. The results indicate that undergrazing and the lack of periodic mowing are responsible for the higher total variance of floristic data set explained by environmental parameters rather than by management (use/not use). For the same reasons, the variations that emerged from comparison of the functional characteristics of the indicator species of grazing and of mowing (avoidance strategy, life form, and storage organs) proved more important than those observed in comparing used and abandoned grasslands. The management system adopted (grazing or mowing) appears in turn to be conditioned by the soil moisture/productivity gradient.
Omówiono definicję klasy zabezpieczenia systemu alarmowego oraz wymagania funkcjonalne decydujące o stopniu zabezpieczenia. Dokonano przeglądu tych cech funkcjonalnych dla różnych elementów system alarmowego włamaniowego, systemu kontroli dostępu, systemu dozorowego telewizji (CCTV). Na podstawie wyników badań elementów systemów alarmowych, prowadzonych od kilku lat w Laboratorium PIE, określono najczęściej spotykane wady badanych obiektów w zakresie zabezpieczenia.
Definition of alarm systems security grades and functional requirements for each grad were discussed. Functional features of different elements of intrusion alarm systems, access control systems and CCTV systems were reviewed. The most frequent defects in the range of security of alarm systems, tested during several years in PIE laboratory, were pointed out.
The functional features of information systems were examined to determine the latter's suitability for the integrated support of enterprise delivery chain logistic processes. The information systems have been classified according to which logistic processes they support.
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