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EN
Purpose: In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 42CrMo4 steel were investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The samples were annealed at 860°C for 120 min. followed by oil quenching and then tempered at temperatures between 480 and 570°C for 120 min. The microstructure of untreated 42CrMo4 steel mainly consists of pearlite and ferrite whereas the microstructure was found to be as a martensitic structure with a quenching process. Findings: The results showed that there is an increase in yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, hardness and impact energy, while elongation decreases at the end of the quenching process. Conversely, yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and hardness decrease slightly with the increasing of tempering temperature, while elongation and impact energy increase. Research limitations/implications: Other types of steels can be heat treated in a wider temperature range and the results can be compared. Practical implications: It is a highly effective method for improving the mechanical properties of heat treatment materials. Originality/value: A relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of materials can be developed. The heat treatment is an effective method for this process.
EN
The paper presents properties of HS6-5-2 high speed steel subjected to deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) and subsequent tempering at different temperatures. DCT process of HS6-5-2 steel leads to shifting of maximum hardness peak to the lower temperature and the reduction of the obtained maximum hardness by about 1 HRC. These changes in hardness may be due to the shifting of the stage of nucleation and growth of carbide phases to lower temperatures or the changes taking place in the matrix, connected with the additional transformation of the martensite proceeding during the isothermal martensitic transformation occurring at cryogenic temperatures and more extensively occurring precipitation processes, lowering the content of the carbon in the martensite, determining thereby its lower hardness.
3
Content available remote Wpływ obróbki cieplnej na własności i strukturę stali 4330V
PL
W artykule opisano wpływ obróbki cieplnej polegającej na wygrzewaniu stali w zakresie temperatur 100÷900°C na strukturę i własności stali ulepszonej cieplnie 4330V. Celem pracy było zbadanie zachowania się stali przy długim wygrzewaniu bez atmosfery ochronnej w piecu oporowym. Jest to ważny aspekt podczas wykorzystania tego typu stali, gdy są one dostarczane do odbiorcy w stanie gotowym po hartowaniu i odpuszczaniu. Dzięki temu można stwierdzić, do jakich temperatur możliwe jest podgrzanie stali 4330V w procesach łączenia takich jak spawanie. Po przeprowadzonym procesie wygrzewania badanie próbki zostały przebadane pod kątem zmian strukturalnych, twardości i udarności. Przeprowadzane badania wykazały zmniejszenie własności po przekroczeniu temperatury 600°C podczas wygrzewania. Uzyskano znaczny spadek twardości do poziomu 275 HV. W wyniku wygrzewania w temperaturze ponad 800°C nastąpiło zahartowanie materiału w powietrzu.
EN
The article describes the effect of heat treatment of steel in the temperature range of 100÷900°C on the structure and properties of tempered 4330V steel. The aim of the study was to investigate the behavior of steel under long heating without a protective atmosphere in the resistance furnace. This is an important aspect when you use this type of steel, when they are delivered to the customer in the running order after hardening and tempering. This allows you to determine what temperature it is possible to heat the steel 4330V in processes such as welding. After the process of heating test samples were tested for structural change, hardness and toughness. Carried out studies have shown a reduction in properties when temperature exceeds 600°C during heat treatment. A significant drop in hardness to 275 HV was achieved. As a result of heating at a temperature of more than 800°C there has been a hardening of the material in the air.
PL
Artykuł obejmuje przegląd i ocenę dostępnych metod wstępnego nagrzewania narzędzi kuźniczych. Następnie zawiera kompleksową analizę zmian temperatury, jakie zachodzą na powierzchni i bezpośrednio pod powierzchnią matryc kuźniczych podczas wstępnego ich nagrzewania. Dla wybranej metody grzania wstępnego materiałem wsadowym opracowano szczegółowe wytyczne dotyczące sposobu i czasu nagrzewania wkładek matrycowych. Przygotowano również szczegółowe wytyczne grzania narzędzi na dwóch wybranych prasach.
EN
This article contains an overview of available preheating methods which are commonly used in hot forging processes. Then a comprehensive analysis of the temperature changes that occur on the surface and directly below the surface of the forging die was carried out during the preheating process. The temperature measurement was performed with fast thermal camera and a thermocouple inserted inside the tool. The temperature was measured in traditional preheating process, and its value after preheating was about 200ºC, which can be acceptable, however this process was improper, because of possibility of tempering surface layer of forging tool. That’s why new method of preheating tools in contact with heated billets was developed and detailed instructions for time and layout of billets were prepared. The tool temperature was measured also after application of new method presented in this manuscript, and it reached over 200ºC after two preheating cycles. After three cycles of preheating also good results obtained because temperature in surface layer was about 260ºC. In conclusion, method proposed by authors obtained good result, is quite efficient and prevents from tempering of forging tools. Finally, two pre-heating instructions were prepared, for the Massey 2500T press and the Massey 1300T press, which are attached at the end of the manuscript.
EN
A possibility to control the strength, hardness and ductility of the L35HM low-alloy structural cast steel by the applied tempering temperature is discussed in the paper. Tests were carried out on samples taken from the two randomly selected industrial melts. Heat treatment of the cast samples included quenching at 900°C, cooling in an aqueous solution of polymer, and tempering at 600 and 650°C. The obtained results showed that the difference in the tempering temperature equal to 50°C can cause the difference of 121 MPa in the values of UTS and of 153 MPa in the values of 0.2%YS. For both melts tempered at 600 °C, the average values of UTS and 0.2%YS were equal to 995 MPa and 933 MPa, respectively. The values of EL and RA did not show any significant differences. Attention was drawn to large differences in strength and hardness observed between the melts tempered at 600 and 650°C. Despite differences in the mechanical properties of the examined cast steel, the obtained results were superior to those specified by the standard.
EN
In the present work conventional heat treatment like normalizing (bainitic microstructure) and tempering of the alloys has been performed. The materials used in this study were two steels, one the laboratory prepared experimental low alloy Cr-Mo steel in comparison to typical commercial 10CrMo9-10 steel. The determined carbon concentrations of the residual austenite at the different temperatures of bainite transformation supports the hypothesis that the growth of bainitic ferrite occurs without any diffusion with carbon being partitioned subsequently into the residual austenite. It was found that bainitic reaction has stopped when average carbon concentration of the untransformed austenite is close to the T0 line and supports formation of bainitic ferrite by a shear mechanism, since diffusionless transformation is not possible beyond the T0 curve. Normalized samples were air cooled down to room temperature before tempering at various temperatures in the range of 500-750°C. Samples have been austenitized at 980°C for 0.5 hour air cooled and tempered at 500, 550, 600, 650, 700 and 750°C for 1 hour. After heat treatment, the assessment in the microstructure and phase precipitation was made using the samples prepared for metallographic and transmission electron microscope (TEM) on thin foils analysis. Quantitative X-ray analysis was used to determine the retained austenite content after heat treatment like normalizing and tempering and the total volume fraction of the retained austenite was measured from the integral intensity of the (111)γ and (011)α peaks. The changes observed in the microstructure of the steel tempered at the higher temperature, i.e. 750°C were more advanced than those observed at the temperature of 500°C. Performed microstructural investigations have shown that the degradation of the microstructure of the examined steel was mostly connected with the processes of recovery and polygonization of the matrix, disappearance of lath bainitic microstructure, the growth of the size of M23C6 carbides, and precipitation of the secondary M2C precipitates. The magnitude of these changes depended on the temperature of tempering.
7
Content available remote Przetapianie laserowe stali mikrostopowej typu HSLA
PL
W artykule przedstawiono badania dotyczące przetapiania wiązką laserową stali mikrostopowej typu HSLA – 28MnTiNbVB (Rm = 1060 MPa) o grubości 12 mm. Proces przetapiania został przeprowadzony przy zmiennej energii linowej przetapiania w zakresie od 0,6 do 2,6 kJ/cm. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że uzyskane przetopienia charakteryzują się poprawnym kształtem, jednak w ich objętości występują pęcherze gazowe, które mogą pojawić się w związku z bardzo dużymi szybkościami chłodzenia, co powoduje utrudnione wydzielania się gazów ze strefy przetopienia. Pęcherze te powstają w wyniku uwięzienia gazów rozpuszczonych w metalu bądź w wyniku odparowania pierwiastków stopowych. Przetopienia mają strukturę martenzytu listwowego o twardości dochodzącej do 600 HV10. Listwy martenzytu są mniejsze, a drobniejsze wydzielenia węglików są gęściej ułożone niż w materiale rodzimym. Uzyskane wyniki badań wskazują, że stal 28MnTiNbVB wykazuje ograniczoną spawalność w warunkach badania.
EN
In this article examinations of laser beam remelting of microalloyed HSLA steel grade – 28MnTiNbVB (Rm = 1600 MPa), 12 mm thick were presented. Remelting process was carried with variable linear energy in range from 0.6 to 2.6 kJ/cm. Carried examinations have shown that remelted zones have correct geometry, but include gas pores that could be caused by very high cooling rates resulting in hindering gas evacuation from remelted zone. This gas pores are caused by trapping gases dissolved in metal or vaporizing alloying elements. Remelted zone is martensitic with lath structure a hardness of up to 600 HV10. Laths are smaller additionally smaller precipitations are more tightly packed compared to parent material. Examination results show that steel 28MnTiNbVB exhibits limited weldability.
EN
One of the problems widely discussed in the relevant literature is the fatigue cracking of pearlite steel subjected to cold plastic working, as well as of that being currently in operation. Studies presented in the work were aimed at selection of the parameters, and mainly the time, of heat treatment operations of pearlite steel enabling obtaining cold drawn wires characterised with better plastic properties and higher fatigue resistance than the products achieved during standard processes. The idea of modification was based at possibility of obtaining steel of the sorbite, which are a mixture of ferrite and dispersion cementite of high degree of coagulation. The structures obtained with this method, as being globular, should be featured with better plastic properties than the lamellar structures created during standard diffusion transformation of austenite. In addition the discussed change was to enable decreasing the total surface of interphase boundaries at which the highest delaminations of structure were observed, regardless of whether the cause of the change resulted from presence of non-metallic inclusions or pile-up of dislocations.
EN
The aim of this article of this paper is to present issues related to characterization of nanometric-sized carbides, nitrides and/or carbonitrides formed during tempering of carbide-steel cermets. Closer examination of those materials is important because of hardness growth of carbide-steel cermet after tempering. The results obtained during research show that the upswing of hardness is significantly higher than for high-speed steels. Another interesting fact is the displacement of secondary hardness effect observed for this material to a higher tempering temperature range. Determined influence of the atmosphere in the sintering process on precipitations formed during tempering of carbide-steel cermets. So far examination of carbidesteel cermet produced by powder injection moulding was carried out mainly in the scanning electron microscope. A proper description of nanosized particles is both important and difficult as achievements of nanoscience and nanotechnology confirm the significant influence of nanocrystalline particles on material properties even if its mass fraction is undetectable by standard methods. The following research studies have been carried out using transmission electron microscopy, mainly selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The obtained results and computer simulations comparison were made.
EN
The article describes basic principles of induction bending and the change of mechanical properties from as received (straight) pipe made from HSLA steel to induction bend. The main purpose of this article is to experiment with tempering temperatures below 540°C. After tempering at 540°C which is the lowest recommended temperature for post bend heat treatment (PBHT) according to CSA specifications (Canadian Standards Association) the induction bend area in many cases does not achieve the minimum required mechanical properties and therefore it is not accepted for usage. In this article mechanical properties such as tensile, toughness, hardness are evaluated. Also the article contains microstructural analyses and comparison of bended and heat treated samples.
EN
According to the European Standard PN-EN 10216-2 two types of the heat treatment could apply to 7CrMoVTiB10-10 – the modern bainitic boiler steel. The 7CrMoVTiB10-10 steel may have different properties, depending on the chosen method of the heat treatment. This paper shows the differences in the microstructure and the properties occuring after two processes: one of them including normalization and tempering, and the other – hardening and tempering.
EN
The main scope of the article is the development of a computer system, which should give advices at problem of cooper alloys manufacturing. This problem relates with choosing of an appropriate type of bronze (e.g. the BA 1044 bronze) with possible modification (e.g. calcium carbide modifications: Ca + C or CaC2) and possible heat treatment operations (quenching, tempering) in order to obtain desired mechanical properties of manufactured material described by tensile strength - Rm, yield strength - Rp0.2 and elongation - A5. By construction of the computer system being the goal of presented here work Case-based Reasoning is proposed to be used. Case-based Reasoning is the methodology within Artificial Intelligence techniques, which enables solving new problems basing on experiences that are solutions obtained in the past. Case-based Reasoning also enables incremental learning, because every new experience is retained each time in order to be available for future processes of problem solving. Proposed by the developed system solution can be used by a technologist as a rough solution for cooper alloys manufacturing problem, which requires further tests in order to confirm it correctness.
13
Content available remote Computer simulation of microstructure of quenched moulding die
EN
Purpose: The research purpose is to upgrade the mathematical modelling and computer simulation of quenching of steel. Design/methodology/approach: The computer simulation of steel hardening is consisted of numerical calculation of transient temperature field in process of cooling, and of numerical calculation of mechanical properties. The hardness has been predicted by the conversion of calculated time of cooling from 800 to 500°C at specimen points to the hardness. The algorithm is completed to solve 3-D situation problems such as the quenching of complex cylinders, cones, spheres, etc. Findings: On the basis of control volume method, the algorithm for prediction of mechanical properties and microstructure distribution in quenched steel specimens with complex geometries has been developed. The established relations were applied in computer simulation of mechanical properties and microstructure distribution of forged steel centrifugal casting pipe mould. The investigated model of steel quenching can be successfully applied in the practice of heat treatment. Research limitations/implications: The investigation was done on carbon and low alloyed steel. The further experimental investigations are needed for final verification of established model. Practical implications: The established algorithms can be used in heat treating practice. Originality/value: Microstructure distribution is estimated based on time relevant for structure transformation, i.e., the cooling time from 800 to 500°C, t8/5.
EN
Effect of the tempering temperature of hardened carbon steel and conformable structural changes on physical-mechanical properties and tribological characteristics during dry sliding friction was researched. It is shown, that relation between adhesive and deformational components of the frictional force depends on acquired during tempering viscoelastic properties that influence on mechanism of the contact interaction and dissipative processes. Viscoelastic properties are detected by two basic rheological parameters: modulus of elasticity and damping capacity, with which the viscoelastic coefficient is connected. The theoretical analysis of dissipative properties of the viscoelastic frictional contact dissected subject to the structure of tempered steel on the base of examined standard rheological models.
EN
The article presents results of heat treatment on the high chromium cast iron. The study was carrying out on samples cut from the casting made from chromium cast iron. Those were hardened at different temperatures, then tempered and soft annealed. The heat treatment was performed in a laboratory chamber furnace in the Department of Engineering Alloys and Composites at Faculty of Foundry Engineering AGH. At each stage of the heat treatment the hardness was measured by Vickers and Rockwell methods, and the microscope images were done. Additionally based on images from the optical microscope the microstructure was assessed. Based on these results, the effect of hardening, tempering and soft annealing on the microstructure and hardness of high chromium cast iron was studied. Next the effects of different hardening temperatures on the properties of high chromium cast iron were compared. The study led to systemize the literature data of the parameters of heat treatment of high chromium cast iron, and optimal conditions for heat treatment was proposed for casts of similar properties and parameters.
EN
The results of a microstructure and hardness investigations of a new hypereutectoid Mn-Cr-Mo-V steel, imitating by its chemical composition tool steels, are presented in the paper. The microstructure as well hardness changes, caused by austenitising and tempering temperatures were assessed, for samples quenched and sub-quenched in liquid nitrogen, directly after the quenching treatment. Additionally, the influence of the tempering temperature on the volume fraction of the retained austenite was estimated. New hypereutectoid steel, after an appropriate heat treatment obtained the relevant hardness of the tools used in the cold and hot working proces. It was indicated that the steel hardness increases with the increases of the austenitising temperature. At 800ºC the hardness of the quenched samples were equal 895HV, and for the sub-quenched samples 937HV. The maximum hardness, after tempering (746HV), was found at a temperature of 520ºC. It will be possible, in future, to apply this obtained investigation results in designing chemical compositions and microstructures of the new hypereutectoid alloyed steels of properties required by their users.
PL
W artykule zamieszczono wyniki badań mikrostruktury i twardości nowej, nadeutektoidalnej stali Mn-Cr-Mo-V imitującej składem chemicznym stale narzędziowe. Na próbkach nowej stali niewymrożonych oraz wymrożonych w ciekłym azocie bezpośrednio po zabiegu hartowania oceniono zmiany zachodzące w jej mikrostrukturze oraz zmiany twardości z temperatura austenityzowania i z temperatura odpuszczania. Dodatkowo, oceniono zmiane udziału objętościowego austenitu szczątkowego w badanej stali z temperaturą odpuszczania. Nowa stal nadeutektoidalna, po zastosowaniu odpowiedniej obróbki cieplnej uzyskuje twardości oczekiwane przez użytkowników narzędzi stosowanych w przeróbce plastycznej na zimno i na gorąco. Wykazano, że ze wzrostem temperatury austenityzowania jej twardość rośnie osiągając przy 800ºC wartości: 895HV (dla próbek niewymrożonych) oraz 937HV (dla próbek wymrożonych). Natomiast maksymalna twardość po odpuszczaniu (746HV) odnotowano przy temperaturze 520ºC. Uzyskane wyniki badań będzie można wykorzystać w przyszłości przy projektowaniu składów chemicznych i mikrostruktur nowych, nadeutektoidalnych stali stopowych o wymaganych przez użytkowników własnościach.
EN
Purpose: The effect of heating rate to the tempering temperature on the microstructure and properties of lath martensite tempered at a various temperatures was studied in literature from point of the cemntite precipitations view. It has been shown that cementite dispersion is finer and more uniform in the rapidly heated and tempered than in the slowly heated and tempered specimen. Aim of this work is to investigate the effect of heating rate on the phase transformations during tempering. Design/methodology/approach: The investigations of phase transformations during tempering of the low carbon steel were made on the grounds of dilatometric curves recorded during heating from as-quenched state. Heating to isothermal holding at 350°C was made with two different heating rates (100°C/s and 5°C/s) and was performed by use of the L78 R.I.T.A. dilatometer made by Linseis. The investigations of phase transformations during continuous heating from as-quenched state were performed by use of the DT 1000 dilatometer made by Adamel. Findings: It is possible to reduce probability of the occurrence of some phase transformations in favor of other. The difference in advancement of the various phase transformations can effects on various mechanical properties of the steels. Research limitations/implications: The effect of the heating rates (100°C/s and 5°C/s) during heating from as-quenched state on the phase transformations during isothermal holding at 350°C was submitted. It is expected to carry out further research on the effect of the heating rate on the phase transformations during isothermal holding at different temperatures and their effects on mechanical properties. Practical implications: The obtained information may be used to design new technologies of steels tempering. Originality/value: The new point of view on the tempering of the steels can be assumed.
EN
This paper presents a new technique for measuring the mechanical Barkhausen noise in ferromagnetic steels. We study the effect of tempering time of P91 grade steels on: parameters of mechanical Barkhausen noise, mechanical hardness and magnetic coercivity. All of these quantities are compared. The variations in amplitude of root mean square of mechanical Barkhausen noise for different tempering times are revealed to be greater than those of hardness and coercivity.
PL
W pracy została opisana metoda badania mechanicznego efektu Barkhausena z wygorzystaniem drgań giętnych belki. Badany był wpływ czasu wygrzewania hartowanej stali P91 na: właściwości mechanicznego efektu Barkhausena, twardość mechaniczną oraz pole koercji. Stwierdzono, że amplituda obwiedni sygnału napięciowego mechanicznego efektu Barkhausena wzrasta wraz z czasem wygrzewania, natomiast twardość mechaniczna oraz pole koercji maleją. Natężenie mechanicznego efektu Barkhausena wykazuje największą dynamikę względnych zmian, co pokazuje, że jest to najczulsze narzędzie do oceny stanu wygrzewania stali P91.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano oryginalny wykres CTPc° (czas – temperatura – przemiana) dla przemian zachodzących podczas odpuszczania stali narzędziowej do pracy na gorąco w gatunku 56NiCrMo7. Wykres wykonano dla wybranej temperatury austenityzowania równej 830 °C. Uzyskane wyniki zilustrowano za pomocą dylatogramu chłodzenia stali od 830 °C oraz dylatogramów nagrzewania ze stanu zahartowanego (odpuszczania) wraz z ich interpretacją. Na dylatogramach nagrzewania stwierdzono dwa wyraźne efekty dylatacyjne ujemne: pierwszy − pochodzący najprawdopodobniej od wydzielania węglika ε oraz drugi – związany z wydzielaniem cementytu stopowego (M3C). Ponadto, zarejestrowano wyraźny efekt dylatacyjny dodatni związany z przemianą austenitu szczątkowego. Nie zaobserwowano natomiast efektu dylatacyjnego dodatniego pochodzącego od niezależnego zarodkowania węglików typu MC. Uzyskane wyniki badań pozwolą zmodyfikować technologię odpuszczania narzędzi wykonanych z badanej stali.
EN
In this paper the original CHT diagram (Continuous - Heating - Transformation) during tempering of 56NiCrMo7 hot-work tool steel was presented. The diagram was prepared for the chosen austenitizing temperature (830 °C). To present the way of interpretation of the results, dilatograms of cooling the sample as well heating the samples from as-quenched state were studied. Two negative dilatation effects were found on the dilatograms of heating: first - related most probably to the precipitations of ε carbide and second – related to the precipitations of alloyed cementite (M3C). Moreover, the positive dilatation effect related to the transformation of the retained austenite was registered. The positive dilatations effect related to independent nucleation of the carbides of MC type was not observed. Obtained results will let work out the detailed technology of tempering of tools made of the investigated steel.
EN
Purpose: The reason for writing this paper was to describe the kinetics of phase transformations during continuous heating from hardened state and subsequent cooling of unalloyed high carbon steel. Design/methodology/approach: Dilatometric investigations were performed using a DT 1000 dilatometer of a French company Adamel. Samples after quenching and quenching and sub-quenching in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) were heated up 700 °C at the rate of 0.05 °C/s and subsequent cooled to room temperature at the rate of 0.05 °C/s. Findings: Regardless of heating the hardened high-carbon steel to 700 °C, a small fraction of the retained austenite remained in its structure, and was changing into fresh martensite only during cooling in the temperature range: 280°C-170°C. Research limitations/implications: Schematic presentation of the differential curve of tempering of the hardened high-carbon, unalloyed steel illustrating the phase transformations occurring during heating from hardened state. Practical implications: An observation, that a small fraction of the retained austenite remained in the structure of tempered high-carbon steel, indicates that even unalloyed steel should be tempered two times. Originality/value: Detailed descriptions of kinetics phase transformations during heating from hardened state of unalloyed high carbon steel.
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