Given the fact that major sporting events such as the Olympic Games attract attention all over the world, the aspect of their security has become even more important, especially after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Organizers of this type of mass sports event treat the issue of safety as top priority. The paper examines the empirical data from scientific publications, press releases and formal government documents that pertain to Russia's preparation to properly secure the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics in terms of security. The aim of this article was to identify the threats to the Winter Olympics in Sochi and to characterize the security system organized by Russia against this background. The conducted research confirmed that the greatest threat in Russia was the high activity of national liberation groups, fighters and terrorists from the Sochi area, which clearly intensified in the period preceding the Olympics. In addition, the security system created by Russia involved many different state bodies, including agencies, police and law enforcement services, and the army. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the security system created in Sochi may be a good example for other countries that will try to organize the Olympic Games in the future.