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1
EN
Road transport holds for the largest share in the freight transport sector in Europe. This work is carried out by heavy vehicles of various types. It is assumed that, in principle, transport should take place on the main road connections, such as motorways or national roads. Their share in the polish road infrastructure is not dominant. Rural and communal roads roads are the most prevalent. This fact formed the basis of the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption tests of heavy vehicles in real operating conditions. A set of vehicles (truck tractor with a semi-trailer) meeting the Euro V emission norm, transporting a load of 24,800 kg, was selected for the tests. The research was carried out on an non-urban route, the test route length was 22 km. A mobile Semtech DS instrument was used, which was used to measure the exhaust emissions. Based on the obtained results, the emission characteristics were determined in relation to the operating parameters of the vehicles drive system. Road emission, specific emission and fuel consumption values were also calculated.
EN
A long service life of heavy-duty diesel vehicles results in a large number of older-technology trucks and buses of various types running on roads nowadays. Cleaning up exhaust gases of these older vehicles gives an opportunity to improve air quality at affordable costs. Retrofitting older buses with diesel particulate filters (DPF) is a cost-effective measure to quickly and efficiently reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions and contribute to mitigation of air pollution in urban conglomerates. In this paper, the milestones on a way to wide-scale retrofitting of heavy-duty vehicles with DPF are discussed on the example of Israel DPF retrofit program. Crucial importance of a balanced governmental approach combining regulation and economic incentives, together with collaboration of government, academia and vehicle operators, is underlined. Main results of the one-year pilot project focused on urban and intercity buses are discussed. Impact of DPF retrofitting on particulate emissions and engine performance and maintenance aspects of in-use diesel buses is analyzed. Very high particle filtration efficiency (in average, about 97%) together with relatively low fuel economy penalty (0.6–1.8%, depending on the bus type) are proved. Vital importance of careful monitoring and correct maintenance of DPF-equipped vehicles is underlined.
EN
The use of internal combustion engines as the drive for heavy-duty vehicles (with an unladen weight of over 3500 kg) forces these engines to be tested on an engine dynamometer. Thus, these engines operate under forced conditions, which are significantly different from their actual application. To assess the ecology of such vehicles (or more accurately the engine alone) the emission of pollution per unit of work done by the engine must be determined. However, obtaining the results of unit emissions (expressed in grams of the compound per a unit of performed work) does not give the grounds for determining the mass of pollutants on a given stretch of the road traveled by the vehicle. Therefore, there is a need to change the emission value expressed in units referenced to the engine work (g/kWh) into a value of road emissions (g/km). The paper presents a methodology of determining pollutant emissions of heavy-duty road vehicles on the basis of the unit emissions, as well as additional parameters determined on the basis of the algorithm presented in the article. A solution was obtained that can be used not only for heavy-duty vehicles, but was also extended to allow use for buses.
4
Content available SCR systems for NOx reduction in heavy duty vehicles
EN
Air pollution has become an important worldwide problem. The European Commission credits road and water transport as the major source of NOx pollution, and of being responsible for around 50% of the total air pollution in urban areas. In Poland, around 45% of the country NOx emissions are attributed to transportation. During the last decade, the use of SCR technologies have gained popularity as a method for NOx reduction, the technology is widely considered as one of the solutions for road transport emissions. SCR technology had previously been employed in stationary plants, maritime transportation and other installations using combustion processes in which exhaust conditions are easier to control. The advance on the technology led to the introduction of the first heavy-duty vehicle with an SCR system into the market in 2004. New technologies and applications are constantly appearing, for example, SCR exhaust gas cleaning systems for reciprocating engines are still under development and compression ignition engines can be found in a number of different applications. The technology still needs to be studied and improved as constant problems and knowledge is required in issues such as urea injection, crystallization and NOx reduction efficiency. Moreover, the designs intended for heavy duty vehicles need to meet vehicle limitations and EURO emissions restrictions. This paper presents a review of the different SCR system designs derived from the various factors and regulations in the automotive industry, which have influenced the technology, along with a parametric study of a proprietary SCR system for heavy-duty application.
EN
The paper presents a comparative analysis of the emission of CO, NOx, CO2 and gas mileage for two heavy-duty long haulage vehicles. The tests were performed on the same test road. The test route reflected typical daily operation of heavy-duty vehicles – a drive to the loading/unloading zone and cruise on national roads. In the investigations, the authors used a portable exhaust emissions analyzer (SEMTECH DS, PEMS – Portable Emissions Measurement System). Based on the performed analysis, optimum engine was selected for long haulage vehicles under conditions of Polish transport and logistic infrastructure in terms of fuel consumption.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono porównanie emisji CO, NOx, CO2 oraz przebiegowego zużycia paliwa dla dwóch pojazdów ciężkich przeznaczonych do długodystansowego przewozu towarów. Badania wykonano na tym samym odcinku pomiarowym. Odzwierciedlał on codzienną eksploatację pojazdów ciężkich – dojazd do miejsca załadunku/rozładunku i ruch po drogach krajowych. Do badań wykorzystano mobilny przyrząd SEMTECH DS z grupy PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System). Na podstawie przeprowadzonej analizy określono właściwy wybór silnika spalinowego pojazdu ciężkiego w aspekcie zużycie paliwa dla długodystansowego przewozu towarów w warunkach reprezentujących krajową infrastrukturę transportowo-logistyczną.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono porównanie emisji CO2, CO oraz przebiegowego zużycia paliwa dla dwóch pojazdów ciężarowych przeznaczonych do długodystansowego przewozu towarów. Pojazdy różniły się zarówno parametrami jednostek napędowych, jak i masą przewożonego towaru. Badania wykonano na tym samym odcinku pomiarowym. Odzwierciedlał on codzienną eksploatację pojazdów ciężarowych – dojazd do miejsca załadunku/rozładunku i ruch po drogach krajowych. Do badań wykorzystano mobilny przyrząd SEMTECH DS z grupy PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System). Na podstawie przeprowadzonej analizy określono optymalny wybór silnika spalinowego pojazdu ciężarowego w aspekcie zużycie paliwa dla długodystansowych przewozów towarów w warunkach reprezentujących krajową infrastrukturę transportowo-logistyczną.
EN
The paper presents a comparison of CO2, CO and fuel consumption for two heavy-duty vehicles designed for long-distance transport. Both vehicles were different parameters of engine and weight of the cargo. The tests were performed on the same selected road which reflected the daily operation of heavy-duty vehicles – getting to the place loading / unloading goods and operation on the highway roads. A portable exhaust emission analyzer SEMTECH DS was used from group of PEMS. The analysis determined the optimum choice the heavy-duty vehicle engine in the aspect of fuel consumption for long-distance transport of goods under conditions representing the national transport and logistics infrastructure.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki pomiarów toksyczności spalin samochodu ciężarowego klasy średniej w warunkach rzeczywistej eksploatacji w zależności od sposobu jego rozpędzania. Na podstawie pozyskanych danych pomiarowych dokonano oceny rozpędzania pojazdu uwzględniając minimalną emisję dwutlenku węgla. Badaniom drogowym poddano dystrybucyjny samochód ciężarowy o dopuszczalnej masie całkowitej wynoszącej niespełna 12000 kg. Testy – rozpędzanie samochodu – wykonywano na krótkim odcinku jazdy, stosując różny styl osiągania założonej maksymalnej prędkości jazdy. Do pomiarów stężenia dwutlenku węgla w spalinach wykorzystano mobilną aparaturę do badań toksyczności spalin typu PEMS.
EN
The paper presents the results of the investigations into the relation of the exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty vehicle under actual operating conditions and its acceleration. Based on the obtained measurement data an evaluation of the vehicle acceleration was performed taking into account the minimum emission of carbon dioxide. The on-road tests were carried out on a delivery truck of the gross vehicle weight approximating 12000 kg. The tests (vehicle acceleration) were performed on a short road portion applying different driving techniques to reach the desired maximum speed. For the measurements of the emission of carbon dioxide the authors used a portable exhaust emission analyzer (PEMS).
PL
Wprowadzenie w 2007 roku dodatkowego testu zgodności emisyjnej dla grupy ciężkich pojazdów samochodowych – NTE (Not-To-Exceed) – sprawiło, że emisja gazów wylotowych z tej grupy jest kontrolowana w szerszym zakresie pracy jednostki napędowej. Procedura NTE jest stosowana jedynie dla jednostek napędowych homologowanych według procedur określonych przez amerykańską agencję EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). W przepisach europejskich tego typu procedury nie obowiązują. Ten argument stanowił podstawę do wykonania przez autorów pomiarów emisji gazów wylotowych z ciężkiego pojazdu samochodowego w rzeczywistych warunkach eksploatacji. Badania wykonano przy użyciu mobilnych analizatorów z grupy PEMS. Obiektem badawczym był pojazd o dopuszczalnej masie całkowitej 40 000 kg wyposażony w jednostkę napędową o pojemności skokowej 15,6 dm3 i spełniającą normę emisji Euro V. Na podstawie powyższych badań wyznaczono wartości emisji jednostkowej gazów wylotowych w obszarze pracy silnika określonym w procedurze NTE. Następnie powyższe wartości odniesiono do emisji uzyskanej w całym teście badawczym.
EN
The enforcement of NTE (Not-To-Exceed), dedicated to heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) to check their emission compliance, entailed exhaust emission control within a wider range of engine operation. The NTE procedure is applied only to HDV engines homologated in accordance with American EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) directives. By contrast, European regulations do not apply any such procedures currently. Therefore, the authors of this paper carried out exhaust emission tests on a heavy-duty vehicle in real conditions with the use of a PEMS portable analyzer. The HDV with 15.6 dm3 displacement applied in the tests weighed 40 000 kg and fulfilled Euro V emission standard. On the basis of the tests, the unit exhaust emission was estimated within the same range of engine operation as determined by the NTE procedure. Following, the unit exhaust emission was referred to the complete exhaust emission recorded during the whole test.
9
Content available remote Wymagania w odniesieniu do systemu OBD w samochodach ciężarowych
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wymagania odnośnie systemu diagnostyki pokładowej samochodów ciężarowych. Scharakteryzowano protokoły komunikacyjne - stosowane obecnie i rozwiązania przyszłościowe. Dokonano podziału funkcjonalnego sieci pokładowych oraz wymieniono najważniejsze ich elementy. Zaproponowano inne ujęcie tworzenia standardów OBD dla samochodów ciężarowych, oparte głównie na aplikacjach typu otwartego.
EN
The article presents the requirements for the OBD systems in heavy duty vehicles. Communication protocols have been characterized - those applied presently and the future ones. A functional breakdown into on board networks has been described and their most vital elements have been listed. A different approach towards OBD standardization has been proposed for heavy duty vehicles, mostly based on the open source applications.
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