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EN
The inanimate nature reserve Gagaty Sołtykowskie is located in the northern part of the Permian-Mesozoic margin of the Holy Cross Mountains, within the abandoned Odrowąż quarry. Trackways of dinosaurs have been printed on a sandstone bedding plane within the Lower Jurassic (Hettangian) Zagaje Formation. The tracks are the oldest known evidence of a group life of the herbivore (plant-eating) sauropods andofa hunting group of predatory the ropods. After twenty years of being exposed to visitors, the sandstone layer had to be thoroughly renovated and conserved. On the basis of an evaluation of its state of preservation followed by laboratory examinations, the authors have prepared the program of conservation procedures and established a set of appropriate materials. The surface of the layer has been cleaned and its loose fragments fixed with the Injektionharz 100 (Remmers) glue. The layer has been impregnated and fractures sealed with an organosilicon compound KSE 100 and KSE 300 (Remmers). The tracks of dinosaurs have become more vivid due to their saturation with the mixture of the KSE 300 and a mineral pigment.
EN
The paper presents the results of mechanical tests of three types of rocks from stone mines in Poland. Compression tests of cubic samples, three-point bending tests of beams, bending of beams with notch and testing of tensile strength using the quasi-Brazilian method were performed. Based on the tests, the compressive strength, tensile strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratios were determined. The stress intensity factor and critical strain energy release rate in mode I were determined from the bending test of the notched beams. The determined values were used as parameters of computer models which are used to verify the authors’ method of predicting the crack propagation in the Abaqus FEA system.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje wyniki badań laboratoryjnych trzech typów skał z kopalni kamienia w Polsce. Wykonano badanie ściskania kostek, badanie trójpunktowego zginania belek, zginania belek z nacięciem i badanie rozciągania przy rozłupywaniu metodą kwazi-Brazylijską. Na podstawie badań uzyskano wytrzymałość na ściskanie, wytrzymałość na rozciąganie, moduł Younga i współczynnik Poissona. Współczynnik intensywności naprężenia i krytyczna energia pękania w modzie I zostały uzyskane z badań zginania belek z nacięciem. Uzyskane wyniki zostały użyte jako parametry do modeli komputerowych, które są używane do weryfikacji autorskiej metody przewidywania propagacji szczeliny w systemie Abaqus.
EN
El Fuerte de Samaipata is a pre-Hispanic archaeological site in Bolivia that has been on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Its main part – the rock – is densely covered with a complex arrangement of terraces, platforms, water reservoirs, channels, and petroglyphs. The rapidly progressing erosion of the rock is making the petroglyphs less and less clear, and some are no longer recognisable. The main topic of this study is to indicate all risk factors conducive to erosion and to create risk maps identifying the most vulnerable areas that require immediate conservation intervention. Parallel mineralogical and petrographic studies show that the Samaipata rock is a quartz-rich, porous, well-sorted sandstone, classified as quartz arenite or subarcosic arenite. The cement of the rock is composed of quartz overgrowth and ubiquitous, pore-filling hematite-clay aggregates containing non-expanding kaolinite, illite, and expanding smectite. The rock exhibits different stages of weathering, from relatively fresh to strongly altered and heavily cracked. In comparison to fresh rock, the latter has cement enriched in clay minerals and is depleted in hematite due to weathering and the dissolution of the iron-bearing phase.
PL
El Fuerte de Samaipata to wpisane na Listę Światowego Dziedzictwa UNESCO prehiszpańskie stanowisko archeologiczne w Boliwii. Jego główna część to skała ze złożonym układem tarasów, platform, zbiorników wodnych, kanałów i petroglifów. Szybko postępująca erozja sprawia, że petroglify stają się coraz mniej wyraźne, a niektóre nie są już rozpoznawalne. Głównym tematem badań jest wskazanie wszystkich czynników ryzyka sprzyjających erozji oraz stworzenie map ryzyka identyfikujących najbardziej wrażliwe obszary wymagające natychmiastowej interwencji konserwatorskiej. Badania mineralogiczne i petrograficzne wskazują, że Samaipata to bogaty w kwarc, porowaty, dobrze posortowany piaskowiec, sklasyfikowany jako arenit kwarcowy lub arenit subarkozowy. Spoiwo składa się z przerostu kwarcu i wszechobecnych, wypełniających pory agregatów hematytowo-gliniastych zawierających nierozprężający się kaolinit, illit i rozszerzający się smektyt. Skała wykazuje różne etapy wietrzenia, od stosunkowo świeżego do mocno zmienionego i mocno spękanego. W porównaniu ze świeżą skałą ta ostatnia ma cement wzbogacony w minerały ilaste i jest zubożona w hematyt z powodu wietrzenia i rozpuszczenia fazy żelazonośnej.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań reaktywności krajowych kruszyw z wybranych, litych skał osadowych przy wykorzystaniu nowych metod badawczych wdrożonych w dokumentach technicznych Generalnej Dyrekcji Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad (GDDKiA), zgodnych z metodami RILEM i ASTM. Zakres badań obejmował kruszywa grube łamane o potencjalnej przydatności do wykonania wytrzymałego i trwałego betonu, wyprodukowane ze skał wapienia, dolomitu, piaskowca i szarogłazu. W składzie mineralnym kruszyw z wapieni i dolomitu nie stwierdzono obecności reaktywnych form kwarcu; w ziarnach kruszywa z szarogłazów i piaskowca występował kwarc mikro- i kryptokrystaliczny. Na podstawie wydłużenia próbek określono następujące kategorie reaktywności wybranych krajowych kruszyw ze skał osadowych: R0, R1 i R2. Zaobserwowano występowanie żelu krzemianu sodowo-potasowo-wapniowego o składzie charakterystycznym dla produktów reakcji alkalia-kruszywo, zgodnym z danymi literaturowymi. Uzyskano spójną ocenę reaktywności kruszyw.
EN
The paper presents the results of investigations into the reactivity of domestic aggregates produced from selected sedimentary rocks, carried out using the new testing methods, consistent with the RILEM and ASTM methods, implemented by GDDKiA (Polish General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways) documents. The range of the investigations covered coarse crushed aggregates produced from limestone, dolomite, sandstone and greywacke rocks, potentially suitable for making strong and durable concrete. No reactive forms of quartz were found in the mineralogical composition of the limestone aggregates and the dolomite aggregates. Micro- and cryptocrystalline quartz occurred in the particles of the greywacke aggregates and the sandstone aggregates. On the basis of the expansion of mortar and concrete specimens the aggregates produced from the sedimentary rocks were classified into the reactivity categories: R0, R1 and R2. A sodium-potassium-calcium silicate gel, whose composition (consistent with that reported in the literature) was characteristic of the alkali-silica reaction products, was found. The investigations resulted in a consistent assessment of the reactivity of the aggregates.
EN
The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the temperature conditions in the sediment during the diagenesis history of Pennsylvanian sandstones drilled in three deep boreholes in the Baltic Sea. These sandstones are represented by quartz and sublithic arenites and wackes, cemented by matrix and autigenic minerals. Among the autigenic minerals: quartz, clay minerals (kaolinite, dickite, illite) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite, ankerite) are the temperature indicators. The presence of dickite in the sediments indicates a temperature of about 120°C. Quartz and carbonate crystallization temperatures, based on the analysis of fluid inclusions, are estimated to be in the range of 70-180°C. The K/Ar age of the fibrous illite thatforms at the final stage of diagenesis (above 100° C), was determined at 262 ±2 to 247 ±4 My, i.e. from the Middle Permian to the Early Triassic. It determines a length of the post-deposition period, when the deposits were permeable for pore fluids.
EN
Time-dependent behavior of rock mass is important for long-term stability analysis in rock engineering. Extensive studies have been carried out on the creep properties and rheological models for variable kinds of rocks, however, the effects of initial damage state on the time-dependent behavior of rock has not yet been taken into consideration. In the present study, the authors proposed a creep test scheme with controlled initial damage to investigate the influence of initial damage on the time-dependent behavior of sandstone. In the test scheme, the initial states of damage were first determined via unloading the specimen from various stresses. Then, the creep test was conducted under different stress levels with specific initial damage. The experimental results show that there is a stress threshold for the initial damage to influence the behavior of the rock in the uniaxial compressive creep tests, which is the stress threshold of dilatancy of rock. When the creep stress is less than the stress threshold, the effect of the initial damage seems to be insignificant. However, if the creep stress is higher than the stress threshold, the initial damage has an important influence on the time-dependent deformation, especially the lateral and volumetric deformation. Moreover, the initial damage also has great influence on the creep failure stress and long-term strength, i.e., higher initial damage leading to lower creep failure stress and long-term strength. The experimental results can provide valuable data for the construction of a creep damage model and long-term stability analysis for rock engineering.
PL
Przebieg czasowy zachowania górotworu jest zagadnieniem kluczowym w analizie stabilności systemu w ujęciu długoterminowym. Przeprowadzono szerokie badania modeli reologicznych i właściwości procesów pełzania dla rozmaitych typów skał; jednakże w badaniach nie uwzględniano wpływu uszkodzeń początkowych na zachowanie górotworu i jego przebieg czasowy. W artykule autorzy zaproponowali nowy sposób przeprowadzania próby pełzania, z uwzględnieniem kontrolowanych uszkodzeń początkowych, tak by wpływ obecności uszkodzeń początkowych na przebieg czasowy zmian zachowania piaskowca mógł zostać uwzględniony. W metodzie tej w pierwszej fazie określono zakres początkowych uszkodzeń poprzez odprężenie próbki w celu wyeliminowania rożnego rodzaju naprężeń. Następnie przeprowadzono próbę pełzania w warunkach zmiennych obciążeń przykładanych do próbki o określonym poziomie uszkodzeń początkowych. Wyniki eksperymentu wskazują na istnienie pewnej wartości progowej naprężenia powyżej której obecność uszkodzeń początkowych będzie mieć wpływ na zachowanie próbki skalnej w trakcie próby jednoosiowego pełzania; jest to poziom progowy dla powstawania dylatacji. Gdy naprężenie pełzania ma wartość niższą od wartości progowej, wpływ uszkodzeń początkowych wydaje się nieznaczny. Jednakże, dla naprężeń pełzania powyżej wartości progowej, wpływ uszkodzeń początkowych na przebieg odkształceń jest znaczący, zwłaszcza w odniesieniu do odkształceń poprzecznych i objętościowych. Ponadto, istnie-nie uszkodzeń początkowych ma także wpływ na poziom naprężeń rozrywających przy próbie pełzania i wytrzymałość próbki w ujęciu długoterminowym. Wykazano, że im większe uszkodzenia początkowe, tym niższa wartość naprężenia zrywającego przy próbie pełzania i niższa wytrzymałość długoterminowa. Wyniki eksperymentu dostarczyć mogą cennych danych niezbędnych do skonstruowania modelu uszkodzeń skał wskutek pełzania oraz do analiz stabilności konstrukcji inżynierskich w ujęciu długoterminowym.
PL
Jakie właściwości ma piaskowiec znajdujący się w polskiej rudzie miedzi? Jakie rezultaty przyniesie test ściskania? Na m. in. te pytania szukano odpowiedzi podczas badań prowadzonych na Wydziale Górnictwa i Geoinżynierii w krakowskiej AGH.
EN
The study employs numerical calculations in the characterization of reservoir sandstone samples based on high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography. The major goals were to determine porosity through pore size distribution, permeability characterization through pressure field, and structure impact on rock strength by simulation of a uniaxial compression test. Two Miocene samples were taken from well S-3, located in the eastern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. Due to the relation between sample size and image resolution, two X-ray irradiation series with two different sample sizes were performed. In the first approach, the voxel side was 27 µm and in the second it was up to 2 µm. Two samples from different depths have been studied here. Sample 1 has petrophysical features of conventional reservoir deposits, in contrast to sample 2. The approximate grain size of sample 1 is in the range 0.1–1.0 mm, whereas for sample 2 it is 0.01–0.1 mm with clear sedimentation lamination and heterogenic structure. The porosity, as determined by µCT, of sample 1 is twice (10.3%) that of sample 2 (5.3%). The equivalent diameter of a majority of pores is less than 0.027 mm and their pore size distribution is unimodal right-hand asymmetrical in the case of both samples. In relations to numerical permeability tests, the flow paths are in the few privileged directions where the pressure is uniformly decreasing. Nevertheless, there are visible connections in sample 1, as is confirmed by the homogenous distribution of particles in the pore space of the sample and demonstrated in the particle flow simulations. The estimated permeability of the first sample is approximately four times higher than that of the second one. The uniaxial compression test demonstrated the huge impact of even minimal heterogeneity of samples in terms of micropores: 4–5 times loss of strength compared to the undisturbed sample. The procedure presented shows the promising combination of microstructural analysis and numerical simulations. More specific calculations of lab tests with analysis of variable boundary conditions should be performed in the future.
EN
It is important to evaluate the deformation and failure of sandstone in the foundation engineering of coast, river bank and lake shore. While the deformation and failure of sandstone is a comprehensive result of energy release and dissipation, and energy release is the internal reason which leads to global failure of the sandstone. The experimental analysis is conducted on the character of energy revolution of the sandstone specimen by rating loading and unloading, and the catastrophe model is followed in analyzing elastic strain energy accumulation and release in rock deformation and failure. The index based on elastic energy release is proposed to assess the rock brittleness. It is found that increasing water content is to relieve energy release and catastrophe failure of the rock specimen, and weakening the capacity of elastic energy storage. The peak and residual values of elastic energy are raised as the confining pressure increases, and the post-peak released energy decreases progressively. The confining pressure strengthens energy storage and inhibits energy release of the rock specimen, and saturation of rock will weaken this inhibit effect. The brittleness index decreases with increasing confining pressure as the rock specimen transforming from brittle to ductile.
EN
This paper focuses on the techniques and results of electrical research into complex terrigenous and carbonate reservoirs. Presented here, are the electric data and their relation to the capacity properties of Cambrian sandstones, limestones and dolomites originating from the Volodymyrska area in Volyno-Podillia (Ukraine). Their petroelectrical models are generated.
PL
Artykuł skupia się na technikach i wynikach badań elektrycznych w złożonych zbiornikach terygenicznych i węglanowych. Prezentowane są tu dane elektryczne i ich związek z właściwościami pojemności kambryjskich piaskowców, wapieni i dolomitów pochodzących z obszaru Volodymyrska na Vołyno-Podolu (Ukraina). Ich petroelektryczne modele są generowane.
EN
The Hoanh Bo Basin has developed over multiple periods since the Miocene period in association with the tectonic activity of the Chi Linh-Hon Gai and Trung Luong Faults. The basin is filled with Neogene continental sediments, comprising mainly polymictic conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, claystones, and shales. Coarser-grained polymictic deposits predominate along the northern and western margins of the basin, whereas different types of siltstones, claystones, and sandstones occur in its centre, as well as along its southern and eastern parts, toward the Ha Long Bay. The conglomerates and sandstones are composed mainly of quartz and sedimentary rock fragments, and a small amount of mica. Cement is mainly built of iron-oxide, clay or carbonate mud. The source area for the Hoanh Bo Basin sediments was located in the close vicinity of the basin. It was built of strongly weathered rocks of the Hon Gai, Ha Coi, Cat Ba Formations.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań mechanicznych dwóch rodzajów piaskowca pochodzącego z dwóch kopalń kamienia w Polsce. Wykonano badania ściskania próbek sześciennych, trójpunktowego zginania belek, zginania belek z nacięciami i badanie wytrzymałości na rozciąganie przy zginaniu oraz przy ściskaniu metodą kwazi-brazylijską. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań wyznaczono wartości wytrzymałości na ściskanie, wytrzymałości na rozciąganie, moduły Younga i współczynniki Poissona. Z testu zginania naciętych belek wyznaczono krytyczny mnożnik intensywności naprężeń w pierwszej modzie pękania oraz krytyczną energię pękania. Wyznaczone wartości docelowo mają służyć jako parametry modeli komputerowych używanych w symulacjach badania mającego na celu wyrywanie fragmentu skała za pomocą zakotwionej w niej kotwy samopodcinającej.
EN
The paper presents the results of mechanical laboratory tests of two types of sandstone, white and gray, obtained from two stone quarries in Poland. Compression tests of cubic samples, three-point bending tests, bending of notched beams and quasi-Brazilian test were performed. Basing on these tests, the values of compressive strength, tensile strength, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio were determined. From the bending test of notched beams, a critical stress intensity factor in mode I and critical energy release rate was determined. These values are intended to be used as parameters of numerical (FEM) model to simulate the pull-out test of an anchor pulled out from the rock surface.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono efektywność wzbogacania urobku dostarczonego z zakładów górniczych w świetle jego właściwości fizykochemicznych, charakterystycznych dla trzech głównych odmian litologicznych skał złożowych będących jego składnikami. W tym celu określono podatność na wzbogacanie poszczególnych wydzieleń litologicznych obecnych w urobku, stanowiącym nadawę do procesu wzbogacania. Na przykładzie jednego z Rejonów O/ZWR wyznaczono zależność funkcyjną pomiędzy uzyskiem a jakością koncentratu [ε = f(β)], która obrazuje wpływ zawartości składników litologicznych na osiągane wskaźniki wzbogacania. Wykazano, że przemysłowe wzbogacanie jest bardzo czułe na zmiany jakości nadawy w aspekcie zawartości poszczególnych składników litologicznych, a także udziału głównych składników użytecznych i towarzyszących.
EN
The paper presents the performance of ore beneficiation process carried out on KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. run-of-mine ore relating to its physicochemical properties. The properties are strongly associated with the lithology of rock formations. The susceptibility of specific lithological fraction occurred in the ore for the beneficiation process is described. Functional relationship between recovery and concentrate grade [ε = f(β)] was developed as the example for one of the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. concentrators plants. The variety of ore properties and its effect on process efficiency is discussed. It has been proved that industrial process efficiency is very sensitive to both the alteration of lithological fractions and the content of major valuable metals and accompanying compounds.
EN
Adopting the method of forced oscillation, attenuation was studied in Fontainebleau sandstone (porosity 10%, permeability 10 mD) at seismic frequencies (1–100 Hz). Confining pressures of 5, 10, and 15 MPa were chosen to simulate reservoir conditions. First, the strain effect on attenuation was investigated in the dry sample for 11 different strains across the range 1 × 10-6–8 × 10−6, at the confining pressure of 5 MPa. The comparison showed that a strain of at least 5 × 10-6 is necessary to obtain a good signal to noise ratio. These results also indicate that nonlinear effects are absent for strains up to 8 × 10-6. For all the confining pressures, attenuation in the dry rock was low, while partial (90%) and full (100%) saturation with water yielded a higher magnitude and frequency dependence of attenuation. The observed high and frequency dependent attenuation was interpreted as being caused by squirt flow.
EN
Geological lineaments, depths to the basement, uranium concentra-tions, and remobilization in parts of the Upper Benue Trough, covering about 55 × 55 km2 (longitudes 11°30′–12°00′E and 10°30′–10°30′N), Northeastern Nigeria were investigated using integrated High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Data (HRAD) and radiometric data. This was with a view to identifying the potential zones of uranium occurrence in the area. The HRAD was processed to accentuate anomalies of interest and depths es-timate of 150–1941 m were obtained from source parameter imaging technique. The results from the superposition of the horizontal gradient magnitude, analytical signal amplitude, first vertical derivative, and 3D Euler solutions of the HRAD revealed that the study area was dissected by linear structures that trend ENE–WSW, NE–SW, E–W, NNE–SSW, WNW–ESE, and NW–SE; among which the ENE–WSW and NE–SW trends dominated. Analyses of radiometric data showed that uranium ores in the study area were possibly remobilized epigenetically from the granitic rocks, and were later deposited into sedimentary rocks (Bima formation). Burashika group (Bongna hills) and Wawa area of the study area showed vein-type deposits, while the anatectic migmatite in the northeastern region and the uranium rich Bima formation showed both fault/fracture and contact types of deposition. It was also observed the northwesterly and southeasterly, dominant dip direction, dipping faults dip in the same direction as the paleocurrent direction (direction of depositions of sediments), and trend in a direction perpendicular to the hypo-thetical direction of uranium deposition. The study concluded that the studied area is dissected by several linear structures and the studied area possibly contains deposits of uranium ore, which are likely to be found in: the Bima Sandstones of Wade, Shinga, Bima hill, Wuyo, Teli, Bryel, Dali, Barkan, Gasi, Kunkun, Boragara, Deba, and Gberundi localities; the anatectic migmatite at Kubuku, Whada, and Hyama; and the Bongna hills and agglomerates around Burashika, Kawaba, and Galu.
EN
The paper presents analysis of the residual strength and geometric structure (roughness) of post-failure surfaces of sandstones from Śmiłów and andesites from Wdżar Mountain. The analysis was carried out on the roughness of the surface distribution of samples obtained by extension and shearing tests of rocks. The morphology of these surfaces was characterized by statistical parameters and 2D and 3D maps, from investigations conducted using a Hommel Tester T8000 profilometer.
PL
W artykule opisano wpływ łącznego działania dwóch środowisk agresywnych. Określono wpływ zawartości jonów siarczanowych lub chlorkowych na wzrost mikroorganizmów i ewentualny wpływ chemicznej i biologicznej korozji na właściwości materiału kamiennego (piaskowca). Prezentowane wyniki badań pozwoliły sformułować kilka stwierdzeń: piaskowiec nie jest odporny na zanieczyszczenie jonów siarczanowymi ani chlorkowymi. Skażenie chemiczne powoduje przyspieszenie działania środowiska mikrobiologicznego.
EN
This paper describes the effects of the combined action of two aggressive environments. The effect of sulphate or chloride ion content on the growth of microorganisms and possible effect of chemical and biological corrosion on the properties of stone material (sandstone). The research results made it possible to formulate a number of statements: sandstone is not resistant to contamination by sulphate or chloride ions. Chemical contamination enhances the action of the microbial environment.
18
Content available remote Analysis on the efficiency of stone consolidation actions
EN
In this study the effectiveness of stone consolidation actions was analysed on two German sandstones with different binders, the Baumberger (calcareous) and Sander (clayey). Due to varying treatment procedures the investigated sandstones showed different petrophysical and mechanical properties.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę skuteczności konsolidacji piaskowców na przykładzie dwóch niemieckich piaskowców zawierających różne materiały wiążące – piaskowce Baumberger (wapnisty) oraz Sander (marglisty). Zależnie od zastosowanej obróbki badane piaskowce wykazywały różne właściwości petrofizyczne oraz mechaniczne.
PL
Góry Stołowe to obszar kojarzony z turystyką. Jednak w przeszłości były one zapleczem surowcowym. Prawdopodobnie już od wieków średnich pozyskiwano tu piaskowiec, który znalazł zastosowanie w architekturze europejskiej. Do tej pory opisano na tym terenie 69 stanowisk związanych z historyczną działalnością górniczą. Ich charakter jest bardzo różny – od małych wyrobisk przez kompleksy średnich, lecz licznych, aż do dużych wyrobisk po których zachowała się część infrastruktury.
EN
Stołowe Mountains are a popular tourist area. However, mining industry existed there in the past. Radków sandstone has been used in the European architecture from Middle Ages. Almost 70 sites of historic mining activity have been described here as a result of previous studies. Their character is very varied: these are isolated small pits and relatively big quarries or groups of outcrops as well as areas of extraction of rock without a distinct center of exploitation.
EN
The main objective of this thesis is the assessment of the quantitative and chemical groundwater and surface water status of the Łukowica river catchment area. This area is located within the Magura Nappe of Outer Carpathians that are built of flysch, which is a series of alternating layers of sandstone and shale (Oszczypko & Wójcik 1989a, 1989b). The reason for making hydrological characteristics of the catchment area is i.e. to determine the status and causes of hydrological changes occurring within it, using the surface and groundwater, management, the degree of anthropogenic impact on the water, quantitative and chemical balance of water and the size of disposable and renewable resources of analyzed area. Hydrological investigations are necessary to know the process of water circulation in the catchment area. Then these investigations were the basis for further works focused on the factors affecting features of the river regime. The work is based on my own field researches carried out in September 2015. In order to assess the quantitative and chemical waters status, hydrogeological mappings of the field were performed, including measurements of the depth of groundwater table in dug wells by hydrogeological whistle. The discharge of sources and the volume flow of the river in the upper, middle and lower section, and two inflows was also examined. Flow measurements for the river were made on the 10 meter-section by float method. For the inflows, the volumetric method was applied (Banach 2005). At the end, the literature and cartographic elaborations were collected. Prepared materials enabled to make the hydrogeological map of the quaternary multiaquifer formation and to illustrate the circulation of groundwater. On these basis the groundwater’s renewable and disposable resources of the catchment basin were calculated (Chełmicki 2001) and they are 3086 m 3 /d and 1543 m 3 /d respectively. To determine the amount of reserves of groundwater resources it is necessary to compare obtained results with an average annual extraction from groundwater intakes ( Rozporządzenie..., 2008). For the purpose of the work the water samples were collected in 7 dug wells and in 4 points alongside the river – in the upper, middle and lower section. The samples were analyzed in the Accredited Hydrogeochemical Laboratory of the Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Department AGH (Accreditation Certificate AB 1050). The test results were the basis for assessing the chemical status of water. They are developed in accordance with applicable laws, which are based on the Water Framework Directive of the European Parliament ( Commission Directive..., 2009) and Regulation of the Minister of the Environment for the criteria and method of evaluation of groundwater status ( Rozporządzenie..., 2015). The mineralization of the surface water of Łukowica River is more or less constant at the entire length and it is 430–450 mg/dm 3, whereas the mineralization of groundwater for the catchment is more diverse and ranges from 325 mg/dm 3 to 553 mg/dm 3. According to the Shchukarev–Priklonskiy classification, both surface water and groundwater are HCO 3 -Ca-Mg type. On the basis of the results of chemical analyzes, the chemical status of groundwater was considered as good, since they were classified as class II of groundwater quality ( Rozporządzenie..., 2015). The limit values for class I have been exceeded for the following cations: Zn 2+, Cu 2+, Mo 6+, Ag +, Ca 2+ and anions: NO 2 − and HCO 3 −. The chemical status of surface water was considered as good, since it was classified as class II of surface water quality ( Rozporządzenie..., 2011). The limit values for I class have been exceeded only for anion HCO 3 −. All European Union countries, including Poland, are obliged to respect the Water Framework Directive, established by the European Parliament in 2000 and updated in 2009 ( Commission Directive..., 2009). It obliges member states to perform i.e. assessment of quantitative and chemical status in an area of separated bodies of groundwater. Result of the assessment of the quantitative and chemical groundwater status is the basis for the development of action programs. These programs lead to protection of groundwater bodies and to achieve good groundwater status at the latest by 2015. Many catchments of small streams have not been covered by such tests so far, hence the appropriateness of conducting the studies mentioned above. Summing up, both surface water and groundwater of the Łukowica River catchment area were classified into class II of water quality, what means that they are characterized by a good chemical status. Mineralization of surface water is similar on the entire length of the river and is 430–450 mg/dm 3. In contrast, mineralization of groundwater is in the range from 325 mg/dm 3 to 553 mg/dm 3. The amount of renewable resources for this catchment is 3086 m 3 /d and the value of disposable resources is 1543 m 3 /d.
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