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EN
The main goal of estimating models for industrial applications is to guarantee the cheapest system identification. The requirements for the identification experiment should not be allowed to affect product quality under normal operating conditions. This paper deals with ensuring the required liquid levels of the cascade system tanks using the model predictive control (MPC) method. The MPC strategy was extended with the Kalman filter (KF) to predict the system’s succeeding states subject to a reference trajectory in the presence of both process and measurement noise covariances. The main contribution is to use the application-oriented input design to update the parameters of the model during system degradation. This framework delivers the least-costly identification experiment and guarantees high performance of the system with the updated model. The methods presented are evaluated both in the experiments on a real process and in the computer simulations. The results of the robust MPC application for cascade system water levels control are discussed.
EN
The neutral point clamped (NPC) three-level grid-tied converter is the key equipment connecting renewable energy and power grids. The current sensor fault caused by harsh environment may lead to the split of renewable energy. The existing sensor fault-tolerant methods will reduce the modulation ratio index of the converter system. To ensure continuous operation of the converter system and improve the modulation index, a model predictive control method based on reconstructed current is proposed in this paper. According to the relationship between fault phase current and a voltage vector, the original voltage vector is combined and classified. To maintain the stable operation of the converter and improve the utilization rate of DC voltage, two kinds of fault phase current are reconstructed with DC current, normal phase current and predicted current, respectively. Based on reconstructed three-phase current, a current predictive control model is designed, and a model predictive control method is proposed. The proposed method selects the optimal voltage vector with the cost function and reduces time delay with the current reconstruction sector. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed strategy can keep the NPC converter running stably with one AC sensor, and the modulation index is increased from 57.7% to 100%.
EN
Glass production has a great industrial importance and is associated with many technological challenges. Control related problems concern especially the last part of the process, so called glass conditioning. Molten glass is gradually cooled down in a long ceramic channels called forehearths during glass conditioning. The glass temperature in each zone of the forehearth should be precisely adjusted according to the assumed profile. Due to cross-couplings and unmeasured disturbances, traditional control systems based on PID controllers, often do not ensure sufficient control quality. This problem is the main motivation for the research presented in the paper. A Model Predictive Control algorithm is proposed for the analysed process. It is assumed the dynamic model for each zone of the forehearth is identified on-line with the Modulating Functions Method. These continuous-time linear models are subsequently used for two purposes: for the predictive controller tuning, measurable disturbances compensation and for a static set point optimisation. Proposed approach was tested using Partial Differential Equation model to simulate two adjacent zones of the forehearth. The experimental results proved that it can be successfully applied for the aforementioned model.
EN
In this paper, PV arrays are connected to the grid through a three-Level NPC Inverter. Both the current control and voltage balancing performance of the inverter are ensured via model predictive control (MPC) technique. This paper is comparing and presenting operational performance analysis of grid-connected three-Level NPC Inverter results using three techniques controllers namely: Self-tuning Fuzzy Logic PI controller (FLC), Neural Network controller (ANN), and PI classical controller, under different environmental conditions to optimally tune the reference current of the controller and following the maximum power point.
PL
Opisano system ze źródłem fotowoltaicznym gdzie stosuje się zarówno bieżące operacje kontroli, jak i równoważenie napięcia NPC z porównaniem trzech różnych strategii kontrolera. Skuteczność porównuje się między trzema strategiami kontrolnymi przy różnym natężeniu promieniowania i różnej temperaturze.
PL
Układy sterowania wykorzystujące regulatory predykcyjne bardzo często wymagają wprowadzenia do ich struktury mechanizmów umożliwiających estymację niedostępnego pomiarowo stanu obiektu. Zależnie od przypadku nieosiągalne mogą być informacje o różnej liczbie zmiennych stanu. Szeroko stosowanymi układami pozwalającymi na uzyskanie niezbędnych informacji o stanie obiektu są obserwator Luenbergera oraz różnego typu filtry Kalmana. Autorzy proponują metodę syntezy obserwatora Luenbergera opartą na optymalizacji wzmocnienia owego obserwatora, przy czym wyznacznik jakości uzyskanego wzmocnienia wykorzystywanego przez optymalizator stanowi ogólna jakość regulacji układu sterowania z regulatorem predykcyjnym. Opracowana metoda pozwala na uzyskanie, z punktu widzenia przyjętego kryterium, obserwatora o właściwościach lepszych niż analogiczny układ, którego syntezę przeprowadzono przy wykorzystaniu równania Sylvestera oraz klasycznego filtru Kalmana, mimo występowania zakłóceń. Metoda zaprezentowana zostanie na przykładzie układu predykcyjnego sterowania systemem aktywnego zawieszenia.
EN
MPC Driven control systems very often are requiring the introduction of a mechanism predicting the state of the object unavailable for measurements. Depending on the case, a different number of state variables will be unobtainable. Widely used systems to obtain essential data of the condition of an object are Luenberger state observer and different types of Kalman filters. The authors propose a new method of Luenberger observer synthesis based on Luenberger gain optimization using performance index corresponding to generalized system performance. The developed method allows us to obtain better-performing observer from the point of view of the adopted criterion, compared to similar estimators derived from the Sylvester equation and classic Kalman filters, even despite the occurrence of disturbances. The developed method will be presented on an example of an active suspension system with MPC.
EN
Model predictive control (MPC) algorithms are widely used in practical applications. They are usually formulated as optimization problems. If a model used for prediction is linear (or linearized on-line), then the optimization problem is a standard, i.e., quadratic, one. Otherwise, it is a nonlinear, in general, nonconvex optimization problem. In the latter case, numerical problems may occur during solving this problem, and the time needed to calculate control signals cannot be determined. Therefore, approaches based on linear or linearized models are preferred in practical applications. A novel, fuzzy, numerically efficient MPC algorithm is proposed in the paper. It can offer better performance than the algorithms based on linear models, and very close to that of the algorithms based on nonlinear optimization. Its main advantage is the short time needed to calculate the control value at each sampling instant compared with optimization-based numerical algorithms; it is a combination of analytical and numerical versions of MPC algorithms. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated using control systems of two nonlinear control plants: the first one is a chemical CSTR reactor with a van de Vusse reaction, and the second one is a pH reactor.
EN
Due to the coexistence of continuity and discreteness, energy management of a multi-mode power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) can be considered a typical hybrid system. Therefore, the hybrid system theory is applied to investigate the optimum energy distribution strategy of a power split multi-mode HEV. In order to obtain a unified description of the continuous/discrete dynamics, including both the steady power distribution process and mode switching behaviors, mixed logical dynamical (MLD) modeling is adopted to build the control-oriented model. Moreover, linear piecewise affine (PWA) technology is applied to deal with nonlinear characteristics in MLD modeling. The MLD model is finally obtained through a high level modeling language, i.e. HYSDEL. Based on the MLD model, hybrid model predictive control (HMPC) strategy is proposed, where a mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) problem is constructed for optimum power distribution. Simulation studies under different driving cycles demonstrate that the proposed control strategy can have a superior control effect as compared with the rule-based control strategy.
EN
This paper studies an evacuation problem described by a leader-follower model with bounded confidence under predictive mechanisms. We design a control strategy in such a way that agents are guided by a leader, which follows the evacuation path. The proposed evacuation algorithm is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) that uses the current and the past information of the system to predict future agents’ behaviors. It can be observed that, with MPC method, the leader-following consensus is obtained faster in comparison to the conventional optimal control technique. The effectiveness of the developed MPC evacuation algorithm with respect to different parameters and different time domains is illustrated by numerical examples.
EN
The paper is concerned with the presentation and analysis of the Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) model predictive control algorithm with the representation of the process input trajectories by parametrised sums of Laguerre functions. First the formulation of the DMCL (DMC with Laguerre functions) algorithm is presented. The algorithm differs from the standard DMC one in the formulation of the decision variables of the optimization problem - coefficients of approximations by the Laguerre functions instead of control input values are these variables. Then the DMCL algorithm is applied to two multivariable benchmark problems to investigate properties of the algorithm and to provide a concise comparison with the standard DMC one. The problems with difficult dynamics are selected, which usually leads to longer prediction and control horizons. Benefits from using Laguerre functions were shown, especially evident for smaller sampling intervals.
EN
This article presents a simple technique of identifying the initial speed that allows for restarting a sensorless induction motor (IM) drive controlled by a model predictive flux control (MPFC). Initial speed identification is required because, according to the research, the applied current-model reference adaptive system (C-MRAS) can restart the IM after failure only if the error of the initial speed set in the estimator is < 25%. The proposed technique is based on short periods of flux generation for the certain initial speed and observation of the estimated torque respond. The direction of the estimated torque determines whether the real speed is higher or lower than the initial one set in the estimator. In two steps, the algorithm identifies the initial speed with an accuracy of 25%. This allows for a quick restart of the IM from any speed, eliminating the disadvantage of the sensorless drive control system with the C-MRAS speed estimator. The experimental results measured on a 50 kW drive which illustrates the operation and performances of the system are presented.
EN
The fulfilment of the condition for the simultaneous achievement of the desired chemical composition and temperature of the metal is ensured by controlling the oxygen consumption and the position of the oxygen impeller lance. The method for solving Model Predictive Control with quadratic functionality in the presence of constraints is given. Implementation of the described solutions will contribute to increasing the proportion of scrap and reducing the melting period without changing of technological process.
PL
Spełnienie warunku jednoczesnego osiągnięcia pożądanego składu chemicznego i temperatury metalu jest zapewnione poprzez kontrolę zużycia tlenu i położenia palnika tlenowego. Zaprezentowano metodę rozwiązania Modelu Sterowania Predykcyjnego z funkcjonalnością kwadratową w obecności ograniczeń. Wdrożenie opisanego rozwiązania przyczyni się do zwiększenia udziału złomu i skrócenia czasu topnienia bez zmiany procesu technologicznego.
EN
One of the main problems of multivariable cost functions in model predictive control is the choice of weighting factors. Two finite control set model predictive control algorithms, applied to the three-phase active rectifier with an LCL filter, are described in the paper. The investigated algorithms, i.e. PCicuc and PCigicuc, implement multivariable approaches applying line (grid) current, capacitor voltage and converter current. The main problem dealt with in the paper is the choice of optimum values of the cost function weighting factors. The values of the factors calculated using the method proposed in the paper are very close to the values represented by the lowest THDi of the line current. Moreover, simulations verifying the equations used in the prediction of controlled values, i.e. line current, capacitor voltage and converter current, are presented. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to verify effectiveness of the investigated control strategies under change of the load (P = 5 kW and 2.5 kW), during transient states, under unbalanced and balanced line voltage.
EN
This paper presents simulation and laboratory test results of an implementation of an infinite control set model predictive control into a three-phase AC/DC converter. The connection between the converter and electric grid is made through an LCL filter, which is characterized by a better reduction of grid current distortions and smaller (cheaper) components in comparison to an L-type filter. On the other hand, this type of filter can cause strong resonance at specific current harmonics, which is efficiently suppressed by the control strategy focusing on the strict control input filter capacitors voltage vector. The presented method links the benefits of using linear control methods based on a space vector modulator and the nonlinear ones, which result in excellent control performance in a steady state as well as in a transient state.
EN
The paper presents a novel model predictive flux control (MPFC) scheme for three-level inverter-fed sensorless induction motor drive operated in a wide speed region, including field weakening. The novelty of the proposed drive lies in combining in one system a number of new solutions providing important features, among which are: very high dynamics, constant switching frequency, no need to adjust weighting factors in the predictive cost function, adaptive speed and parameter (stator resistance, main inductance) estimation. The theoretical principles of the optimal switching sequence predictive stator flux control (OSS-MPFC) method used are also discussed. The method guarantees constant switching frequency operation of a three-level inverter. For speed estimation, a compensated model reference adaptive system (C-MRAS) was adopted while for IM parameters estimation a Q-MRAS was developed. Simulation and experimental results measured on a 50 kW drive that illustrates operation and performances of the system are presented. The proposed novel solution of a predictive controlled IM drive presents an attractive and complete algorithm/system which only requires the knowledge of nominal IM parameters for proper operation.
EN
The model predictive control (MPC) technique has been widely applied in a large number of industrial plants. Optimal input design should guarantee acceptable model parameter estimates while still providing for low experimental effort. The goal of this work is to investigate an application-oriented identification experiment that satisfies the performance objectives of the implementation of the model. A- and D-optimal input signal design methods for a non-linear liquid two-tank model are presented in this paper. The excitation signal is obtained using a finite impulse response filter (FIR) with respect to the accepted application degradation and the power constraint. The MPC controller is then used to control the liquid levels of the double tank system subject to the reference trajectory. The MPC scheme is built based on the linearized and discretized model of the system to predict the system’s succeeding outputs with reference to the future input signal. The novelty of this model-based method consists in including the experiment cost in input design through the objective function. The proposed framework is illustrated by means of numerical examples, and simulation results are discussed.
EN
Model predictive control (MPC) algorithms brought increase of the control system performance in many applications thanks to relatively easily solving issues that are hard to solve without these algorithms. The paper is focused on investigating how to further improve the control system performance using a trajectory of parameters weighting predicted control errors in the performance function of the optimization problem. Different shapes of trajectories are proposed and their influence on control systems is tested. Additionally, experiments checking the influence of disturbances and of modeling uncertainty on control system performance are conducted. The case studies were done in control systems of three control plants: a linear non-minimumphase plant, a nonlinear polymerization reactor and a nonlinear thin film evaporator. Three types of MPC algorithms were used during research: linear DMC, nonlinear DMC with successive linearization (NDMC–SL), nonlinear DMC with nonlinear prediction and linearization (NDMC–NPL). Results of conducted experiments are presented in greater detail for the control system of the polymerization reactor, whereas for the other two control systems only the most interesting results are presented, for the sake of brevity. The experiments in the control system of the linear plant were done as preliminary experiments with the modified optimization problem. In the case of control system of the thin film evaporator the researched mechanisms were used in the control system of a MIMO plant showing possibilities of improving the control system performance.
EN
This paper proposes an improved Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach including a fuzzy compensator in order to track desired trajectories of autonomous Underwater Vehicle Manipulator Systems (UVMS). The tracking performance can be affected by robot dynamical model uncertainties and applied external disturbances. Nevertheless, the MPC as a known proficient nonlinear control approach should be improved by the uncertainty estimator and disturbance compensator particularly in high nonlinear circumstances such as underwater environment in which operation of the UVMS is extremely impressed by added nonlinear terms to its model. In this research, a new methodology is proposed to promote robustness virtue of MPC that is done by designing a fuzzy compensator based on the uncertainty and disturbance estimation in order to reduce or even omit undesired effects of these perturbations. The proposed control design is compared with conventional MPC control approach to confirm the superiority of the proposed approach in terms of robustness against uncertainties, guaranteed stability and precision.
EN
This paper investigates the application of a novel Model Predictive Control struc- ture for the drive system with an induction motor. The proposed controller has a cascade-free structure that consists of a vector of electromagnetics (torque, flux) and mechanical (speed) states of the system. The long-horizon version of the MPC is investigated in the paper. In order to reduce the computational complexity of the algorithm, an explicit version is applied. The influence of different factors (length of the control and predictive horizon, values of weights) on the performance of the drive system is investigated. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by some experimental tests.
EN
Chatter is a series of unwanted and extreme vibrations which frequently happens during different machining processes and impose variety of adverse effects on the machine-tool and surface finish. Chatter has two main types namely forced-chatter and self-existed chatter. The forced-chatter has an external cause; however, self-exited chatter has no external stimuli, rather it is created due to the phase difference between the previous and current waves on the surface of the workpiece. Due to the self-generative nature of this type of chatter, its recognition and prevention is much more difficult. For preventing self-exited chatter its model should be available first. The chatter is usually simulated as a one degree of freedom mass-spring-damper model with unknown parameters that they should be determined somehow. In this paper, the parameters of the tool equation of motion i.e. mass, damping, and stiffness coefficients of the system are predicted through a wavelet-based method online, and then based on the achieved parameters, the system is controlled via Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach. For the validation, the algorithm is applied to 25 different experimental tests in which the acceleration of the tool and cutting force are measured via an accelerometer and a dynamometer. By investigation of the SLDs generated by the predicted parameters, the presented system identification method is validated. Also, it is shown that the chatter vibration is completely restrained by means of MPC. For investigation of the MPC performance, MPC algorithm is compared with PID controller and simulations has indicated a much stronger performance of MPC rather than PID controller in terms of vibration attenuation and control effort.
EN
This paper presents a control method for a four-leg three-level flying capacitor converter (FCC) operating as a shunt active power filter (SAPF), based on model predictive control with finite number of control states (FS-MPC). Current control and capacitor voltage balancing are described. Influence of the mismatch of the inductive filter model parameters on the current control precision is analysed. Results are supported by the experimental waveforms obtained with a 10kVA set-up.
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