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EN
This work attempts to use nitrogen gas as a shielding gas at the cutting zone, as well as for cooling purposes while machining stainless steel 304 (SS304) grade by Computer Numerical Control (CNC) lathe. The major influencing parameters of speed, feed and depth of cut were selected for experimentation with three levels each. Totally 27 experiments were conducted for dry cutting and N2 gaseous conditions. The major influencing parameters are optimized using Taguchi and Firefly Algorithm (FA). The improvement in obtaining better surface roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR) is significant and the confirmation results revealed that the deviation of the experimental results from the empirical model is found to be within 5%. A significant improvement of reduction of the specific cutting energy by 2.57% on average was achieved due to the reduction of friction at the cutting zone by nitrogen gas in CNC turning of SS 304 alloy.
EN
The objective of the present study is to optimize multiple process parameters in turning for achieving minimum chip-tool interface temperature, surface roughness and specific cutting energy by using numerical models. The proposed optimization models are offline conventional methods, namely hybrid Taguchi-GRA-PCA and Taguchi integrated modified weighted TOPSIS. For evaluating the effects of input process parameters both models use ANOVA as a supplementary tool. Moreover, simple linear regression analysis has been performed for establishing mathematical relationship between input factors and responses. A total of eighteen experiments have been conducted in dry and cryogenic cooling conditions based on Taguchi L18 orthogonal array. The optimization results achieved by hybrid Taguchi-GRA-PCA and modified weighted TOPSIS manifest that turning at a cutting speed of 144 m/min and a feed rate of 0.16 mm/rev in cryogenic cooling condition optimizes the multi-responses concurrently. The prediction accuracy of the modified weighted TOPSIS method is found better than hybrid Taguchi-GRA-PCA using regression analysis.
EN
Ever rising increase in number of wireless services has prompted the use of spatial multiplexing through null steering. Various algorithms provide electronic control of antenna array pattern. Simulation-driven technique further introduces correction in array factor to account for array geometry. Taguchi method is used here to combat interference in practical antenna arrays of non-isotropic elements, by incorporating the effect of antenna element pattern on array pattern control in the optimization algorithm. 4-element rectangular and bowtie patch antenna arrays are considered to validate the effectiveness of Taguchi optimization. The difference in the computed excitations and accuracy of null steering confirms the dependence of beam pattern on element factor and hence eliminates the need for extra computations performed by conventional algorithms based on array factor correction. Taguchi method employs an orthogonal array and converges rapidly to the desired radiation pattern in 25 iterations, thus signifying it to be computationally cost-effective. A higher gain and a significant reduction in side lobe level (SLL) was obtained for the bowtie array. Further, due to feed along parallel edges of the patch, the radiating edges being slanted to form the bow shape results in a significant reduction in the area as compared with the rectangular patch designed to resonate at the same frequency.
EN
From ancient days to till today manufacturing industries, especially making of holes on the parts during drilling process for precision assembling of parts facing problems with burr formation. Drilling operation is one of the finishing operation in the production cycle, removing of burrs during drilling process is a time consuming and non-value added process to the manufacturing sector. So reducing the size of burrs is the main aim of the present study. In the present work, optimization of burr size is considered during drilling of aluminium 7075 alloy. In this connection, experiments are conducted based on Grey based Taguchi. From Grey relational grades of responses selected optimal combination of parameters to attain multiple performance characteristics of responses with a corresponding higher grey relational grade. For identifying the most significant input parameters that influence the output responses ANOVA is conducted. Based on interaction effect plots of data means of responses from results of ANOVA, confirmation tests are conducted by choosing most significant parameters. Finally, observations reveals that feed rate, point and clearance angles are the most influential factors on burr size and also experimental results divulge that the lower the thrust force causes to decrease the burr height. The proposed approach is helpful to the budding entrepreneurs in the related areas to select optimal combination of drilling parameters to attain multiple performance characteristics of responses especially in burr size to prevent the post finishing operations up to certain extent.
EN
Purpose: The influence of metal active gas welding variables, including current, wire feeding speed and gas flow rate on the ultimate tensile strength and critical buckling load of steel (St.24) and the optimized welding conditions were discussed. Design/methodology/approach: The experimental steps are firstly designing the experiments, secondly conducting the mechanical tests, thirdly analysing the results through Minitab 16 and finally determining the optimum welding parameters. Confirmation tests of the optimized variables were validated. Findings: ANOVA approach manifested that the significant effect of welding variable on the tensile strength was the gas flow rate, while the current was on the critical buckling load. The results are confirmed and given the optimum values. Research limitations/implications: The influence of MAG welding variables (current, wire feeding speed and gas flow rate) on the tensile and buckling strengths of steel will be investigated in order to avoid the failure of many welded assemblies in the structures due to the buckling, in addition to reduce the requirement of long time and high cost to produce such assemblies. Therefore, it is necessary to find a solution to encounter the difficulties in their welding process. Practical implications: The major challenge was how to reduce the time and cost beside gaining the optimum properties through the designed experiments. Originality/value: The results may be helpful to design any welded joints in machine frames, structural steel connections and crane structures at the optimum condition.
EN
Industries related to the acquiring of building materials may soon face a shortage of natural resources and an associated increase in costs of their acquisition. Therefore, it is necessary to look for possible ways to reduce the exploitation of natural resources and instead use recycled raw materials. Such policies fit into one of the most important trends in modern construction, which is sustainable development. In the conducted research, the Taguchi method was utilized in order to investigate the impact of modifying cement mortars with rubber and cork waste on the selected properties of the obtained composites. Thanks to the above method, we managed to obtain the desired information about mortars in a shorter time and at a lower cost than using traditional testing methods. Using the selection in planning method, we confirmed that rubber waste can be a good substitute for sand in mortars.
EN
In this paper we aim to improve the understanding of the relationship between unilateral-uniplanar external fixator design parameters and their influences on fixator performance. Stability and strength of bone-fixator construct as well as the quality of healing were defined as our major concerns in order to evaluate the performance of fixator. The roles of six key design parameters were assessed during the early stage of healing by using finite element models. Tissue differentiation within the callus was predicted through the implementation of a mechanoregulation theory of bone healing. Taguchi and ANOVA methods were used to achieve optimal design sets for outputs and to determine contribution percentage of each design parameter on outputs. For improving overall fixator performance, optimal set of design parameters consisting of 2 mm, 8 mm, 120 mm, 20 GPa, 50 mm and 20 mm were determined by Taguchi for pin diameter, rod diameter, rod elevation, fixator Young's modulus, distance of the nearest pin to fracture site and distance between adjacent pins, respectively. Also, results of ANOVA revealed that rod elevation is the most important design parameter, with 43 % effectiveness on overall fixator performance, which was followed by fixator material and pin diameter with 28 % and 19 %, respectively. Results of this study can assist orthopedic surgeons to achieve an optimal fixator device with respect to the patient's condition and give insight into the importance of different design parameters.
EN
Resistance spot welding is the most significant joining technique utilized in various industries, like automotive, boilers, vessels, etc., that are commonly subjected to variable tensile-shear forces due to the unsuitable use of the input spot welding variables, which mainly cause the welded joints failure during the service life of the welded assembly. So, in order to avoid such failures, the welding quality of some materials like aluminum must be improved taking into consideration the performance and weight saving of the welded structure. Thus, the need for optimizing the used welding parameters becomes essential for predicting a good welded joint. Accordingly, this study aims at investigating the influence of the spot welding variables, including the squeeze time, welding time, and current on the tensile-shear force of the similar and dissimilar lap joints for aluminum and steel sheets. It was concluded that the use of Taguchi design can improve the welded joints strength through designing the experiments according to the used levels of the input parameters in order to obtain their optimal values that give the optimum tensile-shear force as the response. As a consequence of the present work, the optimal spot welding parameters were successfully obtained.
EN
In this study, optimal conditions to form cellulose-MgO nanocomposite with antibacterial properties were evaluated. Applying the Taguchi method, 9 experiments were designed and the effects of different concentrations of biopolymers cellulose (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml), MgO nanoparticles (2, 4 and 8 mg/ml) and stirring times (30, 60 and 90 min) on antibacterial activity of synthesized nanocomposites were assessed. The characterizations of products were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results showed that the nano-composite produced in the conditions of experiment 9 (MgO 8 mg/ml, cellulose 2 mg/ml and stirring time of 60 min) has the strongest antibacterial activity. The outcomes of both methods of colony forming units (CFU) and disc diffusion indicated that the antibacterial activity of cellulose-MgO nanocomposite was significantly higher than its components (P <0.05). Thermal analysis indicated improvement in the thermal stability of the cellulose biopolymer after the formation of the nanocomposite. Due to the improvement of the antibacterial properties of cellulose-MgO nanocomposite compared to its components, we can use it as a new antibacterial agent in the fields of pharmaceutical, medicine and dentistry.
EN
Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a fabrication process that is being used in the automobile and aerospace industry since many years for joining low carbon or “mild” steel. Quality and strength of the welds depend upon the process parameters of RSW. The most effective parameters in this process are: current intensity, welding time, sheet thickness and material, geometry of electrodes, electrode force, and current shunting. This paper presents the experimental investigations for the optimization of tensile shear stress of RSW for stainless steel grade 316L sheets by using Taguchi method. The experiments were conducted using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array under varying proces parameters, namely electrode diameter, welding current, and heating time. The experimental data were analyzed using signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) to find the optimal process parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F test were used to find the most significant parameters affecting the spot weld quality characteristics. Confirmation tests with optimal process parameters were conducted to validate the test results. From the results, itwas found that it is possible to increase tensile shear stress significantly.
EN
Binary and ternary nanocomposites based on TiO2, SiO2 and ZnO were synthesized by PVA-based template-free gel combustion method. The morphology and the particles sizes of the synthesized samples depended on some parameters including the initial concentrations of metal salts and PVA amount in the sol, solvent composition and solution pH. Effects of these parameters were investigated and optimized by using the Taguchi method. In the experimental design, the Taguchi L25 array was used to investigate six factors at five levels. The samples were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results showed that the present method can be used to synthesize TiO2/SiO2/ZnO ternary nanocomposite with an effective surface area of 0.3 m2 · g−1 and ZnO/TiO2, TiO2/SiO2, ZnO/SiO2 binary nanocomposites with an effective surface area of 234 m2 · g-1, 6 m2 · g-1 and 0.5 m2 · g-1, respectively. The ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite which was synthesized under the following experimental conditions: 2.5 wt.% Zn salt, 2.5 wt.% Ti salt, 2.0 wt.% PVA, pH = 1 and ethanol:water ratio 30:70 was selected by the Taguchi method as an optimum sample with the smallest particles (average diameter = 50 nm).
EN
Grippers are routinely used to hold, lift and move organs in laparoscopic operations. They are generally toothed to prevent organs from slipping during retention. Organs held by grippers are always at risk of being damaged by the clamping force. In this study, noncontact grippers working with the Bernoulli principle and using air pressure were developed, and vacuum performance was compared in terms of maximum tissue weight holding capacity. For this purpose, Taguchi method was employed for experimental design and optimization, and Taguchi L16 orthogonal array was selected for experimental design. The experimental parameters were 4 gripper types, 4 air-pressure levels (3.5, 4.5, 5, and 5.5 bar), 4 flow rates (2.2, 2.6, 2.8 and 3 m3/h) and two animal tissue types (ventriculus/gizzard and skin). Values from the experimental procedures were evaluated using signal-to-noise ratio, analysis of variance and three-dimension graphs. An equation was obtained by using 3rd-order polynomial regression model for weight values. Optimization reliability was tested by validation tests and the revealed test results were within the estimated confidence interval. The results obtained from this study are important for future studies in terms of organ injury prevention due to traditional grippers in laparoscopic surgery.
EN
In the calculations presented in the article, an artificial immune system (AIS) was used to plan the routes of the fleet of delivery vehicles supplying food products to customers waiting for the delivery within a specified, short time, in such a manner so as to avoid delays and minimize the number of delivery vehicles. This type of task is classified as an open vehicle routing problem with time windows (OVRPWT). It comes down to the task of a traveling salesman, which belongs to NP-hard problems. The use of the AIS to solve this problem proved effective. The paper compares the results of AIS with two other varieties of artificial intelligence: genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA). The presented methods are controlled by sets of parameters, which were adjusted using the Taguchi method. Finally, the results were compared, which allowed for the evaluation of all these methods. The results obtained using AIS proved to be the best.
EN
The influence of Modal–cotton (MC) fibre blend ratio and ring frame machine parameters such as front top roller loading and break draft on the blended yarn properties has been studied. Compact MC blended yarn samples of 14.75 tex with three different MC fibre blend ratio has been produced in a LR 6 ring spinning frame fitted with Suessen Compact drafting system. A robust design optimisation to minimise the variations of the output yarn properties such as blended yarn tenacity, yarn unevenness and hairiness caused because of the variations in the material as well as machine setting parameters is achieved through the Taguchi parametric design approach. It is found that the maximum compact MC blended yarn tenacity is 23.76 g/tex, which is influenced very much by MC fibre blend ratio but meagrely by top roller loading and break draft. Similarly, the minimum 9.54 U% and 3.59 hairiness index are achieved with 100:0 and 70:30 MC fibre blend ratio, respectively, at 23-kg top roller loading. Statistical ANOVA analysis is performed on the results and optimum values are obtained within the 95% confidential level through confirmation experiments.
EN
Variation in final casting dimensions is a major challenge in the investment casting industry. Additional correction operations such as die tool reworking as well as coining operations affect foundry productivity significantly. In this paper influence of basic parameters such as wax material, mould material, number of ceramic coats and feed location on the dimensional accuracy of stainless-steel casting has been investigated. Two levels of each factor were chosen for experimental study. Taguchi approach has been used to design the experiment and to identify the optimal condition of each parameter for reduced dimensional deviation. Analysis of variance has been carried out to determine the contribution of each process parameter. The result reports that selected parameters have significant effect on the dimensional variability of investment casting. Mould material is the dominant parameter with the largest contribution followed by number of ceramic coats and wax material whereas feed location is having negligible contribution.
EN
Pre-structuring of magnetic particles during fabrication of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) is a crucial step, which results in the formation of chain-like columnar structures in the rubber matrix. In this study, MRE based on natural rubber and carbonyl iron particles were prepared. The Taguchi method was utilized to study the effect of several dominating factors during the fabrication process such as pre-curing time, pre-curing temperature and applied magnetic field during curing on the loss tangent (tan δ) and tensile properties. Tan δ was measured through parallel-plate rheometer over a frequency range of 1–100 Hz and a strain amplitude range of 0.1–6%. Tensile properties were measured with a universal tensile testing machine. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using S/N ratios and ANOVA in order to predict the optimal combination of factors, and then further experiments were conducted for verification purpose. Results indicated that the magnetic field had the greatest influence on tan δ when measured over a range of frequency and elongation at break. Furthermore, pre-curing time and magnetic field were found to influence tan δ when measured over a range of strain amplitude. However, none of the factors exhibited significant influence on tensile strength. In addition, the morphology of MRE was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
PL
Dynamiczny rozwój przemysłu motoryzacyjnego dotknął również pojazdy wykorzystywane w pracach polowych. Poruszają się one z coraz to większymi prędkościami, charakteryzują się też większymi masami. Ich zatrzymanie wymaga więc stosowania nowych, bardziej wydajnych hamulców. To z kolei wymusza prowadzenie licznych badań mających na celu optymalizację składu okładzin ciernych. Do badań wykorzystuje się różne metody. Najkorzystniej jest, jeżeli wykonuje się badania na obiekcie rzeczywistym. Jednak mało kiedy jest to możliwe. W badaniach laboratoryjnych próbuje się jak najlepiej odzwierciedlić obiekt badań, jednak stanowiska badawcze zapewniają jedynie pewne przybliżenie. Wielu naukowców zajmuje się obecnie badaniami symulacyjnymi. Ich główną zaletą jest niski koszt oraz praktycznie nieograniczona możliwość wariacji warunków badań. Niniejsza praca ma na celu zaproponowanie nowej metody badawczej wykorzystującej kontakt Ball-Cratering. Do odpowiedniego zaplanowania eksperymentu zaproponowano metodę optymalizacji procesów Taguchi. W celu zweryfikowania prawidłowości proponowanej metody wykonano przykładowe badania. Wyznaczono w nich wartości współczynnika tarcia oraz współczynnika szybkości zużywania ściernego.
EN
The dynamic development of the automotive industry also affected vehicles used in agricultural. They are running at higher speeds, they are also characterized by larger masses. Their stopping therefore requires the use of new, more efficient brakes. This, in turn, requires numerous studies to optimize the composition of friction materials. Various methods are used for research. It is most beneficial if tests are carried out on a real object. However, not often it is possible. Laboratory tests attempt to reflect the research object as closely as possible, but the test stands provide only some approximation. Many researchers are currently involved in simulation research. Their main advantage is lower cost and virtually unlimited variation of test conditions. This work aims to propose a new research method using Ball-Cratering contact. The method of Taguchi optimizing processes was proposed for the appropriate planning of the experiment. In order to verify the correctness of the proposed method, examinations were carried out. As a result, the values of the coefficient of friction and the coefficient of abrasive wear rate were determined.
18
Content available remote Rotary smart car parking system
EN
Problems with parking individual cars, particularly in urban areas, were already experienced by the inhabitants of developed countries in the interwar period. These problems continue to appear, as the number of cars increases and there are fewer and fewer parking spaces. Therefore, solutions are sought after to ensure the largest possible number of parking spaces with the smallest occupied area, especially in large agglomerations of highly developed countries. The article presents one of the possible solutions – rotary car parks (The Rotary Automated Car Parking System; RACPS). The research results reffered to in the article are the effect of works conducted at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Cracow University of Technology in the field of modelling and optimisation of a rotary car park [5, 6, 8].
PL
Kłopoty z parkowaniem samochodów indywidualnych szczególnie w obszarach miejskich mieli już w okresie międzywojennym mieszkańcy krajach rozwiniętych. I te problemy w dalszym ciągu się pojawiają, ponieważ ilość samochodów wzrasta, a miejsc do parkowania mamy coraz mniej. Dlatego poszukuje się rozwiązań, które mają zapewnić jak największą liczbę stanowisk parkingowych przy jak najmniejszej powierzchni zajmowanej, szczególnie w wielkich aglomeracjach krajów wysokorozwiniętych. W artykule przedstawiono jedno z możliwych rozwiązań, jakim są parkingi obrotowe (The Rotary Automated Car Parking System; RACPS). Wyniki badań przytoczone w artykule są efektem prowadzonych na Wydziale Mechanicznym Politechnice Krakowskiej prac z zakresu modelowania i optymalizacji obrotowego parkingu samochodowego [5, 6, 8].
EN
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was carried out on Aluminum Alloy 6082-T6 plates with dimensions of 200 x 70 x 2 mm. Design of Experiment (DOE) was applied to determine the most important factors which influence the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Hardness (HV) of AA 6082-T6 joints produced by Friction Stir Welding (FSW). Effect of two factors which include tool rotational speed and welding speed on (UTS, HV) were investigated by Taguchi method using L9 orthogonal array to find the optimum process parameters. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to determine which of the selected factors are more significant on both of responses, the optimum parameters for the higher UTS it found by using a rotational speed of 1400 rpm and 125 mm/min for the welding speed, also 1400 rpm and 160 mm/min to maximize Hardness (HV).
EN
The utilization of TiB2 particles reinforced aluminum (Al6063) metal matrix composite materials in many different engineering fields has undergone a tremendous increase. Accordingly, the need of accurate machining of composites has increased enormously; an attempt has been made to assess the factors influencing surface roughness and material removal rate on machining the composite. The orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance were employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operations of 5 and 10 wt. % TiB2 particles reinforced aluminum (Al6063) metal matrix composites. Taguchi method was used to find the optimal cutting factors for surface roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR). Three cutting factors namely speed; feed and depth of cut were optimized with considerations of Ra and MRR. The experimental plan and analysis was based on the Taguchi L27 orthogonal array with three cutting factors using carbide tool (K20). The optimal parametric combination for K20 carbide insert was found to be feed, speed and depth of cut. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) result shows that feed the most significant process parameter on surface roughness followed by speed. For MRR result show that the speed and the feed are the significant parameters followed by the composition of composite material.
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