Gender is one of the determinants of economic activity of populations. Dissimilarities and changes in employment and unemployment among women and men are the result of gender roles, historical background, and dynamic transformations of recent years. Differences in female and male employment are significant to the point of necessitating detailed analyses in the context of present-day living conditions. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the gap in economic activity of women and men in European Union countries (EU-28) and to discover the position of Poland in this respect. Moreover, an attempt was made to specify causes of the differences found. This problem was evaluated using indicators describing economic activity by gender. The empirical data has been obtained from the European Statistical Office. The analysis involved 28 countries of the European Union. The researched period spanned from 2005 through 2017. The data was analysed statistically. In European Union countries, indicators describing economic activity of populations are varied. There is a significant gap in employment between women and men that, since 2005, has remained at 11%, while the same gap in unemployment has widened. In Poland, the employment gap has remained constant at 14%. Female and male unemployment, as well as the gender employment gap, have been decreasing in Poland since 2014. The EU-28 in general, and Poland as well, have observed an increasing rate of inactive population due to caring responsibilities. In addition, variation of this rate between women and men has also increased.