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EN
Trimethoprim drug (TMP) complexes of copper (II), cobalt (II), and nickel (II) were prepared and discussed by using elemental analysis (C, H, N analysis), magnetic, molar conductance, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-vis spectroscopy analyses. TMP drug coordinated as a tridentate ligand towards the respected three metal ions through two nitrogen atoms of amino groups and nitrogen atom of pyrimidine ring which flanked between –NH2 groups, these assignments confirmed by spectroscopic, magnetic, ESR and thermogravimetric analyses with formulas [Cu(TMP)(H2O)3]Cl2, [Co(TMP)(H2O)3]Cl2 and [Ni(TMP) (H2O)]Cl2. Copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes have an octahedral geometrical structure included one TMP molecule, three coordinated water molecules and two uncoordinated chlorine atoms while, nickel(II)–TMP complex has a tetrahedral geometric configuration that involved one TMP molecule, one coordinated water molecule and two uncoordinated chlorine atoms. The activation energies and other kinetic thermodynamic parameters were estimated based on the employed of the Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations. The nano–structured form of the synthesized TMP complexes was confirmed dependent on the transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
2
Content available remote Charakterystyka termograwimetryczna procesu zgazowania wybranych rodzajów biomasy
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań termograwimetrycznych procesu zgazowania w atmosferze CO₂ trocin, łupin orzecha włoskiego, siana oraz kolb oczyszczonych z ziaren kukurydzy. Oznaczono reaktywność surowców, wskazano etapy zgazowania, a także obliczono parametry kinetyczne procesu. Największą energię aktywacji i szybkość reakcji zaobserwowano w przypadku karbonizatu siana (237,2 kJ/mol).
EN
Sawdust, walnut shells, cobs purified from corn grains and hay were gasified under CO₂ by thermogravimetry to det. process stages reactivity of raw materials and kinetic parameters of the gasification stage. The highest activation energy was obsd. by the gasification of hay carbonizate (237.2 kJ/mol) and surprisingly the reaction showed also the highest rate.
EN
The improvement of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers flame retardancy is usually achieved by using antipyrenes, which may be incorporated into polyester molecules during polycondensation or are physically mixed with polymer in the fiber formation process. In this article we present an alternative method to reduce the flammability of PET fibers and fabrics which is analogous to dyeing them with a dispersed dyes in a high temperature bath. We have tested this method many times using various modifiers so far. This time, we applied a commercial organophilized montmorillonite Cloisite®15A (C15A). In the presented work, using Limited Oxygen Index (LOI) flammability tests and the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method, the effectiveness of the modification used was demonstrated and its optimal variant was determined. Based on Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies, the existence of interactions between PET macromolecules and the C15A modifier in the entire temperature range of the oxidative degradation was confirmed. Using the Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) methods, the basic parameters of the nanostructure of the studied fibers were determined, and their nanocomposite nature was confirmed. The most important goal, which was successfully achieved, was to explain the mechanism of flame inhibition by the applied modifier C15A.
PL
Poprawę właściwości palnych włókien poli(tereftalanu etylenu) (PET) można uzyskać w wyniku zastosowania uniepalniaczy, które mogą być wprowadzane do mieszaniny reakcyjnej podczas polikondensacji poliestru lub fizycznie mieszane z polimerem w procesie tworzenia włókien. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono alternatywną metodę zmniejszania palności włókien i wyrobów tekstylnych z PET, analogiczną do procesu ich barwienia rozproszonymi barwnikami w kąpieli wysokotemperaturowej. Metodę tę testowaliśmy już wielokrotnie przy użyciu różnych modyfikatorów. Tym razem zastosowaliśmy handlowo dostępny organofilizowany montmorylonit Cloisite®15A (C15A). Za pomocą testów palności (określano wartość LOI – wskaźnika tlenowego) oraz analizy termograwimetrycznej (TGA) wykazano skuteczność zastosowanej modyfikacji i określono jej optymalny wariant. Na podstawie badań spektroskopowych FT-IR (spektroskopia w podczerwieni z transformacją Fouriera) potwierdzono występowanie oddziaływań między makrocząsteczkami PET i modyfikatora C15A w całym zakresie temperatury, obejmującym proces degradacji oksydacyjnej. Metodami szeroko i mało kątowej dyfrakcji rentgenowskiej (WAXS i SAXS) określono podstawowe parametry nanostruktury badanych włókien oraz potwierdzono ich nanokompozytowy charakter. Wyjaśniono także mechanizm inhibitowania płomienia przez zastosowany modyfikator C15A.
EN
A natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites (FRCs) was prepared by the compression molding method. The natural fiber named Coccinia indica (CI) was employed to fabricate FRCs. The impact of fiber length on storage modulus, loss modulus and loss of weight in the FRCs were determined using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results revealed that a fiber length of 40 mm shows better storage modulus and nominal loss modulus owing to the higher interfacial bonding between fiber and matrix. In other investigated fiber lengths, the storage modulus is poor and loss modulus is high, which is due to inefficient stress transfer.
PL
Metodą wytłaczania przygotowano próbki kompozytów (FRC) na osnowie polimerowej wzmocnionej włóknami naturalnymi Coccinia indica (CI). Wpływ długości zastosowanych włókien na moduł zachowawczy, moduł stratności i ubytek masy badanych FRC oceniano za pomocą dynamicznej analizy mechanicznej (DMA) i analizy termograwimetrycznej (TGA). Stwierdzono, że kompozyty z udziałem włókien o długości 40 mm wykazują korzystniejszy moduł zachowawczy i nominalny moduł stratności, dzięki lepszemu wiązaniu międzyfazowemu włókna z osnową. W wypadku kompozytów z zawartością włókien o innych długościach moduł zachowawczy jest mały, a moduł stratności duży, co wynika z nieefektywnego przenoszenia naprężeń.
EN
A method of obtaining yttrium citrate by transformation of freshly precipitated yttrium hydroxide in the solutions of sodium citrate under hydrothermal conditions has been proposed. To determine the synthesis time, transformation kinetics consisted in by taking the solid samples for the C and H contents analysis after 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of synthesis. Simultaneously these samples were subjected to the thermogravimetric analysis. As follows from the thermogravimetric analysis adsorption of citrate dihydrate on yttrium hydroxide is observed in the initial period up to 24 hours. Later the yttrium citrate dihydrate is formed. The thermogravimetric analysis of the final product i.e. amorphous yttrium citrate showed that the decomposition/oxidation of the sample occurs in six stages the particle size analysis method of static light scattering showed that 45% of the particles had a diameter of 0.1-0.9 µm and 55% of particles with sizes from 0.9 to 5 µm.
6
Content available Halloysite intercalated by potassium acetate
EN
Halloysite was intercalated by the mechanochemical technique from dry components. The process efficiency of 50% was achieved. The obtained intercalate differed from the material acquired using an aqueous solution of potassium acetate. The material was analyzed employing electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and dielectric spectroscopy. It was found that the molecules and/or ions present in the interlayer spaces retain some possibility of movement. This property of the material is promising for potential application as low expensive absorbers of electromagnetic radiation.
EN
Nanoparticles of Li2MnO3 were fabricated by sol-gel method using precursors of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, and citric acid as chelating agent in the stoichiometric ratio. TGA/DTA measurements of the sample in the regions of 30 °C to 176 °C, 176 °C to 422 °C and 422 °C to 462 °C were taken to identify the decomposition temperature and weight loss. The XRD analysis of the sample indicates that the synthesized material is monoclinic crystalline in nature and the calculated lattice parameters are 4.928 Å (a), 8.533 Å (b), and 9.604 Å (c). The surface morphology, particle size and elemental analysis of the samples were observed using SEM and EDAX techniques and the results confirmed the agglomeration of nanoparticles and, as expected, Li2MnO3 composition. Half cells of Li2MnO3 were assembled and tested at C/10 rate and the maximum capacity of 27 mAh/g was obtained. Charging and discharging processes that occurred at 3 V and 4 V were clearly observed from the cyclic voltammetric experiments. Stability of the electrodes was confirmed by the perfect reversibility of the anodic and cathodic peak positions observed in the cyclic voltammogram of the sample. The Li2MnO3 nanoparticles exhibit excellent properties and they are suitable for cathode materials in lithium ion batteries.
PL
Celem prezentowanych badań była charakterystyka termicznej przemiany rolniczych odpadów biomasowych, tj. wytłoków winogron i gałązek kiwi oraz charakterystyka karbonizatów uzyskanych w beztlenowym procesie w temperaturze 1000°C i 1200°C. Budowę morfologiczną i zachowanie termiczne analizowanych materiałów wykonano odpowiednio metodami SEM-EDAX i TGA. Na podstawie danych termograwimetrycznych określono charakterystykę termicznej przemiany surowej biomasy i karbonizatu. Następnie w oparciu o wyniki TGA wyznaczono parametry kinetyczne tj. energię aktywacji Ea i współczynnik przedwykładniczy A. Wartości energii aktywacji uzyskane dla gałęzi kiwi są wyższe niż wartości obliczone dla biomasy pochodzącej z wytłoków winogron. W przypadku karbonizatów nie odnotowano istotnych różnić w wartości Ea w zależności od temperatury procesu.
EN
The aim of the presented study was to characterize the thermal conversion of biomass wastes such as grape pomace and kiwi branches and the characteristics of chars obtained at 1000°C and 1200°C (anaerobic conditions). The morphology and thermal behavior of the analyzed materials were carried out using SEM-EDAX and TGA methods, respectively. On the basis of thermogravimetric data, the thermal conversion characteristics of raw biomass and biochars were determined. Then, based on the TGA results, kinetic parameters were determined, i.e. activation energy Ea and pre-exponential factor A. Activation energy values obtained for the kiwi branch are higher than the values calculated for biomass from grape pomace. Additionally, in the case of biochars there were no significant differences in the Ea value depending on the process temperature.
EN
A novel semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, bis(thiourea) barium nitrate (BTBN) was synthesized and grown by slow evaporation method. Structure of the new crystalline compound was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it showed that BTBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. The crystalline nature of the BTBN was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction study. Important functional groups of BTBN were identified by FT-IR spectroscopic analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study showed that the grown crystal is transparent in the entire visible region with low cut off wavelength of 304 nm. BTBN exhibits a SHG efficiency which is nearly 2.38 times higher than that of KDP. The BTBN crystal has high mechanical strength and belongs to soft category, which was confirmed by micorhardness study. The thermal stability of BTBN was determined from TGA and DTA thermal study which revealed that the BTBN crystal has thermal stability up to 243.1 °C. The surface properties and presence of elements was analyzed by SEM and EDAX study, respectively.
10
Content available remote Influence of liming on kinetics of sewage sludge pyrolysis
EN
Thermogravimetry (TG) is the fast and reliable method for characterization of thermal decomposition of any material and in particular to determine the kinetics of pyrolytic decomposition of sewage sludge. Two types of sewage sludge with and without addition of lime were investigated from kinetic point of view. For TG analysis samples of selected sewage sludge were heated under the inert atmosphere of argon with constant heating rate from 303 to 1273 K; the three heating rate β = 5, 10 and 20 K/min were chosen. The iso-conversion methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall were employed for analysis of TG results. As the sewage sludge decomposition is very complex process it cannot be described by a simple stoichiometric equation, therefore the so called lumping of reactions in the selected temperature ranges were used with detailed principles arising from visual analysis of DTG curve. The deconvolution of DTG curves performed according to Fraser-Suzuki asymmetric profile allowed the identification of number of lumps and their contribution to the overall mass loss. So the decomposition of sewage sludge with lime addition could be described with five groups of reactions while the one without lime by means of six lumps. The thermal decomposition of sewage sludge was assumed to proceed according to the scheme of parallel concurrent independent reactions of n-th order. The values of the apparent activation energies at different constant values of conversion degrees were determined by the iso-conversion analysis. To estimate the kinetic parameters the non-linear regression with Levenberg-Marquart optimization procedure was used. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor, reaction order and fraction of total mass loss associated with a given reaction were determined. The impact of sewage sludge liming revealed in essential differences of pyrolysis products and pyrolysis kinetics of limed sludge and without lime one was highlighted.
EN
The requirements set for engine oils are nowadays very high, varied, often contradictory and significantly go beyond the classic functions of engine oils. Also for the testing of engine oils, many different and advanced research methods are currently used. This article describes tests of fresh and used oil from a diesel engine using thermogravimetric analysis. This method was also used to determine the soot content of the used oil. The tests showed that the thermograms of fresh and used oil are similar, however in the oil used in the diesel engine the soot content increases.
PL
W niniejszym artykule dokonano badań określających potencjał energetyczny konopii Cannabis sativa L. Przedstawione zostały podstawowe informacje na temat regulacji prawnych, hodowli tej odmiany konopi. Badania, które przeprowadzono obejmują analizę techniczną oraz strukturalną rośliny. Wykonywano je na dwóch frakcjach: włóknach i łodygach. Otrzymane wartości badań (zawartość wilgoci, części lotnych oraz nieorganicznych, wartości kaloryczne) zestawiono z charakterystycznymi wartościami typowych roślin energetycznych: Salix viminalis i Miskhantus giganteus. Dokonano peletyzacji Cannabis sativa L., w stosunku około: 30% włókien i 70% łodyg. Wartość opałowa otrzymanego peletu wynosi 20,3 MJ/kg. Ponadto wykazano, że łodygi są lepszą frakcją pod względem energetycznym do wykorzystania w energetyce. Jest to istotna informacja dla hodowców lub producentów, zajmujących się rozdziałem obu frakcji, w celach przemysłowego wykorzystania wyłącznie jednej z nich. Niniejszy artykuł określa potencjał energetyczny Cannabis sativa L. wyhodowanych w Polsce w 2016 roku, który wynosi 0,026 TJ. Stwierdzono, że konopia siewna jest dobrą alternatywą dla tradycyjnych technologii energetycznych.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia krótki przegląd literatury dotyczącej zastosowań analizy termograwimetrycznej (TGA) w badaniu żywności. Opisano także zasadę pomiaru, wykorzystywaną aparaturę, sposób prezentacji wyników otrzymanych w tej metodzie.
EN
The article presents a short review of the literature on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) applications in food testing. The principle of measurement, the devices used and the presentation of the results obtained in this method are also described.
PL
Stosowanie bardziej złożonych i miniaturowych elementów zintegrowanych w jednej obudowie w technologii mikroelektroniki skutkuje wysoką gęstością wytwarzanego ciepła. Dlatego efektywne zarządzanie ciepłem stało się kluczowym wymogiem przy projektowaniu nowoczesnych pakietów elektronicznych. Jedną z wielu metod zarządzania ciepłem generowanym w pakietach elektronicznych jest użycie materiałów termoprzewodzących (TIM). Materiały TIM mają za zadanie wyeliminowanie szczelin powietrznych uformowanych pomiędzy chipem IC a radiatorem i zwiększenie wymiany ciepła między nimi. Dlatego właściwości termiczne materiałów TIM odgrywają kluczową rolę w procesie rozpraszania ciepła. Celem pracy jest określenie wpływu cząstek grafitu, srebra lub miedzi na stabilność termiczną silikonowego smaru termicznego metodami termograwimetrii (TGA) i skaningowej kalorymetrii różnicowej (DSC). W pracy badano stabilność termiczną próbek TIM w oparciu wartości temperatury maksymalnej utraty masy, energi aktywacji reakcji rozkładu i początkowej temperatury rozkładu próbek. Wyniki pokazują, że proces degradacji wszystkich testowanych próbek TIM w warunkach analizy ma charakter wieloetapowy. Dodatki grafitu i cząstek metalu zmieniły stabilność termiczną silikonowego smaru termicznego.
EN
The use more complex and smaller components in one packaging in microelectronics technology results in high density of heat generated. In this sense, efficient thermal management has become a critical requirement for the design of modern electronic packages. One of the many methods to manage the heat generated within the electronics components is using Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs). The function of TIMs is to eliminate the interstitial air gaps formed between IC chip and heat sink and to improve heat transfer between them. Therefore, thermal properties of TIMs materials play a key role in heat dissipation. The goal of this work is to determine influence of graphite, silver or copper particles on thermal stability of the silicone based thermal grease by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The weight loss behavior and the thermal stability based on temperatures of maximum rate of weight loss, the activation energy of the decomposition reactions and the initial decomposition temperature were studied. The results reveal that degradation process of all the tested TIMs materials under the analysis condition is multistage. Addition of graphite and metal particles changed thermal behavior of the silicone based thermal grease.
EN
Activation of tyre pyrolysis char (TPC) can significantly increase its market value. To date, it has been frequently carried out in different reactors. In this work, thermogravimetric analysis was used instead. The performance of activated pyrolysis chars was tested by adsorption of acetone vapour and comparison of the equilibrium adsorption capacities for all samples. The highest equilibrium adsorption capacity was observed for the carbon burn-off of 60%. In addition, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of activated TPC decreases by about 10% after eleven adsorption/desorption cycles. Moreover, activation changed the porous structure of pyrolysis chars from mesoporous to micro-mesoporous.
EN
Modified PVC (M-PVC) material with suppressed migration and low glass transition temperature was prepared via click reaction of a monooctyl phthalate derivative. Chemical structure and composition of M-PVC were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and element analysis. Thermal stability, glass transition temperature and migration stability of M-PVC were studied with TGA, DSC and migration tests, respectively. The study showed that M-PVC exhibited poor thermal stability, and low glass transition temperature of 66.0°C. No migration was found in distilled water, 10% (v/v) ethanol, 30% (w/v)acetic acid and petroleum ether. The PVC material is expected to preparing PVC products in the areas with high migration resistance requirement.
EN
High temperature (HT) bath method was used to produce the flame-retardant polyamide 6 (PA6) fibers, analogous to dyeing using dispersed dyes. The modification process was carried out in a bath containing flame-retardant and a surfactant (dispersant). An ecological commercial product – so-called soda water-glass, i.e., aqueous sodium silicate solution (WG) – was used as flame-retardant. The resulting flame-retardant effect was evaluated on the basis of the limiting oxygen index (LOI) method. The thermal properties of the examined fibers were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Basic mechanical testing of fibers was also performed. Fiber burning residues were characterized on the basis of photographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the supermolecular structure of PA6 fibers after the modification were discussed using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). As a result of the proposed modification of PA6 fibers a small but sustained increase in the flame-retardant effect was obtained.
PL
Włókna z poliamidu 6 (PA6) o zmniejszonej palności wytworzono z zastosowaniem metody kąpielowej HT (high temperature), prowadzonej w sposób analogiczny do barwienia włókien barwnikami zawiesinowymi. Kąpiel modyfikująca zawierała uniepalniacz oraz środek powierzchniowo czynny (dyspergator). Środkiem uniepalniającym był ekologiczny produkt handlowy o nazwie szkło wodne sodowe – wodny roztwór krzemianu sodu (WG). Uzyskany efekt trudnozapalności oceniano na podstawie wyznaczonego indeksu tlenowego (LOI). Właściwości termiczne badanych włókien określano za pomocą różnicowej kalorymetrii skaningowej (DSC) i analizy termograwimetrycznej (TGA). Wykonano też podstawowe badania wytrzymałości mechanicznej włókien. Pozostałości po spaleniu włókien charakteryzowano na podstawie fotografii uzyskanych techniką elektronowej mikroskopii skaningowej (SEM). Zmiany w strukturze nadcząsteczkowej włókien PA6 poddanych modyfikacji oceniano z wykorzystaniem szerokokątowej dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej (WAXS). W wyniku zaproponowanej modyfikacji uzyskano niewielkie, ale trwałe zmniejszenie palności włókien PA6.
EN
The examinations of the skin flammability, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and thermogravimetric (TGA) investigations were all carried out in temperature sufficient for simulating a burn incident. Above methods were used to perform assessment of collagen molecular structure changes in conditions of thermal oxidative stress, whereas the scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM) was used to illustrate skin surface changes. The changes were observed in the presence of active antioxidants such as L-ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate and hydrogel of orthosilicic acid H4SiO4 • n H2O. Presence of these modifiers of the burn process minimizes external effects of simulated burn incidents for model samples of animal skin and burn wound epidermis extracted from the patients. The examinations of the skin flammability were carried out with the limited oxygen index (LOI) method. In this study, synergy between orthosilicic acid and L-ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate into animal and human skin has been shown through an increase in LOI values. The treatment by means of L-ascorbic acid affects particular morphological changes in the skin which is visible in SEM method. Skin samples incubated in the solution of the 3.5 %, 5 % L-ascorbic acid, 7 % sodium ascorbate solutions and 7 % orthosilicic acid demonstrate the development of a structure resembling a coherent solid composite. SAXS gives structural information on the assembly of dermal collagen as well as the lamellar organization of stratum corneum (SC) lipids located in the outermost part of the epidermis. Using this technique, two lamellar phases with repeat distance of approximately 4.3 and 6 nm in the SC lipids domains were observed. Moreover, the diameter of the collagen fibrils were extracted. The observed differences in the values of these parameters allowed us to better understand the mechanism of modification of the surface of the burn affected skin and the influence of the modification on the process of skin regeneration.
PL
Miejscowa oraz ogólna odpowiedź organizmu na oparzenie termiczne jest złożona. Nie tylko prowadzi do uszkodzenia skóry, ale wywołuje też głębokie długotrwałe zmiany w metabolizmie organizmu. Na podstawie wyznaczonego granicznego wskaźnika palności (LOI), wyników analizy termograwimetrycznej (TGA) i małokątowej dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej (SAXS) oceniano zmiany zachodzące w strukturze kolagenu w warunkach stresu oksydacyjnego, a metodą skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej (SEM) określano zmiany topografii powierzchni badanych próbek skóry. Modyfikowany aktywnymi przeciwutleniaczami, takimi jak: pochodne witaminy C (np. kwas L-askorbinowy, askorbinian sodu) oraz hydrożel kwasu ortokrzemowego H4SiO4 • n H2O. Kolagen wykazuje zwiększoną aktywność biochemiczną, a obecność niniejszych modyfikatorów procesu oparzeniowego minimalizuje zewnętrzne skutki symulowanych incydentów oparzeniowych.
EN
Adsorption is considered as one of the most promising technologies for CCS. Gas adsorption involves the separation of gaseous components from flue gas using solid adsorbents. The gaseous component, adsorbate, is adsorbed from the gas phase on a solid material. Regarding CO2 adsorption, it is important to consider the parameters, that is the high sorption capacity, CO2 selectivity, regeneration and stability in multiple cycles. New directions for the development of adsorbents are focused on increasing their capacity – for this purpose, amine impregnation is carried out. This paper presents a new approach to obtaining mesoporous material from fly ash and, based on this, a new physico-chemical adsorbent obtained by impregnation. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR infrared spectroscopy.
EN
The mechanisms of thermal decomposition of evaporated material during Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process depend on the kind of evaporated material. Such parameters of PVD process as deposition rate, source temperature and deposition time should be carefully selected taking into account the properties of material. Deposited films can span the range of chemical compositions based on the source materials. The nanostructural carbon films in form of palladium nanograins embedded in various carbonaceous matrixes were obtained by thermal evaporation during PVD process from two separated sources containing C60 fullerite and palladium acetate, both in a form of powder. The evaporation was realized by resistive heating of sources under a dynamic vacuum of 10−3 Pa. The influence of decomposition path of evaporated materials on the film structure has been discussed. Prepared C-Pd films were characterized using thermo-gravimetric method, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The influence of decomposition of Pd acetate and fullerite on the final film structure was also shown.
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