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EN
The consideration was given to the geological and geomorphological factors of natural hazards in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Principal impact of rock lithology, geomorphological structure, underwater regime and seismic processes on the erosion, gravitational and water-gravitational processes formation was demonstrated. The research confirmed a special role of the tectonic factor and the presence of weak zones in the development of natural hazards. Weak zones are characterized by fracturing, brecciation, bedding of flysch deposits and contrast in permeability. The strength properties of rocks decrease drastically within such zones, and large-scale landslide formation processes occur, especially in the case of subparallel location of zones, relative to river valleys and slopes. The factors of hazardous geological processes were defined and classified using GIS analysis and the developed geological model. A conceptual model of landslide hazards in the area of Carpathian Mountains was developed. Weight coefficients of potentially landslide prone factors were determined from the on-site observations and archive data. An integral spatial map of landslide susceptibility was proposed. The results of this research were the basis of geological environment modeling for the assessment of hazardous geological processes impact on the functioning of infrastructure objects.
EN
Lopushna oil field has been discovered in Mesozoic-Paleogene strata of the platform basement under the Ukrainian Outer (Flysch) Carpathians. Oils from two main accumulations, occurring in the Upper Cretaceous sandstone and Upper Jurassic limestone reservoirs, have been analysed in order to identify their origin and relation to the known petroleum systems in the region of the Outer Carpathians and the basement of the Carpathian Foredeep. Results of geochemical investigations of oils, including biomarker and isotopic data, show a good correlation with oils, accumulated in the Carpathian flysch strata. Oils are low-sulphur and did not undergo significant degradation. They were generated from Type II or II/III kerogen, deposited in anoxic environments in clastic sediments. Generation occurred at the peak of “oil window”, probably in the temperature range of 122 to 126oC. The presence of oleanane indicates the Cretaceous or younger source rocks. Good correlation on biomarker and isotopic data with the organic matter dispersed in Oligocene Menilite Beds, occurring at the top of the Carpathian flysch succession, allowed authors to identify them as source rocks for oils of the Lopushna field, which thus can be regarded as an oil family of the Outer Carpathians. The migration distance for both Lopushna oils and oils accumulated in the Carpathian flysch strata was similar. A number of sub-vertical dislocations, on which the subsided flysch strata occur at the same depth level with the Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks of the platform, can be assumed as possible migration pathways from the mature source rocks of the Oligocene Menilite Beds of Boryslav-Pokuttya, Skyba or Krosno units to the Lopushna type traps, which suggests the possibility of existence of other hydrocarbon accumulations of this type. The Lopushna field so far is unique containing this type of oil found in the basement of the Ukrainian Carpathian Foredeep.
EN
Mainly pelagic/hemipelagic deposits of the Vezhany Nappe (Paleocene-Lowermost Oligocene Metova Formation with a high content of planktonic foraminifera) and typical flysch deposits of the Monastyrets Nappe (Paleocene-Eocene Sushmanets Formation with common agglutinated foraminifera as well as the Eocene Drahovo Formation), of the southwestern inner part of the Ukrainian Carpathians have been studied. The Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina Zone (Lower Danian), Acarinina acarinata Zone (Upper Thanetian), Morozovella subbotinae Zone and Morozovella aragonensis Zone (Ypresian), Acarinina bullbrooki Zone and Acarinina rotundimarginata Zone (Lutetian), Subbotina corpulenta Zone and Subbotina vialovi Zone (Upper Priabonian – Lower Rupelian) based on planktonic foraminifera as well as the Rzehakina fissistomata sensu lato Zone (Paleocene), Glomospira charoides–Recurvoides smugarensis Zone (Ypresian), and an assemblage with Haplophragmoides parvulus (latest Mid Eocene-early Late Eocene) based on agglutinated foraminifera have been identified in these deposits. The deep-water agglutinated foraminifera of the “Rzehakina”, “Rhabdammina” and “Paratrochamminoides” assemblages found in the typical flysch deposits of the Sushmanets Formation indicate lower slope to abyssal environments below the CCD. The generic composition and morphological features of planktonic and benthic foraminifera recovered from marls of the Metova Formation suggest pelagic/hemipelagic conditions at bathyal depths above the foraminiferal lysocline.
PL
W pracy omówiono problemy ochrony przeciwpowodziowej rzek Karpat Ukraińskich. Zwrócono uwagę na potrzebę przeprowadzenia kompleksowej regulacji rzek wraz z realizacją: projektowanych zbiorników wodnych retencyjnych (przeciwpowodziowych), wałów ochronnych, budowli wodnych piętrzących (struktur regulacyjnych). We wnioskach podniesiono konieczność (potrzebę) wsparcia badań naukowych związanych z kompleksową oceną skutków wynikających z regulacji rzek. Zakres badawczy powinien obejmować badania naukowe na odtworzonych budowlach wodnych (tzw. modelach fizycznych) w połączeniu z modelowaniem układów (struktur) hydraulicznych wraz z wykonaniem obliczeń matematycznych dotyczących prognozowania skutków regulacji koryt rzecznych (cieków).
EN
This work concerns the problem of flood control of rivers in the Ukrainian Carpathians. It points to the need of carrying out comprehensive river engineering altogether with the execution of the designed flood reservoirs, flood banks and hydraulic structures (river regulation structures). The conclusions indicate the necessity to support scientific research related to a comprehensive assessment of the effects of river engineering. The research should include scientific studies of reconstructed hydraulic structures ( so called physical ones) , as well as the modelling of hydraulic structures and mathematical calculations concerning the prognosis of the effects of watercourse engineering.
EN
Current trends prevailing in ski resort development in Ukrainian Carpathians are highlighted in the article. Authors describe the recent state of ski resorts planning, locating and constructing in Ukraine. Taking into consideration the analysis of foreign experience, the perspective trends in ski resort development in Ukrainian Carpathians are identified.
PL
W artykule przedstawione są współczesne tendencje rozwoju górskich kompleksów służących uprawianiu sportów zimowych - głównie narciarstwa zjazdowego, w ukraińskiej części Karpat Wschodnich. Autorzy ukazują złożoność procesu projektowania, rozmieszczenia poszczególnych obiektów w zespole, oraz aktualne problemy projektowobudowlane. Określają perspektywiczne kierunki rozwoju tego typu zespołów.
EN
The origin of the olistostromes at the front of the Ukrainian Carpathian orogen is related to Miocene synsedimentary thrust movements of the Carpathian accretionary prism and to erosion of uplifted areas of the Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe in the front of the accretionary prism. There are two olistostrome complexes. The first is the Lower Miocene Polyanytsya-Vorotyshcha Olistostrome with clasts of molasse and flysch deposits formed in a piggy-back basin on the inner part of the Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe at the top of the accretionary wedge. This olistostrome is associated with the Sloboda Conglomerate derived from the fore-bulge at the foreland of the Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe. The second one is the Middle Miocene Lanchyn Olistostrome with olistoliths of strongly deformed molasse deposits. These olistoliths were slid from the uplifted front of the Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe. The Lanchyn Olistostrome was deposited at front of this nappe in a foredeep basin.
EN
Geochemical characteristics of 25 oils collected from Skiba Unit of the Outer Carpathians, Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit of the Carpathian Foredeep and their Mesozoic basement in the western Ukraine are presented in the paper. The first recognised oil family consists of almost all oils accumulated in the flysch sequence of the Outer Carpathians and the Carpathian Foredeep which have very similar geochemical characteristics. These oils were generated from Type II or II/III kerogen deposited in clastic sediments. They are low-sulphur and migrated short distances. Slight biodegradation processes are visible only in oils accumulated in shallow deposits in the Skiba Unit. Their source rocks are the Oligocene Menilite Shales from the Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit. Oils from the Kokhanivka and Orkhovychi deposits (the Mesozoic basement of the Carpathian Foredeep) constitute the second family. These oils are extremely heavy, high-sulphur and were generated from high-sulphur Type IIS kerogen deposited in the carbonate environment. The most probable source rocks for these oils are the Upper Jurassic strata. Oil collected from the Vola Blazhivska deposit (the Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit) shows intermediate parameters between the oil families described above. It is characterized by the presence of oleanane and high sulphur content. It was generated from the Menilite Shales containing high-sulphur kerogen. All oils were generated at an early stage or the peak of oil window.
EN
The territory of the Krosno zone in the Ukrainian Carpathians should be referred to as one of the highly promising areas in oil and gas where the most promising are deposits under the cover of the Krosno zone and paraautochthonous deposits of the Krosno zone under the cover of the Dukla zone. In some parametric wells within the Krosno zone it resulted in hydrocarbon inflows, but no commercial deposits were discovered. At that time in the north-western expansion of the Krosno zone on the territory of the Silesian zone in Poland over 50 hydrocarbon deposits were discovered, the major part of which have been depleted, but some of them provide the highest commercial oil production in Poland.
EN
The Boryslav region was one of the world largest petroleum basins, discovered in the second half of the 19th century. Situated southwest from Drohobych, it includes several localities: Boryslav - Tustanovychi - Mraznytsa - Banya Kotyvska with their rich and long history of brine and salt industry dating back to the 12th century. Rapid development of mining activity has sommenced with the implementation of the new, Canadian method of drilling for oil by the Canadian MacGarvey Company. The decisive date in the activity of the MacGarvey Company was 1893 when exploration drilling for oil commenced in Boryslav and then, in 1895, in Tustanovychi. Discovery of an oilfield in Boryslav was the beginning of the "golden age" of the oil industry in the Fore-Carpathian region and many people amassed fortunes. From the geological point of view, the Boryslav region covers the three Carpathian structural units: Skyba (Skole), Boryslav-Pokuttya and Sambir (Stebnik). The Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit is the main oil reservoir in the Ukrainian Carpathians with multi-layered oilfields, including the largest one-Boryslav. In this region ozokerite deposits are also known, hosted in the salt-bearing Lower Miocene Vorotyscha Beds. The city of Drohobych has become famous for its long tradition of salt trade. In the 19th century the period of rapid development started when the oil industry flourished in the vicinity, although the town was still in the shadow of Boryslav. The city of Truskavets, the famous health resort, has several mineral waters, also related to the oilfields, including the famous "Naftusia" spring. Another interesting site is Urych - the place where patients from the Truskavets resort travelled in order to admire scenic crags of the Yamna Sandstones and ruins of the Tustan Castle. The region of Boryslav and its surroundings was the site of the most effective petroleum exploitation in the territory of Poland in the past. This place is connected with the activity of Stanisław Szczepanowski (1846-1900), pioneer of oil industry and industrialization of the Galicia province.
PL
Rejon Borysławia, w którym pierwsze złoże odkryto pod koniec XIX wieku, stał się w owym czasie jednym z największych zagłębi naftowych na świecie. Jest on położony na SW od Drohobycza i obejmuje miejscowości Borysław - Tustanowice - Mraźnica - Bania Kotowska, o bogatej i długiej historii związanej z istniejącym tu od XII w. przemysłem solnym. Rozwój działalności wydobywczej wiąże się z wprowadzeniem przez Kanadyjczyka Williama MacGarvey a metody kanadyjskiej wiercenia otworów poszukiwawczych ropy naftowej. Przełomową datą był rok 1893, kiedy rozpoczął on wiercenia w Borysławiu, a następnie, w roku 1895, w Tustanowicach. Odkrycie złoża ropy naftowej w Borysławiu zapoczątkowało "złoty wiek" podkarpackiego przemysłu naftowego, a jego odkrywcom zapewniło fortunę. Pod względem geologicznym rejon Borysławia położony jest na obszarze występowania trzech karpackich jednostek strukturalnych: skibowej (ukraińska nazwa jednostki skolskiej), borysławsko pokuckiej i samborskiej (ukraińska nazwa jednostki stebnickiej). Jednostka borysławsko-pokucka jest podstawową strukturą roponośną w Karpatach ukraińskich, w której uformowały się wielohoryzontowe złoża ropy naftowej, w tym największe z nich - Borysław. Mamy tu złoża ozokerytu w mioceńskich, solonośnych warstwach worotyszczańskich. Drohobycz, miasto przez wieki żyjące z handlu solą, w XIX wieku zaczął gwałtownie rozwijać się w cieniu Borysławia, stając się zapleczem dla przemysłu naftowego. Truskawiec to wielkie uzdrowisko, posiadające wiele wód mineralnych, towarzyszących złożom ropy naftowej, w tym słynną "Naftusię". Innym interesującym miejscem jest Urycz - miejscowość, do której wyjeżdżali kuracjusze wypoczywający w Truskawcu by podziwiać piękne ostańce skalne (piaskowce jamneńskie) oraz ruiny zamku Tustań. Borysław i jego okolice był w tych czasach największym obszarem naftowym na ziemiach polskich. Z miejscem tym jest związana działalność Stanisława Szczepanowskiego (1846-1900), pioniera przemysłu naftowego i rzecznika uprzemysłowienia Galicji.
EN
The unique nature of the Starunia palaeontological site, where nearly perfectly preserved large mammals were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, and also the incompletely researched history of the Pleistocene vegetation of the region, provided the necessary stimulus to undertake further complex palaeobotanical investigations. The Pleistocene and Holocene sediments filling the Velyky Lukavets River valley are the object of this type of investigation. Both the succession of vegetation and radiocarbon dating indicate that the formation of biogenic sediments began in the Weichselian Middle Pleniglacial, in the Moershoofd interstadial, and lasted through the Hengelo/Denekamp Interstadial Complex and the Late Glacial and Holocene. Palaeobotanical investigations show the Middle Pleniglacial to have been characterized by an open, forestless landscape. Grassland steppe communities dominated with extremely high proportions of Poaceae, as well as Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and a number of herbaceous plant taxa. More moist places were occupied by dwarf shrub tundra with Betula nana, Alnus viridis, and Cyperaceae. Small changes in the character of the vegetation resulting from climatic oscillations made their mark through a slight increase in the proportion of tree-birches, fir and pine. The record of Late Weichselian plant succession in the Velyky Lukavets River valley also documents the dominance of open habitats with a preponderance of steppe and steppe-tundra communities and a dry, continental climate. Only with the beginning of the Holocene did an improvement in climate conditions lead to the rapid expansion of forest communities with a dominance of pine accompanied by fir, larch, and trees, which are more demanding in terms of temperature, e.g. elm, oak, lime, hornbeam and hazel.
EN
Near-surface gases were investigated in Starunia, where remains of mammoth and woolly rhinoceroses were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century. Samples were collected at 30 measurement sites, from 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 m depths and analysed for their molecular and isotopic compositions. Most of the methane and all higher gaseous hydrocarbons accumulated within the near-surface zone are of thermogenic origin. The distribution of thermogenic methane and higher gaseous hydrocarbons in Quaternary sediments is variable and, generally, increases with depth. Microbial methane or a mixture of microbial and thermogenic methane also occurs at the near-surface zone. The presence of hydrogen and alkenes in the near-surface gases also suggests a contribution from recent, microbial processes. Helium of crustal origin migrated through the Rinne Fault and other tectonic zones located in the study area, and was subsequently dispersed during migration through the lithologically diversified Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. The high variability of the carbon dioxide concentration and stable carbon isotope composition at various depths in the near-surface zone is caused by its polygenetic origin (thermogenic, microbial, and oxidation of hydrocarbons and Quaternary organic matter), and also by its dissolution in water and oil during migration through lithologically diversified Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. Zones of thermogenic methane occurrence within Pleistocene sediments, dominated by muds saturated with bitumen and brines, provide the most favourable environment for preservation of large extinct mammals. It is likely that during the Pleistocene winters, when thick ice and snow covered the tundra lake and swamp, zones of outflow of brines, oils, helium, and thermogenic gaseous hydrocarbons had a higher temperature, which could have resulted in melting and cracking of the ice cover and drowning of large mammals. The most favourable conditions for preservation of large, extinct mammals probably still exists in the vicinity of sampling probe sites Nos 21, 22, 23 and 36. Zones of dominance of microbial methane concentrations are less favourable sites for preservation of extinct mammals, because this methane was generated within recent swamps and also within recent descending meteoric waters which infiltrated into Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. Older Pleistocene microbial gases have already escaped to the atmosphere.
12
Content available Złoże złota Saulyak (Masyw Marmaroski, Ukraina)
PL
Złoże złota Saulyak zlokalizowane jest we wschodnich Karpatach ukraińskich, w Rachowskim Rejonie Rudnym. Złoże znajduje się w spągu jednostki diłoweckiej, która jest nasunięta na jednostkę białopotocką. Obie te jednostki wchodzą w skład płaszczowinowej struktury Masywu Marmaroskiego. Mineralizacja rudna występuje w silnie zmylonityzowanych łupkach krystalicznych, zmetamorfizowanych w facji zieleńcowej. Obserwacje mikroskopowe potwierdziły obecność w żyłach kwarcowych znaczących ilości złota rodzimego oraz polimetalicznego okruszcowania pirotynem, pirytem, chalkopirytem, galeną i sfalerytem. Badania chemiczne w mikroobszarze pozwoliły na identyfikację współwystępującego ze złotem minerału srebra - hessytu. Na podstawie badań własnych i analizy dostępnych materiałów scharakteryzowano wykształcenie strefy złożowej oraz otaczającego ją rejonu. Pozwoliło to na stwierdzenie, że złoże Saulyak należy do typu mezotermalnych żył kwarcowych ze złotem.
EN
The Saulyak gold deposit is located in the eastern part of the Ukrainian Carpathians, in the Rakhiv ore region. The deposit occurs at the base of the Dilove Unit overlying the Bilipotik Unit. Both of them are part of the Marmarosh Massif nappe structure. The ore-bearing veins are hosted by a low-grade metamorphic schists with strong mylonitic textures. Ore microscopic investigations show a significant presence of native gold in association with pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and sphalerite. Hessite has been found in paragenetic position with gold; it was also identified using EDS analyses. This work provides a geological framework of ore zone and surrounding area. The Saulyak gold deposit can be classified as the mesothermal gold lode.
PL
Na podstawie reinterpretacji profilu sejsmicznego Użok- Borysław-Rudki zrekonstruowano model strukturalny wgłębnej budowy geologicznej Karpat i ich zapadliska w strefie transgranicznej z terytorium Polski w aspekcie oceny perspektyw ropogazonośności.
EN
The structural model of subsurface geological structure of the Carpathians and their foredeep in the transfrontier zone between Ukraine and Poland was reconstructed. The model was analysed from the point of view of assessment of its petroleum prospects, on the basis of reinterpretation of the seismic section Użok – Borysław – Rudki.
14
EN
The Ukrainian Carpathians abounds with objects of great geological interests. The area belongs to the Carpathians mantle-fold system of the Alpine orogeny, formed mainly by the Cretaceous, Palaeogene and Neogene deposits. It is a geomorphological region of denudation-tectonical mountains. Totally selected 15 objects of the geological heritage of Ukrainian Carpathians representing different types of geosites and protection status. All presented geosites are located in four administrative districts of the Western Ukraine.
PL
W Karpatach ukraińskich znajdują się liczne obiekty o dużej wartości geologicznej. Obszar ten należy do karpackiego systemu fałdowego orogenu alpejskiego, zbudowanego głównie z osadów kredy, paleogenu i neogenu. Pod względem geomorfologicznym jest to region gór denudacyjno-tektonicznych. W sumie wybrano 15 obiektów dziedzictwa geologicznego, reprezentujących różne typy geotopów, mających zróżnicowany status ochrony prawnej. Wszystkie geostanowiska prezentowane w artykule są zlokalizowane w czterech okręgach administracyjnych zachodniej Ukrainy.
EN
Fluid inclusion studies were conducted in the vein quartz known as the "Marmarosh diamonds" of the Krosno and Dukla zones of the Ukrainian Carpathians, which are potentially oil- and gas-bearing. The "Marmarosh diamonds" contain different types of fluid inclusions which record the evolution of the quartz formation. The inclusions were studied by means of gas chromatography, microthermometry and fluorescence. The following sequence has been observed: methane inclusions displaying characteristic features due to crystallography, light hydrocarbons, complex inclusions with a variety of bitumens, and gas-liquid inclusions with two different hydrocarbon phases. The regions where the light hydrocarbon inclusions occur seem to be the most promising as regards oil and gas prospects.
EN
The Ukrainian Carpathians abounds with objects of great geological interests: 84 geosites are registered here. The area belongs to the Carpathian mantle-fold system of the Alpine orogeny, formed mainly by the Cretaceous, Palaeogene and Neogene deposits. It is the geomorphological region of denudation-tectonic mountains. In the paper, 7 objects of the geological heritage of Ukrainian Carpathians representing different types of geosites, are being proposed for the draft candidate list of geosites of Central Europe.
PL
Karpaty ukraińskie obfitują w obiekty o dużym znaczeniu geologicznym: aż 84 geostanowiska sâ tu zarejestrowane. Obszar ten należy do karpackiego sytemu płaszowinowo-fałdowego orogenezy alpejskiej i jest zbudowany głównie z osadów kredowych, paleogeńskich i neogeńskich. Geomorfologicznie jest to region górski, denudacyjno-tektoniczny. W pracy przedstawiono 7 obiektów geologicznego dziedzictwa Karpat ukraińskich reprezentujących różne typy geostanowisk, a które są proponowane na wstępną listę geostanowisk Europy Środkowej.
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