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EN
The approaches to managing our road transportation infrastructure are not sustainable. A sustainable road transport infrastructure must meet the needs of present road users and give allowance to accommodate future developments. There is a gap between expected life span of roads in Nigeria and actual life span after putting the infrastructure into use. This paper examined the reasons government cannot repair roads in Nigeria, identify the challenges faced by the construction companies while on road construction projects and the effects of bad roads on national sustainable development. Ministry of Works and Transport, Ibadan and ad hoc staff of two major construction companies Reynolds Construction Company (RCC) and China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation (CCECC) were purposively selected based on the number of roads they have constructed in South-western Nigeria. Principal Component Analysis was used to identify the various factors that are responsible for the inability of government to construct and repair roads. Descriptive analysis was used to explain the challenges of construction companies and also the effects of bad road on national development. The findings identified 20 factors that are responsible for the inability of government to construct and maintain roads which were reduced into eight components. Some challenges in road construction are erosion, inadequate skilled labour, capital for equipment, funding, user’s problem and machinery repairs. The effects of bad roads include: road crashes (27%), high vehicle maintenance cost (21%), capital flight (17%), passengers’ discomfort (14%), high transportation cost (11%) and drivers’ fatigue (10%). The study concluded that, there should be standardized procedure for road construction projects in the form of: penalty for failure to meet the required deadline, quality, usage and rehabilitation in order to achieve sustainable development
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to discuss and analyze new regulations regarding passenger transport, new obligations of intermediaries such as Uber and drivers using such platforms. Design/methodology/approach: Analysis and interpretation of legal provisions, analysis of the socio-economic context and desirable implications. Findings: The new regulations should increase the sense of justice and equal treatment of entrepreneurs due to the unification of the requirements for all entities providing passenger transport services. Potential increase in the quality of transport services for consumers due to greater legal certainty and standards. Regulating the status and activities of intermediary platforms that have previously operated in the sphere of legal uncertainty. Originality/value: This is one of the few first studies on regulations that have been in force recently and regulating the controversy related to Uber's activity in Poland. This should be a practical source of knowledge and conclusions about the applicable regulations for transport companies, drivers wishing to operate e.g. under the Uber banner, as well as aware passengers who can expect the quality of services provided.
EN
Purpose: The goal of the article is to present oversized transport in the context of urban logistics as the impact of available urban infrastructure, documentation and means of transport on the flow of oversized cargo between the place of loading and the place of receipt. Abnormal load transportation is carried out with the use of public and private roads. It affects the infrastructure and safety of the city through which it takes place, because usually a given section of the road is not excluded during the journey. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on a broad analysis of Polish and foreign literature. The article also contains an example of the organization of abnormal load transport by one of the Polish enterprises, which was awarded the prestigious “ESTA Awards of excellence 2017” in the category of transport over 120 tonnes. Findings: Oversized transport has a big impact on the temporary functioning of freight flows in the city. The city's spatial development and legal norms significantly influence the oversize transport reduction. It is interesting area of research developing in the future. Originality/value The article shows oversized transport in the context of the city and freight flows in the city.
EN
The constant development of transport systems and the extensive activities related to the safety of its users necessitate the development of methods for assessing the impact of road infrastructure expansion/modernization on road safety. The objective of this paper is to elaborate the concept of such an assessment, which will form part of the author’s activities aimed at creating a methodology for a comprehensive analysis of the operational reliability of transport systems. The concept of assessing the impact of road infrastructure development on road safety presented in this paper refers to the GAMAB and Road Safety Impact Assessment methods from the subject literature. Our method is based on a comparative analysis of the condition of road infrastructure before and following its expansion/modernization, based on commonly available data, which constitutes the main advantage of the concept presented in this paper. Furthermore, the coefficients for occurrence of adverse road events were determined, and then conclusions drawn on this basis. The acquired results constitute an argument for the correctness of the presented concept.
EN
The main purpose of the work is to show the level of air pollution emitted by road transport and its relationship with economic development and transport infrastructure in European Union countries. The study presents the diversity in emissions of road transport by countries, shows the dynamics of changes in this area, determines the relationships between the level of economic development, equipping with road infrastructure and emissions of air pollution in EU countries. The research period concerned the years 2006-2017. The sources of data was EUROSTAT database. The ranking built by means of multidimensional data analysis tools indicated Portugal and Luxembourg as countries with relatively high emissions of air pollutants (group 3), countries with moderate emissions are Bulgaria, Malta, Cyprus and Sweden (group 2). Analysis of data on the rate of change in emissions and the volume of GDP in EU countries also indicates compliance with the Kuznets environmental curve.
PL
Celem głównym pracy było porównanie poziomu zanieczyszczenia powietrza emitowanego przez transport drogowy i jego związku z rozwojem gospodarczym i infrastrukturą transportową w krajach Unii Europejskiej w latach 2006-2017. W pracy przedstawiono zróżnicowanie w emisji zanieczyszczeń przez transport drogowy w krajach UE, ukazano dynamikę zmian w tym zakresie, określono związki i między poziomem rozwoju gospodarczego, wyposażeniem w infrastrukturę drogową, a emisją zanieczyszczeń powietrza. Dane pochodziły z baz i raportów EUROSTAT. Zbudowany za pomocą metod wielowymiarowej analizy danych ranking szeregujący Państwa pod względem emisji związków do atmosfery pochodzących z transportu i uwzględniając infrastrukturę drogową oraz powierzchnię kraju, wskazał na Portugalię i Luksemburg jako kraje o stosunkowo dużej emisji (grupa 3), kraje o umiarkowanej emisji to Bułgaria, Malta, Cypr oraz Szwecja (grupa 2). Analiza tempa zmian emisji zanieczyszczeń do powietrza oraz wielkości PKB w krajach Unii wskazuje także na zgodność ze środowiskową krzywą Kuznetsa.
6
Content available remote Analityka wodoru wykorzystywanego jako nośnik energii
PL
Omówiono normy ISO i ASTM dotyczące oznaczania zawartości zanieczyszczeń w paliwie wodorowym przeznaczonym do zastosowania w ogniwach paliwowych typu PME (proton exchange membrane). Dokonano przeglądu stanu wiedzy w zakresie analizy jakościowo-ilościowej kilkunastu zanieczyszczeń występujących w wodorze o wysokiej czystości oraz wymaganej aparatury badawczej, w którą musi być wyposażone laboratorium analityczne, aby świadczyć usługi na rynku paliwa wodorowego stosowanego w transporcie drogowym.
EN
A review, with 38 refs., of methods for detg. impurities in H2 fuel for cells at the level required by the stands. with special emphasis on the methods for sampling and storage.
7
Content available remote Risk management of oversize cargo transport
EN
The article examined the selected problems in traffic caused by oversize cargo transportation. The authors considered the uniqueness of such cargoes.They require an individual approach to the organization and implementation of delivery from origin to destination. Besides, they recognized the need to eliminate the numerous difficulties when transporting such abnormal loads as well as to reduce high risk transportation. They also indicated that the solution to these problems is possible through the broader application of risk management methods of the road traffic, the reduction of various threats and probabilities of their occurrence in the context of the traffic flow disruption analysis.
PL
W artykule przeanalizowano wybrane problemy w ruchu drogowym wywoływane realizacją przewozów ładunków ponadnormatywnych. Autorzy uwzględnili unikatowość takich ładunków, co wymaga indywidualnego podejścia do organizacji i realizacji ich dostawy od miejsca nadania do miejsca przeznaczenia. Ponadto rozpatrzyli potrzeby eliminacji licznych utrudnień podczas transportowania ładunków ponadnormatywnych oraz wysokie ryzyko pracy przewozowej. Pokazano, że rozwiązanie tych problemów jest możliwe poprzez szersze zastosowanie metod zarządzania ryzykiem utraty płynności ruchu drogowego, redukcji zagrożeń i prawdopodobieństw ich wystąpienia w kontekście analizy zakłóceń płynności ruchu.
EN
The aim of this article is to analyze the pace of expansion of the network of highways and expressways over the past 15 years of membership in the European Union. Joining the European Union by such post-socialist countries as: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia (2004), Bulgaria, Romania (2007) and Croatia (2013) as well as the funds received for the development of transport infrastructure significantly contributed to the boom in the pace of road investments in these countries. The existing networks of highways and expressways in the 11 analyzed countries are at the stage of creating major national and international connections. The most advanced expansion of the national highway system is taking place in Poland and Hungary. Stable development, with a slight annual growth of the length of new highways, is taking place in Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Stagnation in the development of roads of this type is occurring in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Toll roads are operated in 8 out of 11 analyzed countries. The vignette system for highways is used in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Romania and Hungary. Toll is paid at tollbooths in Croatia and Poland. Most of the highways in Central Europe are concentrated around the capital agglomerations, e.g. Budapest, Prague, Bratislava, Ljubljana, Zagreb, Sofia and Bucharest, with the exception of Warsaw, which is slowly rebuilding its central position in the network of expressways (A-2, S-7, S-8, S-17) in Poland. The first sections of highways in the discussed countries, except for Poland, were located around the capital cities. The layout of the highway network is often determined by the orography of the terrain, especially the course of mountain ranges, great rivers and coasts. Due to the varied topography, costs are rising, and the construction time of engineering structures such as tunnels, overpasses and bridges is longer, with countries such as Croatia, Slovenia, Slovakia, and recently also the Czech Republic, Poland and Romania being forced to build them.
EN
The article presents an adverse impact of the transport in agglomerations on the environment and climate conditions. The sources and acceptable levels of environmental pollution and climate degradation are presented as well as contribution of the cars to this process, together with the actions undertaken with a view to reduce the emission. The trends in modernizing of the public transport systems are pointed out, inclusive of justification of the ecological tramtrain system implementation. The next part of the paper includes comparison of the features of the tram and passenger rail vehicles used for public transport in agglomerations. A brief outline of the actions initiated to implement the tram-train system in Poland is depicted. The final part of the article highlights the technical issues related to the difference between the tram and rail vehicle construction and equipment and discusses the scope of organizational and legal tasks necessary to undertake the practical measures. The Polish contractors potentially able to perform these tasks are indicated. In the last part a brief assessment of railway network suitability for implementation of the tram-train system was carried out on the example of the Poznań agglomeration. An extensive bibliography makes an essential part of the paper. The present article is a continuation of the earlier papers developed with participation of the author. Some of these problems have been only identified in the former papers and, therefore, they are discussed here more clearly, due to their importance to the topic of the tram-train system. The present text is a continuation of the paper of the same title, published in the quarterly Pojazdy Szynowe nr 4/2019.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono negatywne oddziaływanie transportu zbiorowego w aglomeracjach na stan środowiska i klimat. Opisano źródła i dopuszczalne poziomy zanieczyszczeń środowiska i degradacji klimatu oraz udział samochodów w tym procesie oraz podejmowane działania dla ograniczenia emisji. Przedstawiono uzasadnienie wdrażania ekologicznego systemu tram-train oraz tendencje unowocześniania systemów komunikacji zbiorowej. W dalszej części artykułu porównano cechy tramwaju i pasażerskich pojazdów kolejowych jako środków transportu zbiorowego w aglomeracjach. W krótkim zarysie opisano działania, jakie zostały podjęte dla wdrożenia systemu tram-train w Polsce. W końcowej części artykułu odniesiono się do zagadnień technicznych związanych z różnicami w zakresie budowy i wyposażenia tramwajów i pojazdów kolejowych, a także omówiono zakres prac organizacyjno-prawnych, których podjęcie jest niezbędne dla rozpoczęcia działań praktycznych. Wskazano potencjalnych realizatorów tych działań na poziomie krajowym. W ostatniej części przeprowadzono, na przykładzie aglomeracji poznańskiej, krótka analizę przydatności sieci kolejowej do wprowadzenia systemu tram-train. Istotną częścią artykułu jest obszerna lista bibliografii. Niniejszy artykuł jest kontynuacją wcześniejszych artykułów, których autor był współautorem. W poprzednich artykułach niektóre zagadnienia były tylko zasygnalizowane, dlatego jednak w związku z ich istotnym znaczeniem dla tematu systemu tram-train zostały omówione szerzej. Tekst jest kontynuacją artykułu pod tym samym tytułem, zamieszczonym w kwartalniku Pojazdy Szynowe nr 4/2019.
10
Content available remote Past, present and future development of West African railways
EN
In view of the crucial role, railways have played historically inland transportation, the West African region still endure to provide an efficient transport system. While road transport has been almost the exclusive predominant transportation mode in the region, the railway is now showing a global comeback. In the absence of a new phase of modernization at the international standard, it is unavoidable that the high demand for mobility of its increasing population and the full exploitation of its natural resource endowment will be constrained. This study presents the past, present, and future developments of the railway sector. The first section includes the brief historical development of the railways, the determinants choices of their location, and the influential parameters for their construction. The second section deals with the present state of the railway infrastructure, operational performance, and railway sector institutions. The last section provides some recent investment in the key construction projects at a national level.
PL
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie najważniejszych zagrożeń dla bezpieczeństwa narodowego, powodowanych przez transport drogowy wybranych materiałów niebezpiecznych. W pracy zostały poruszone zagadnienia klasyfikacji materiałów niebezpiecznych i używanych do tego celu środków transportu oraz obowiązujących aktów prawnych. Zobrazowano zadania oraz prowadzone działania, głównie przez Państwową Straż Pożarną, podczas zdarzeń drogowych występujących z udziałem towarów niebezpiecznych. Na podstawie analizy danych statystycznych, raportów oraz aktów prawnych dokonano analizy przyczynowo-skutkowej wypadków z udziałem materiałów niebezpiecznych w Polsce (system KiM).
EN
The purpose of the article is to present the most important threats to national security caused by road transport of selected hazardous materials. The paper deals with the issues of classification of dangerous materials and means of transport used for this purpose as well as legal acts in force. The State Fire Service's tasks and activities during road accidents involving dangerous goods has been illustrated. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, reports and legal acts, a causal analysis of accidents involving hazardous materials in Poland was made (KiM system).
EN
The article describes road transport operation planning connected with municipal waste transport, and the organisation of mixed municipal waste collection base on the example of convey routes serviced by means of transport owned by service company in Wałcz Municipal in Zachodniopomorskie Province in 2016. The article presents stages of planning and convey processes for transporting municipal waste in road transport in legal, technical and economical terms. They include all legal information relating to road convey of commodities as well as conditions which must be met by the service company that conducts this kind of transport and business activity. Technical and legal characterization of vehicles for transporting municipal waste has been presented as were transport process, technologies and systems. The Authors also analyse work effectiveness based on the drivers working time and elaborate on the optimal routes for municipal service in technological process of municipal waste transport, including all process-related activities. The aim of this article is to present the results of research on the operation of the municipal company Altvater Piła — ENERIS based on the commune of Wałcz it serviced in 2016.
PL
W artykule omówiono proces planowania drogowej operacji transportowej związanej z transportem odpadów komunalnych, a także przedstawiono organizację zbiórki zmieszanych odpadów komunalnych na przykładzie analizy tras przewozowych pokonywanych przez środki transportowe przedsiębiorstwa usługowego w gminie Wałcz w województwie zachodniopomorskim w 2016 roku. Zaprezentowano elementy procesu planistycznego i przewozowego odpadów komunalnych w transporcie drogowym w aspekcie prawnym, technicznym oraz ekonomicznym. Artykuł zawiera wszelkie informacje o wymogach prawnych dotyczących przewozu drogowego rzeczy oraz o warunkach, jakie musi spełniać przedsiębiorstwo usługowe wykonujące tego rodzaju przewozy. Scharakteryzowano pojazdy do przewozu odpadów komunalnych pod względem technicznym i prawnym. Dokonano również charakterystyki procesu transportowego, technologii transportowych, systemów transportowych, wykonano analizę wydajności pracy na podstawie czasu pracy kierowców oraz opracowano optymalne trasy do obsługi gminy w technologicznym procesie przewozowym odpadów komunalnych z uwzględnieniem wszystkich czynności towarzyszących temu procesowi. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań wydajności pracy przedsiębiorstwa komunalnego Altvater Piła — ENERIS na podstawie danych obsługiwanej gminy Wałcz (dane z 2016 r.).
EN
Since transport is of great importance for sustainable socio-economic development, it is necessary to implement adaptive measures aimed at increasing the resistance of enterprises in the Transport-Forwarding-Logistics (TFL) sector to the negative effects of climate phenomena. The involvement of many entities and institutions at the national, regional, and local levels is necessary to implement effective adaptative and preventive measures. An important role in the implementation of these activities was assigned to transport companies, which are the subject of the article. Based on  a  survey conducted among a purposefully selected group of enterprises from the TFL sector, an assessment of the awareness of the climate change effects and the need to undertake adaptative activities was made.
PL
Ze względu na fakt, że transport ma ogromne znaczenie dla zrównoważonego rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczego, konieczne są działania adaptacyjne mające na celu zwiększenie odporności przedsiębiorstw sektora Transport-Spedycja-Logistyka (TSL) na negatywne skutki zjawisk klimatycznych. Do wdrożenia efektywnych działań adaptacyjnych i zapobiegawczych niezbędne jest zaangażowanie wielu podmiotów i instytucji na poziomie krajowym, regionalnym i lokalnym. Ważną rolę we wdrażaniu tych działań przypisano przedsiębiorstwom transportowym, co stanowiło przedmiot rozważań podjętych w artykule. Na podstawie przeprowadzonego badania ankietowego, wśród celowo wybranej grupy przedsiębiorstw sektora TSL, dokonano oceny świadomości skutków zmian klimatu i konieczności podejmowania działań adaptacyjnych.
EN
The social legislation is a current and political issue in the field of road freight transport. Working conditions for drivers in the EU (including Switzerland, Norway, Liechtenstein, and Iceland) are governed by Regulation (EC) No 561/2006. Regulation (EC) No 561/2006 - known as the Driving Time Regulation - lays down rules on driving times, breaks and rest periods for drivers of lorries and buses to improve working conditions and road safety. A number of new amendments to this regulation were adopted on 15 July 2020. The aim of this paper is to present the most important changes adopted compared to the previous version of the Regulation. The paper deals with the adopted changes in the following areas: weekly rest periods, secure parking areas, vehicles which are transported by ferry or train and exceeding driving time which may jeopardize road safety. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize and inform researchers, practitioners and all interested parties about the adopted changes in the Regulation, as well as the transport companies responsible for planning and scheduling the working time of drivers and also for preventing unpleasant experiences resulting from possible compliance with the conditions of the Regulation. The adopted changes in Regulation are also illustrated in the figures and table to better understand the differences.
EN
The paper analyses the assessment of the technical condition of vehicles at technical inspection stations in the Slovak Republic in the period of 2007-2019. There are described the legislative conditions for assessment of the technical condition of vehicles at technical inspections stations in the Slovak Republic. Data from technical inspections and defects within all technical inspection stations was recorded in the nationwide information system. These data was used as base for the next analysis. This paper also describes the possibilities for detection of deficiencies at technical inspection stations, and in the final part the impact of expert supervision on the operation of the selected technical inspection stations was analysed. The paper also examines significant factors affecting the assessment of the technical condition of vehicles at technical inspection stations in the Slovak Republic. The first factor represents legislative measures introducing more sophisticated technical means to control technical inspection stations, and the second factor is technical supervision by supervisory authorities over technical inspection stations.
EN
The article presents a method for assessing emissions of harmful substances and noise from road and air transport, as well as a combined assessment of the emissions of these transport pollutants. The original analytical dependencies reflecting the emissions of harmful substances from road transport, developed as part of the EMITRANSYS project implemented at the Faculty of Transport of the Warsaw University of Technology, were taken into consideration, in which the unit values of the actual road emissions of harmful substances are a function of, among other things, route length or speed of the vehicles. However, the dependencies associated with noise emissions were taken from the applicable international guidelines for assessing environmental pollution by traffic noise. The article also describes a case study in which the impact of Warsaw Chopin Airport on noise along the Warsaw road network and the entire Warsaw agglomeration was assessed. Analyses and discussions were carried out in the scope of the change in transport noise due to air operations carried out in the analysed area. As agreed, the combined impact of road and aircraft noise in the area under study is far more unfavourable than street noise alone. Thus, it can be seen that the assessment of noise levels carried out separately for individual modes of transport (in accordance with applicable regulations) should be supplemented with the assessment of traffic noise from all modes of transport – especially in the case of simulation tests of ecologically friendly changes in the area of transport.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono znaczenie zielonych zamówień publicznych zgodnie z nowymi wytycznymi Unii Europejskiej dla inwestycji budowlanych i transportu drogowego jako obszarów priorytetowych. Zwrócono uwagę na nowe wymagania zgodne z wytycznymi Komisji Europejskiej dotyczącymi aspektów prawnych zielonych zamówień publicznych oraz przedstawiono kryteria środowiskowe w cyklu życia budynków oraz pojazdów dla zielonych zamówień publicznych. Wskazano również na główne inicjatywy, które należy podejmować w obszarach budownictwa i transportu w kierunku spełnienia kryteriów zielonych zamówień publicznych.
EN
The article presents the importance of green public procurement in accordance with the European Union new guidelines for construction investments and road transport as priority areas. Attention was drawn to new requirements in line with the European Commission guidelines on the legal aspects of green public procurement and environmental criteria in the life cycle of buildings and vehicles for green public procurement were presented. The main initiatives that should be taken in the areas of construction and transport to meet the criteria of green public procurement were also indicated.
PL
Transport drogowy jest najpopularniejszym transportem pod kątem przewozu ładunków. Jego rozwój prowadzi do zastąpienia kierowcy systemami autonomicznymi, które są w stanie samodzielnie poruszać się po drogach. Przynosi to wiele korzyści ekonomicznych oraz technologicznych, jak i poprawę bezpieczeństwa w ruchu drogowym. Poprawi także ogólny postęp cywilizacyjny. Mimo tak innowacyjnego projektu istnieje jeszcze wiele barier prawnych, technologicznych i społecznych, które mogą przeszkodzić we wprowadzeniu na europejski rynek transportowy ciężarówek autonomicznych.
EN
Road transport is the most popular way of cargo transportation. Its development leads to replacing the driver with autonomous systems, which are able to navigate the road independently. That brings many economic and technological benefits, as well as improving road safety. It will also improve the general civilization progress. Despite such an innovative project, there are still many legal, technological and social barriers, which may prevented the introduction of autonomous trucks into the European transport market.
PL
W artykule skupiono uwagę na problemie, jakim są koszty wypadków w transporcie drogowym. Została podana definicja wypadku drogowego i scharakteryzowane zostały przyczyny oraz skutki zdarzeń drogowych. Zawarto również statystyki dotyczące wypadków drogowych w Polsce. W celu określenia rzeczywistych kosztów wypadków podany został sposób obliczania tych kosztów.
EN
The article focuses on the problem of costs of accidents in road transport. The definition of a traffic accident was given, and the causes and consequences of road accidents were characterized. Statistics of road accidents in Poland are also included. In order to determine the actual costs of accidents, the method of calculating these costs is given.
EN
The question of how to regulate the salaries of drivers working in the international road transport sector to balance the promotion of free movement of persons and the integration of the market with adequate protection of workers’ rights is rather complex. The range of problems of those seeking to ensure fair competition and fair treatment of employees arises from the fact that drivers operate across Europe but come from different countries where wage standards are significantly different, along with the working conditions. The paper addresses the issue of insufficient harmonization of social conditions in relation to the remuneration of drivers involved in road transport. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there are differences in driver remuneration across the EU, even though they carry out the same transport within one EU territory as part of international road haulage. It also aims to identify whether there is a change in the terms and conditions of wage compensation over time.
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