The article substantiates the influence of digitalization, which affects the development of socioeconomic relations. The trends that arose as a result of the development of digitalization and contribute to the gradual transformation of socio-economic relations and the economic base was identified. Digitization as a factor influencing the change of the economic base was substantiated. The economic basis of business models in the conditions of digitalization is considered. The most widespread business models of the modern type in the conditions of digitalization of the economy was characterized. An analysis of the evolution of scientific opinion regarding the transformation of business models from traditional to digital ones was made. It is proven that the business models used in the digital economy are client-oriented, which proves their purely marketing nature. The influence of “Industry 4.0” technologies on the evolution of approaches to the definition and formation of business models was substantiated.
Artykuł uzasadnia wpływ cyfryzacji na rozwój stosunków społeczno-gospodarczych. Zidentyfikowano trendy, które powstały w wyniku rozwoju cyfryzacji i przyczyniają się do stopniowej transformacji stosunków społeczno-gospodarczych oraz bazy ekonomicznej. Uzasadniono cyfryzację, jako czynnik wpływający na zmianę bazy ekonomicznej. Rozważane są ekonomiczne podstawy modeli biznesowych, w warunkach cyfryzacji. Scharakteryzowano najbardziej rozpowszechnione modele biznesowe nowoczesnego typu, w warunkach cyfryzacji gospodarki. Dokonano analizy ewolucji opinii naukowej, dotyczącej transformacji modeli biznesowych, z tradycyjnych na cyfrowe. Udowodniono, że modele biznesowe stosowane w gospodarce cyfrowej są zorientowane na klienta, co świadczy o ich czysto marketingowym charakterze. Uzasadniony został wpływ technologii „Przemysłu 4.0” na ewolucję podejść do definiowania i kształtowania modeli biznesowych.
Purpose: The paper aims to identify major components of the competitive potential of enterprises operating at the initial stage of the economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The research hypothesis H1 is advanced: the scope of business objects affects the selection of enterprise competitive potential components. The concept and nature of competitiveness are discussed and the subject matter of enterprise competitive potential is detailed. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical section follows a thorough review of leading specialist literature. The empirical part, on the other hand, uses the exploratory factor analysis, which detects an optimum group of main factors and explains correlations among observable variables, serves to verify the hypothesis. The number of factors is determined by means of the Cattell scree and Kaiser criteria. Findings: The paper contains the results of research into 253 large enterprises in the Polish economy. Exploratory factor analysis is employed to define the statistically significant components of competitive potential of enterprises active in the initial phase of the economic crisis and the effect of business objectives is explored on the selection of the components of enterprise competitive potential. It is shown that, regardless of business objects, three factors, namely, innovative machinery and equipment, the financial condition of an enterprise, and human capital, are the key components of enterprise competitive potential. Practical implications: The results can be utilised by entrepreneurs as a guide to the selection of the components of enterprise competitive potential at the times of crises. Originality/value: The paper presents the results of original research into a representative group of large enterprises which can be generalised to the entire population assuming a confidence level of α = 95% and maximum error of β = 6%.
Purpose: The aim of the article is to learn about the attitudes of innovative enterprises representatives towards the strength and importance of relations in regard to business environment institutions (BEI). Design/methodology/approach: The presented analyzes constitute a part of a broader study on the determinants of the quality of relations between enterprises in the quadruple helix. The article focuses on the enterprise – BEI. The research was carried out with the use of CATI method on a sample of 200 innovative enterprises Findings: The results show that in the case of the relationships strength and importance, communication is an important construct in relation to BEI. The significance of trust, commitment and satisfaction with regard to the strength and importance of the relationship between an innovative enterprise and BEI was not indicated. Moreover a high positive correlation was indicated between the individual relationship quality constructs. Research limitations/implications: The research sample is a limitation. The research was conducted on a sample of 200 innovative enterprises, but only 33% declared maintaining relations with BEI. Practical implications: The article indicates which quality constructs should be paid attention to by BEI in managing relations with enterprises. Originality/value: The article indicates that in some aspects of relationship management, communication is more important component than trust, commitment and satisfaction.
Purpose: The aim of the article is to learn about the attitudes of innovative enterprises representatives towards the strength and importance of relations in regard to scientific/research and development institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The presented analyzes constitute a part of a broader study on the determinants of the quality of relations between enterprises in the quadruple helix. The article focuses on the enterprise - scientific institutions plane. The research was carried out with the use of CATI method on a sample of 200 innovative enterprises Findings: The results show that in the case of the relationships strength, communication is an important construct in relation to scientific and R&D institutions, while in the case of the relationships importance it is commitment. The significance of trust and satisfaction with regard to the strength and importance of the relationship between an innovative enterprise and scientific and research and development institutions was not indicated. Moreover a high positive correlation was indicated between the individual relationship quality constructs. Research limitations/implications: The research sample is a limitation. The research was conducted on a sample of 200 innovative enterprises, but only 22.5% declared maintaining relations with scientific and research and development institutions. Practical implications: The article indicates which quality constructs should be paid attention to by representatives of scientific and research institutions in managing relations with enterprises. Originality/value: The article indicates that in some aspects of relationship management, commitment and communication are more important components than trust and satisfaction.
Aim: Running a business is correlated with incurring costs. These are related to the management of resources in enterprises, which is why they must be constantly analysed and controlled. Based on cost information, certain management decisions are made. The aim of the article is to present basic issues concerning the functioning of distribution costs in an enterprise. Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of a company's activities in terms of distribution costs was conducted. In addition, the article defines the logistical indicators and measures of an enterprise and presents expenses incurred for training in specific years. Determinations: The article presents the allocation of primary distribution costs, which are divided into storage costs, transport costs, inventory maintenance costs, and administrative costs through conducting an interview in the enterprise. Originality/Value: The results of the study can be used in the company's strategic distribution decisions.
Introduction/background: Currently in Poland, it is becoming increasingly popular to implement activities related to social responsibility in organizations. Companies have begun to pay more and more attention to such issues as building relationships with the environment, as well as widely understood social interest or environmental protection has become important. Aim of the paper: The purpose of the article is to indicate the role of social responsibility and its relationship to the development of the organization using a selected example. Materials and methods: The study used the case-study method using a survey questionnaire tool. Results and conclusions: Based on the survey, it can be concluded that the employees of the surveyed enterprise have a positive view of social responsibility activities. The organization should focus on a strategy based on investing in solutions to improve the quality of life of employees, the local community, and strive to offset the negative impact on the environment.
Kontrole w zakresie ochrony środowiska, a zwłaszcza gospodarki odpadami budzą wiele emocji i wątpliwości przedsiębiorców. Przedsiębiorcy często zadają pytania: jakie uprawnienia posiada kontrolujący, czy korzystający z władztwa organ kontrolujący może żądać dokumentów niezwiązanych bezpośrednio z zakresem kontroli, czy i kiedy może dojść do wyłączenia pracownika organu? Jakie są środki ochrony prawnej przeciwko ustaleniom zawartym w protokole kontroli, a także jakie są skutki podpisania protokołu z pokontrolnego? Są to tylko niektóre istotne zagadnienia związane z prowadzoną kontrolą.
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Artykuł stanowi drugą część opracowania, którego celem jest prezentacja zmian w zarządzaniu łańcuchami dostaw przed pandemią COVID-19 i w pierwszych miesiącach pandemii oraz ocena wpływu tych zmian na budowanie przewagi konkurencyjnej na przykładzie wybranych polskich przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych. Podjęto w nim próbę pogłębionej analizy najważniejszych, w przekonaniu autorki, aspektów zmian w zarządzaniu łańcuchami dostaw wybranych polskich przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych w latach 2018–2020 oraz oceny wpływu tych zmian na proces budowania przewagi konkurencyjnej badanych firm.
The article constitutes the second part of the study which aim is to present changes in supply chain management before the COVID-19 pandemic and in the first months of this pandemic as well as to assess the influence of these changes on building a competitive advantage on the example of the selected Polish production, trade and service enterprises. It attempts to carry out an in-depth analysis of the most important, in the opinion of the author, aspects of changes in supply chain management of the selected Polish production, trade and service enterprises in 2018–2020 and to assess the influence of these changes on the process of building a competitive advantage of the surveyed companies.
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Artykuł stanowi pierwszą część opracowania, którego celem jest prezentacja zmian w zarządzaniu łańcuchami dostaw przed pandemią COVID-19 i w pierwszych miesiącach pandemii oraz ocena wpływu tych zmian na budowanie przewagi konkurencyjnej na przykładzie wybranych polskich przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych. Przedstawiono w nim istotę i kierunki zarządzania współczesnymi łańcuchami dostaw. Opisano metodykę badań i dokonano skrótowej charakterystyki badanej populacji. Zaprezentowano wyniki badań dotyczące wybranych uwarunkowań zarządzania procesami logistycznymi w badanych przedsiębiorstwach w latach 2018–2020.
The article constitutes the first part of the study which aim is to present changes in supply chain management before the COVID-19 pandemic and in the first months of this pandemic as well as to assess the influence of these changes on building a competitive advantage on the example of the selected Polish production, trade and service enterprises. It presents the essence and directions of managing contemporary supply chains. The research methodology has been described and a short description of the examined population has been made. The results of the research concerning selected conditions for managing logistics processes in the surveyed enterprises in 2018–2020 have been presented.
Purpose: The concept of CSR is one of the most important topics from the point of view of both scientific research and companies’ actions. Although corporate social responsibility seems to be common practice, however in many cases, these are often one-time actions aimed at building firms’ image. The paper tries to look at this issue from a perspective of a telecommunications company. Design/methodology/approach: Secondary sources of information were used as well primary ones, obtained by the means of direct interviews conducted in a company providing telecommunication services, using an independently prepared, unstructured questionnaire as the research tool. The data obtained was analyzed using the inductive-deductive method. Findings: The CSR initiatives undertaken by the studied company proves that it develops good, long-term relations with its stakeholders such as suppliers and business partners, clients as well as the local government. The corporate social responsibility is incorporated in company’s organizational culture and it cannot be treated as one-time, ad-hoc events which is quite common for other companies. Originality/value: The analyzed company was not previously studied in terms of CSR activities. The paper can be useful for stakeholders, especially the local government as it can see the firm’s strong commitment to the development of the social, the economic and the natural environment of the region.
Purpose: The changing financial situation of enterprises under the influence of various political, economic, social, etc. decisions is the cause of interest of many researchers. The aim of the research is to assess the financial situation of non-financial enterprises in Polish voivodships, taking into account the division into the private sector and the public sector in 2010-2020, and an attempt to classify the analyzed voivodeships into separate classes. Design/methodology/approach: Czekanowski's method was used to achieve the goal, which allows for the comparison of the examined objects in terms of the analyzed phenomenon. The visualization of this method is an ordered Czekanowski diagram, on the basis of which it is possible to group objects and observe whether their geographic location influences the results of grouping. Findings: The conducted analysis made it possible to group voivodeships in terms of the financial situation of enterprises, both for the public and private sectors. In the analyzed period, among the voivodships of Poland, several groups of similar voivodships can be distinguished in terms of the financial situation of enterprises. A voivodship was also selected, which differs from the rest of the voivodships – it is characterized by a lack of similarity in terms of the considered features, both in the whole analyzed period. It was also shown that the lockdown resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a significant impact on the financial results of Polish enterprises in the first half of 2020. Research limitations/implications: Using the MaCzek computer program to construct Czekanowski's diagrams, in some cases isolating similar objects in an unambiguous manner was difficult and hindered interpretation. Originality/value: Showing that the application of Czekanowski's method to the analysis of the financial situation of public and private sector enterprises in Poland is possible and allows for the assessment of the similarity of voivodeships. The article and the application of the method is useful for entrepreneurs and investors.
Purpose: The aim of the study is to answer the questions: how the employees of enterprises evaluate the care for building proper relationships with suppliers, recipients, customers and other entities, the enterprise/organization cooperates with, what activities support building good relationships. Design/methodology/approach: Empirical research conducted among respondents from enterprises and organizations in the Lubuskie voivodship. The background was to show the essence and models of relationship marketing. Findings: Employees of enterprises show a high sense of the importance of their actions for shaping relationships with business partners. This is based on: communication, building a good image, meeting the needs and expectations of external entities and joint activities for the local community. Research limitations/implications: Future research may include a detailed characterization of the relationships between business entities representing various sectors of the economy. Practical implications: The surveyed enterprises should shape the internal communication processes of the management staff with employees to build relationships with the environment, improve the external information systems of their partners. Managing the social potential in an enterprise should focus on motivating employees to take actions for shaping relationships with business partners, etc. Moving to a higher level of intra-organizational perception may affect the awareness of the role of the company/organization’s employees and their verifying power of activities for the environment. Social implications: The research results should show employees that their attitudes and openness to social needs can affect solving local problems and building the company’s image. Originality/value: Indicating the perception of the importance of employees in shaping relationships with the environment and evaluation of company’s activities in this regard.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to discuss the impact COVID-19 pandemic on implementation 4.0 technologies in enterprises and supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: The study performs review of literature to identify key aspects of Industry 4.0, the COVID-19 pandemic in the economy. Findings: The paper explained the changes in the functioning of enterprises and supply chains and their transformation towards Industry 4.0. The authors defined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of applying technology trends of the Industry 4.0 by enterprises and supply chains. We claim that in the enterprises and supply chains will be the need to invest in new technologies for the long term and implement new infrastructures. The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to help us push the accelerator pedal on Industry 4.0 in the industries, especially manufacturing industry. Originality/value: The study is one of the analysis of the relationships between enterprises and supply chains in the framework of Industry 4.0 and the aspects the COVID-19 pandemic in creating value chain. The study can be addressed to project managers and supply chains managers responded for implementation technologies of Industry 4.0.
Purpose: The objective of the study is presentation of the conditions of functioning of enterprises on the global market, use of modern management methods, employees' preferences in the period of the pandemic and crisis in the existing surroundings. The aim of the study is to present a changing global environment for businesses, to use modern elements of management, IT and telecommunications as necessary elements in the face of the pandemic and global crisis, to sustain the functioning of businesses, organizations, economies and states. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the collected data, observations and own studies, conclusions were drawn and proposals presented with regard to counteracting the pandemic as well as opening and development of businesses and economies. Based on the statistical data, own surveys and literature, conclusions were drawn with regard to trends in organization and application of modern management concepts and enterprise management forms in the global economy in the conditions of the pandemic and economic crisis. The study presents also the problems of the contemporary global economy in sustainable development. Findings: The study analyses the functioning of enterprises in the 21sr century, taking into consideration further surroundings as well as technological, economic and social changes, including economic crises and the current pandemic. It presents and discusses socio-economic data and trends in the EU where, due to the epidemic, internal differences, economic and political issues, too slow development, lack of effective border protection. The above serves as a background for presentation of management elements and trends in organization of the future. Currently, marketing, finance, profit, strategies, HR, innovativeness, modern management methods, forms of organization, etc. play an important role in enterprises. On the other hand, IT elements already have an important and increasing position, especially in the face of the pandemic, remote work and global crisis. As shown by the survey-based studies carried out at the beginning of 2020, employees value health, work, family, economic, social and even ecological elements. These are, therefore, the survival-related needs according to the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, especially in the face of the pandemic, remote work and global crisis. Even though economies are opening today, the situation related to the pandemic worldwide is still uncertain. Hope is pinned, particularly to the countries of the West, upon the vaccines, medicines, modern management methods and new technologies.
The aim of the article is to present the functionality of unemployed disabled people at the shows of the Bieszczady poviat based on the data presented in individual documents. The article is important for people with disabilities in relation the problems that plague them in carrying out everyday places. For many patients, work is an opportunity to break away from everyday problems and function on the basis of meeting subsequent goals related to professional work.
Companies operating on the market have to cope with a variety of crisis situations which may adversely affect their development and jeopardise the achievement of their objectives. A crisis situation may, on the one hand, have a negative impact on the development of the company, but, on the other hand, it may provide a stimulus and have a constructive effect on its functioning. One of the factors influencing the ability to function of a business, including crisis situations, is its organisational culture. Therefore, a company responding to the situation should assess the conditions both in its environment and inside it and verify the artefacts, the system of values and the main principles that are the basis for building an organisational culture. Many companies that are dealing with a crisis situation decide to undertake a conscious process of cultural transformation. However, it requires the management to take appropriate actions and the time of a crisis situation is a test for many companies – whether in such a difficult moment something can still be done with the organisational culture, or whether the entrepreneurs can only wait for its inevitable impact on the functioning of the company. The subject of this article is the impact of a crisis situation on changes occurring within the organisational culture. The study attempts to evaluate the role of organizational culture in crisis situations based on the current state of knowledge and crisis events related to COVID-19
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Przeanalizowano odpowiedzi 350 pracowników zatrudnionych w 9 działających w Polsce przedsiębiorstwach chemicznych, aby określić poziom zaufania tych osób wobec rozwiązań z zakresu sztucznej inteligencji obecnych w ich miejscach pracy. Badanie wykazało, że poziom ten jest umiarkowanie wysoki.
Three-hundred-fifty questionnaires from 9 Polish chem. companies were statistically evaluated to assess the level of employees’ trust in artificial intelligence. The level was found moderately high.
Introduction/background: The creation of a knowledge-based economy determines the growth of interest in innovations and the possibility of using them as a tool for building a competitive advantage. This requires companies to develop an appropriate innovation strategy. Its choice is determined by the environment and the company's own capabilities. On the other hand, the effectiveness of strategic decisions in the area of innovation contributes to building a company's competitive advantage. Aim of the article: The aim of the article is to present the cause-effect relations between the choice of innovation strategy and the competitive position of the enterprise. Materials and methods: The methods of critical analysis and synthesis, the method of generalization and logical methods as well as the desk research method were used in the research process. Result and conclusions: As a result of the work, a concept has been developed and direct and indirect consequences of innovation activity have been classified. The choice of innovation strategy usually is based on the direct financial results. But the indirect results are important for creating innovative potential of company and give a multiplier effects. These effects should be taken into account in the process of creating and strategy of innovation. The author presents a diagram of creating a innovative strategy, the direct and indirect effects of innovative activity and the cause and effect relations between the results of innovative activity and the creation of a strong competitive position of the company. The article is aimed at enterprise managers, decision makers of state institutions and scientists dealing with innovation problems.
Introduction/background: Social capital supports the flow of knowledge and information that are necessary for the creation of innovations in enterprises. Acceptance of the assumption that social capital has an impact on the creation of innovations had an influence on the formulation of the aim of the research. Aim of the paper: The aim of the paper is identification of the relations between the organizational resources of social capital and innovative activities in enterprises. Materials and methods: The assumed goal was executed thanks to the application of the survey method with the questionnaire technique. The research tool was a standardized survey questionnaire conducted by means of the CATI and CAWI techniques. Results and conclusions: As a result of research, statistically significant dependencies between the resources of social capital and innovative activity were noted. Firstly, the resources of cooperation and values exert the greatest positive impact on cooperation with universities and research institutions in research projects that were conducted jointly, while also on the process of creating innovations and implementing innovative projects in enterprises. Secondly, the principles of cooperation, solidarity and values support the activities of managers aimed at stimulating the innovative attitudes of employees. Thirdly, the principles of cooperation, loyalty and solidarity have a positive impact on the creation of the optimal conditions for the formation and implementation of innovative projects.
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W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań ankietowych dotyczących źródeł finansowania małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw. Są one częścią obszerniejszych badań dotyczących dostępności źródeł finansowania oraz barier w rozwoju przedsiębiorczości. Wyniki badań potwierdzają istniejącą od lat tendencję finansowania działalności w oparciu o kapitały własne, różne formy kredytowania oraz leasing.
The article presents the results of a questionnaire survey on the sources of financing for small and medium-sized enterprises. They are part of more extensive research on the availability of funding sources and barriers to entrepreneurship development. The research results confirm the long-standing tendency to finance activities based on equity, various forms of lending and leasing.