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PL
Na przestrzeni ostatnich kilku lat na kontynencie europejskim doszło do radykalnego pogorszenia stanu bezpieczeństwa państw. Wpływ na to mają coraz częstsze i brutalniejsze zamachy terrorystyczne, których autorami są islamscy fundamentaliści, masowa migracja ludności z krajów Bliskiego Wschodu i Afryki oraz odbudowa mocarstwowej pozycji Rosji, realizowana przez prezydenta Władimira Putina, kosztem jej najbliższych sąsiadów. W niniejszym artykule autor stawia tezę, że celem strategicznym Polski w zakresie bezpieczeństwa powinno być pozyskanie przez nią broni jądrowej. Swoje argumenty opiera na trzech czynnikach: doświadczeniu historycznym, położeniu geograficznym Polski oraz aktualnych uwarunkowaniach geopolitycznych.
EN
During the last few years on the European continent has been a dramatic changes in the security situation of states. The impact on this are becoming more frequent and brutal terrorist attacks whose authors are Islamic fundamentalists, mass migration of people from the countries of the Near East and Africa, and restoration of great power status of Russia implemented by President Vladimir Putin at the expense of her neighborhood. Russia continues to invest significant resources in developing armed forces and military capabilities. In this article the author wants to answer the question: if taking into account historical experience, geographical location and the current geopolitical issues, national interest and strategic objective of the Polish safety should be the acquisition of nuclear weapon.
PL
W artykule omówiony został przebieg reform prowadzonych w ostatnich latach w rosyjskich siłach zbrojnych ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem programów modernizacji technicznej. Au-tor przedstawił uwarunkowania wpływające na aktualny stan Sił Zbrojnych Federacji Rosyjskiej oraz trudności we wdrażaniu założeń realizowanego obecnie dziesięcioletniego Państwowego Programu Uzbrojenia 2020. Celem publikacji jest znalezienie odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy obserwowany trend wzrostowy w zakresie inwestycji w rosyjskie siły zbrojne i rozwój ich potencjału ma szansę się utrzymać oraz wskazanie jakie może to stanowić zagrożenie dla bezpieczeństwa Polski.
EN
The article presents the reforms which have recently been carried out in the Russian Armed Forces, with special attention paid to technical modernization programmes. The author de-scribes the factors which have influenced the current situation of the Russian Armed Forces and the difficulties connected with the implementation of the ten-year State Armament Program 2020.
6
Content available remote Skutki starań Iranu o broń jądrową
7
Content available remote Broń jądrowa i radiologiczna, czyli o czym „marzą” terroryści
EN
The nuclear and radiological weapons are two elements of weapons of mass destruction, where one of the destructive factors is the radioactive contamination of terrain. Such interaction can in a significant manner disrupt or even prevent the functioning of various military and civilian structures or systems. It is being assessed that the scale of threats can be diametrically different from local contamination in a limited area-caused by radiological weapons-to massive destruction and extensive areas of contamination caused by the detonation of a nuclear explosion. Despite evident disproportions, under terrorist threat conditions, both situations need to be treated equally serious and adequate precaution should be employed to prevent these. The article is an attempt to present current threats implied by terrorist attempts to gain and use nuclear and radiological weapons. For this reason the usefulness of the discussed means for terrorist goals are presented, potential methods of their gaining are being illustrated, whereas various difficulties linked to their gain are provided. An attempt of formulating an algorithm to assess the threat level of a nuclear or radiological attack has also been made. The most probable areas of problems to be solved have been pinpointed in this algorithm. The final effect of the conducted research was the assessment of objects which could be potential targets of nuclear or radiological strikes. Furthermore, when considering radiological strikes, various forms of such strikes have been specified and an assessment of their potential effects has been provided.
PL
Wielkoskalowe skażenia ze źródeł antropogenicznych mogą dotyczyć regionów, a nawet objąć całą kulę ziemską. Przykładem mogą być zmiany klimatu wywołane emisją gazów i pyłów przez przemysł, energetykę, instalacje komunalne i transport. Ich skutkami mogą być takie zjawiska, jak globalne ocieplenie, kwaśne deszcze czy dziura ozonowa.
9
Content available remote Niemiecka bomba atomowa jeszcze raz
11
Content available remote Broń jądrowa i bezpieczny świat
EN
Nuclear weapon is an extremely spectacular and at the same time lethal means of fighting. Some consider it a single "true” weapon of mass destruction whose destructive power exceeds everything that has ever been invented. Long lasting nuclear armament race was stopped, while countries that have nuclear weapon undertook many initiatives to its reduction and non-proliferation. A particular role is played by two strongest nuclear countries - the United States and Russia, which competing for many years were also the initiators of numerous disarmament treaties, pacts and conventions. The article presents the idea of contemporary threats in the aspect of nuclear weapon acquisition, possessing and using. For better understanding, the current world nuclear potential and its influence on international security is discussed. Also the revaluations that took place in the perception of threat awareness and defence methods are described. Four categories when nuclear weapon may pose a threat for the modern world are defined. They involve nuclear terrorism, new nuclear countries and regional conflicts, existing nuclear weapon arsenals and the risk that the non-proliferation idea of nuclear weapon may devaluate. Additionally, the latest solution of this problem is presented, called universal compliance, supported by Canegie Endowment for International Peace.
12
Content available remote Układ o nierozprzestrzenianiu broni jądrowej : trudności w jego realizacji
EN
Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968, as one of the most important disarmament issues, has awoken controversies since its initial phase. The author of the article on the eve of the new NPT review conference has reminded the past misunderstandings and today’s problems as well as the last six consecutive review conferences. Undoubtedly among remarkable achievements of the conference one can include the development and adoption (in 2000) of arms control and disarmament programme by nuclear powers. Its core is formed by: increasing transparency in nuclear weapons potentials as voluntary means of confidence building measures, decreasing the role of nuclear weapons in security policy and military planning, engaging nuclear powers in multilateral disarmament talks as soon as possible. Finally, the author wonders if the consolidation of non-aligned states, unsatisfied with the passive attitude of nuclear powers, will not influence the treaty in a negative way. If the non-aligned states decided to leave the NPT regime, it would undermine the very sense of the treaty. That would cause irreversible harm to the NPT regime just at its seventh review conference.
13
Content available remote Czynniki rażenia broni jądrowej. Cz. 5, Promieniowanie świetlne
EN
Light radiation is one of five nuclear weapon destructive factors. As the others it may cause serious problems in tactical and operational actions. Similarly to shock wave, light radiation is a phenomenon characteristic not only for nuclear explosions but also conventional ones. Only the amount of energy released after the explosion is different. However, the scale of these phenomena is incomparable and depends on the power of particular blasts. The power of nuclear explosions is thousands or even millions times bigger than any conventional ones. The article presents the idea of nuclear explosion light radiation, its sources and probably effects on people, terrain, equipment and armament. Also the principles of forming a ball of fire, its expansion and character of its radiation. In order to understand the character of this radiation, the influence of light impulses on equipment, people and materials has been discussed in detail underlining the real probability of possible shock.
14
Content available remote Czynniki rażenia broni jądrowej. Cz. 4, Fala uderzeniowa
EN
The shock wave is the most serious nuclear weapon destructive factor. Its energy usually makes up for the half of overall energy given off during a nuclear blast. Having an enormous destructive power, it may lead to substantial destruction of armament and equipment and also to mass radiation among troops and civilian population. The emergence and spread of the nuclear bomb shock wave differs very little from the phenomena that occur during conventional charges explosions. The scale, however, is entirely different, the amount of destruction and radiation in particular. Therefore it is of utmost importance to recognise in detail all aspects of the shock wave emerging and spreading and its influence on conducting combat operations. The article presents the principles of the shock wave emergence after surface, under and over surface explosions. It has been pointed out to the idea of the destructive action of the shock wave and the static overpressure and the wind gusts have been discussed in detail. Additionally the influence of the terrain and meteorological conditions on the shock wave effects has been analysed. In order to understand better the threats, which the shock wave poses after an atomic explosion, its influence of living organisms, combat equipment and armament has been presented. Moreover the basic principles of protection against the shock wave have been defined.
15
Content available remote Bezpieczeństwo zbiorowe i zagrożenia
EN
The author presented “collective security’’ on legal grounds that were created after World War II and situation that occurred at the beginning of the 21st century and what phenomena make a new legal quality for collective security. He exposed contemporary functioning of the United Nations, the Security Council in particular, in new conditions. He also showed facts that may make the reader’s own draw hypothesis. The major part of the article deals with legal - military situation in space. Poland ratified several treaties, signed by the UN, concerning space activities. A complex influence of situation in space on relations between the main and minor superpowers is underlined. Also terrorism as a new threat has been discussed. A possible development of terrorism and difficulties to diagnose how to counteract it effectively have been shown. The article contains seven sources that are the basis to form the author’s comments.
16
Content available remote Realnie o broniach jądrowych w Azji
17
Content available remote Terroryzm biologiczny i jądrowy
18
Content available remote Polska wobec broni jądrowej
EN
It seems that in the contemporary world the fact of not possessing nuclear weapon, or signing the Non-Proliferation Treaty does not exclude an official relating to the most powerful weapon ever made. Moreover, being a member of the alliance that has nuclear weapon in its disposal and taking part in bodies that decide of its possible use, declaring an official policy in this area seems inevitable. The author of the article proves that Poland, being in the situation described above, should develop and implement an official nuclear strategy. The fact that we belong to various alliances or less formal regimes that aim at stopping the nuclear proliferation is not satisfactory. It is not enough that as a future EU member we cooperate on the ban of nuclear weapon proliferation that has no time and territory limit, particularly that NATO goals are divergent with the EU ones. In this situation, the only solution is to announce officially a general nuclear strategy of the Republic of Poland.
19
Content available remote Czynniki rażenia broni jądrowej. Cz. 3, Promieniowanie przenikliwe
EN
Penetrating radiation is one of many nuclear weapon destruction factors, which as the others may result in serious problems in tactical and operational actions. At the same time it is also a specific factor as contrary to other phenomena accompanying a nuclear explosion, it is not discovered by human senses. Its activity may be traced only using special dosimeter equipment or by observing certain phenomena which appear in different, sometimes distant, time after the radiation took place. Due to little participation of radiation in the division of nuclear explosion entire energy, its penetrating effect is often underestimated. In spite of this, penetrating radiation will nearly always play an important role in destructive effect of a nuclear explosion. The essence of nuclear radiation has been presented in the article, gamma and neutron radiation is discussed in detail. Their sources and relations with the environment have been shown. To understand the threats that penetrating radiation poses, its effect on living organisms, equipment and combat technology has been presented. Also basic principles of protection against radiation have been described.
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