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EN
New data are presented in relation to the worldwide definition of the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian boundary, i.e. the base of the Kimmeridgian Stage. This data, mostly acquired in the past decade, supports the 2006 proposal to make the uniform boundary of the stages in the Flodigarry section at Staffin Bay on the Isle of Skye, northern Scotland. This boundary is based on the Subboreal-Boreal ammonite successions, and it is distinguished by the Pictonia flodigarriensis horizon at the base of the Subboreal Baylei Zone, and which corresponds precisely to the base of the Boreal Bauhini Zone. The boundary lies in the 0.16 m interval (1.24–1.08 m) below bed 36 in sections F6 at Flodigarry and it is thus proposed as the GSSP for the Oxfordian/ Kimmeridgian boundary. This boundary is recognized also by other stratigraphical data – palaeontological, geochemical and palaeomagnetic (including its well documented position close to the boundary between magnetozones F3n, and F3r which is placed in the 0.20 m interval – 1.28 m to 1.48 m below bed 36 – the latter corresponding to marine magnetic anomaly M26r). The boundary is clearly recognizable also in other sections of the Subboreal and Boreal areas discussed in the study, including southern England, Pomerania and the Peri-Baltic Syneclise, Russian Platform, Northern Central Siberia, Franz-Josef Land, Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea. It can be recognized also in the Submediterranean-Mediterranean areas of Europe and Asia where it correlates with the boundary between the Hypselum and the Bimmamatum ammonite zones. The changes in ammonite faunas at the boundary of these ammonite zones – mostly of ammonites of the families Aspidoceratidae and Oppeliidae – also enables the recognition of the boundary in the Tethyan and Indo-Pacific areas – such as the central part of the Americas (Cuba, Mexico), southern America, and southern parts of Asia. The climatic and environmental changes near to the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian boundary discussed in the study relate mostly to the European areas. They show that very unstable environments at the end of the Oxfordian were subsequently replaced by more stable conditions representing a generally warming trend during the earliest Kimmeridgian. The definition of the boundary between the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian as given in this study results in its wide correlation potential and means that it can be recognized in the different marine successions of the World.
PL
Proces podziemnego zagazowania węgla podobnie jak tradycyjne górnictwo węglowe powinien być prowadzony zgodnie z zasadami zrównoważonego rozwoju. Artykuł stanowi przegląd najważniejszych kwestii związanych ze wszystkimi aspektami zrównoważonego rozwoju, na który składają się aspekty środowiskowe, społeczne i ekonomiczne podczas procesu zgazowania węgla.
EN
The process of underground coal gasification just as traditional coal mining must be performed in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. This paper is an overview of key issues related to all aspects of sustainable (environmental, economic and social) development of underground coal gasification process.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań laboratoryjnych i terenowych, których głównym celem było opracowanie składu mieszanin ograniczających procesy uwalniania się rtęci do środowiska naturalnego z hałd odpadów powęglowych oraz opracowanie metodyki jej trwałego wiązania (absorpcji). W prowadzonych pracach wykorzystano materiały odpadowe z energetyki, górnictwa węgla kamiennego i górnictwa gazu ziemnego. Opracowane mieszaniny do redukcji emisji par rtęci poddane zostały badaniom laboratoryjnym oraz badaniom in situ na zapożarowanej hałdzie odpadów powęglowych, w celu oceny ich skuteczności. Jako miarę skuteczności przyjęto względny spadek emisji powierzchniowej par rtęci związany z wykonaniem warstw absorpcyjno-izolujących z opracowanych mieszanin.
EN
This paper presents the results of laboratory tests and field research whose main objective was to develop the composition of mixtures mitigating processes of mercury release to the environment from mine waste dumps, and to develop a methodology for its permanent bonding (absorption). In the ongoing work we use waste materials from energy, coal mining and natural gas mining. The developed mixture to reduce emissions of mercury vapours were subject to laboratory tests and studies in situ on the heap of coal wastes with the risk of spontaneous combustion in order to evaluate effectiveness of this mixture. As a measure of efficacy, the relative decrease in the surface of the mercury vapor emissions, associated with the implementation of an absorption-insulating layers of the prepared mixtures, was assumed.
EN
New biostratigraphical and carbon isotope data are presented for the Upper Jurassic limestones of the Raptawicka Turnia Limestone Formation (High Tatric unit, Western Tatra Mountains, Poland) from the Mały Giewont area. The Kimmeridgian, lower Tithonian and lower part of the upper Tithonian have been identified on the basis of calcareous dinocysts and calpionellids. Eight microfossil biozones are distinguished: acme Fibrata, acme Parvula, Moluccana, Borzai, Tithonica acme Pulla(?), Malmica, Chitinoidella and Crassicollaria (pars). The Kimmeridgian/Tithonian boundary is indicated at the top of the Borzai Zone 76 m above the base of the Raptawicka Turnia Limestone Formation. The microfossil stratigraphy suggests the late Early Kimmeridgian age (acme Parvula Zone) of the ammonites described by Passendorfer (1928). The taxon Taramelliceras ex gr. compsum found 14 m above those ammonites is Late Kimmeridgian in age. Seven microfacies types (MF) are identified in the Upper Jurassic limestones of the Mały Giewont area. The Bositra-Saccocomidae MF occurs across the Lower-Upper Kimmeridgian boundary. The planktonic and benthic foraminifera occur in the Upper Jurassic deposits of the Raptawicka Turnia Limestone Formation. The genera Lenticulina Lamarck and Spirillina Ehrenberg are common in the Kimmeridgian and Tithonian limestones. The palaeobathymetric evolution of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian deposition recorded in the Mały Giewont sections reveals: the transgressive episode at the Lower/Upper Kimmeridgian boundary interval, the transgression peak during the Early Tithonian (Malmica Zone) and gradual shallowing of the High-Tatric swell in the Late Tithonian. Integrated isotope stratigraphy and biostratigraphy enabled correlation with the pelagic section of the Sub-Tatric succession in the Długa Valley section. The middle part of the Raptawicka Turnia Limestone Formation (Upper Kimmeridgian) might be correlated with the upper part of the Czajakowa Radiolarite Formation (red radiolarites) and Czorsztyn Formation in the Długa Valley section. The upper part of the Raptawicka Turnia Limestone Formation of Early Tithonian age corresponds mostly to the Jasenina Formation. The overall similarity of the δ13C decreasing values recorded in the Kimmeridgian–earliest Tithonian interval of the Mały Giewont (this study) and Długa Valley sections indicates that the generally shallow-water deposits of the Raptawicka Turnia Limestone Formation accumulated below the zone influenced by changes in the composition of marine water caused, for instance, by intense rainfalls.
PL
Praca dotyczy kształtowania się warunków anemometrycznych w czterech miejscowościach województwa warmińsko-mazurskiego, zróżnicowanych pod względem warunków fizjograficznych. Celem podjętych badań była analiza przebiegu warunków anemometrycznych w latach 1991– 2010 pod względem różnych klas prędkości, na podstawie 360-stopniowej róży wiatrów. Uwzględniono także częstość występowania cisz atmosferycznych w badanym okresie. Dane wyjściowe dotyczące średnich prędkości i kierunków wiatru dla stacji meteorologicznych w Elblągu, Kętrzynie, Mikołajkach i Olsztynie uzyskano z IMGW-PIB. Na podstawie analizy warunków anemometrycznych w badanym 20-leciu stwierdzono, że największe średnie prędkości wiatru występowały w Kętrzynie (3,5 m•s-1), a najmniejsze w Mikołajkach i Olsztynie (2,9 m•s-1). Spośród badanych miejscowości w Elblągu przeważały wiatry z kierunku południowego, a w pozostałych miejscowościach z zachodu i południa. Cisze atmosferyczne najczęściej występowały w Olsztynie (7,4%).
EN
This paper describes anemometric conditions in four localities of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Province of different physiographic conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse the anemometric conditions in the years 1991–2010 in different speed classes based on 360 degree wind rose. Furthermore, the frequency of calms during this period was also calculated. The input data on the average wind speed and direction were obtained from meteorological stations of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute located in Elbląg, Kętrzyn, Mikołajki and Olsztyn. Based on the analysis of the anemometric conditions in the analyzed 20-year period it was found that the highest average wind speed was in Kętrzyn (3.5 m•s-1) and the lowest was in Mikołajki and Olsztyn (2.9 m•s-1). Among all studied localities, the southerly winds dominated in Elblag, in other localities westerly and southerly winds were dominating. The largest frequency of atmospheric calms (7.4%) occurred in Olsztyn.
EN
The paper deals with the age and palaeoenvironment interpretation of the Late Berriasian sedimentary transition from micritic calpionellid limestones to marls, corresponding to the passage from the Osnica Formation to the Kościeliska Marl Formation, Lower Sub-Tatric succession, Tatra Mts., Central Western Carpathians. Since only reliably dated sections are an appropriate basis for palaeoenvironmental study, the following pelagic and hemipelagic sections were chosen owing to enrichment in fine, clastic material and the existing biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic frameworks: Pośrednie III, Rówienka, Gładkie Upłaziańskie and Gęsia Szyja. The authors integrated and interpreted new, detailed data on magnetic susceptibility (MS), rock magnetism and element geochemistry from all of the sections. Well defined biostratigraphy permitted the testing of the potential of MS as a stratigraphic method. Owing to its close connection to selected terrigenous elements (e.g., Al, Th, Zr), MS could be used here as a proxy for detrital input into the basin. Its value as a correlation tool in a pelagic and hemipelagic setting was confirmed. MS permitted not only detailed correlation of the outcrops studied, but also the comparison of them with the Barlya section (Western Balkans) of the same age. This study proves that increased detrital input began in the Calpionellopsis simplex Subzone and continued into the lower part of the Calpionellopsis oblonga Subzone. It might be regarded as synchronous event within the Zliechov Basin and it is not everywhere correlated with the formation boundaries. The change in sedimentation was not only a local phenomenon. The onset of deposition of the terrigenous fraction can be identified in many sections of the Western Tethys. Two independent factors, regional regression and an increase in humidity might have contributed simultaneously to the increased detrital input in Late Berriasian time. However, this picture is further complicated by tectonic activity on local and regional scales.
EN
Integrated bio- and magnetostratigraphic data from the Lower to Upper Berriasian of the pelagic succession at Barlya (Western Balkan, Bulgaria) are presented. The investigated interval, 24 m thick, covers the top of the Calpionella elliptica, Calpionellopsis simplex and Calpionellopsis oblonga subzones. Magnetozones from the upper part of M17r up to M16n were identified. The boundary between the Elliptica and Simplex subzones correlates with the lower part of M16r, while the boundary between the Simplex and Oblonga subzones is situated in the lower part of M16n. The magnetic susceptibility reveals an increasing trend from the middle part of M16r which accounts for the increasing supply of fine clastic sediments to the basin.
EN
This paper presents the construction of the enterprise service bus architecture in data processing resources for a big data decision-making system for the City Hall in Gdansk. The first part presents the key processes of bus developing: the installation of developing environment, the database connection, the flow mechanism and data presentation. Developing processes were supported by models: KPI (Key Processes Identifier) and SOP (Simple Operating Procedures) (also connected to the bus). The summary indicates the problems of the bus construction, especially processes of routing, conversion, and handling events.
EN
From the moment of Poland's accession to the EU, we have been obliged to adjust the waste management system to directives issued by the European Community Council. Our waste management has been adjusted to the requirements of the European Union directives. The objective of the paper was to determine: firstly, the amount of the produced mixed municipal waste; secondly the amount of municipal waste collected in a selective manner with the use of collection methods through segregation in the place of their production using two containers located next to each other - one for collective collection of paper, cardboard and plastic and the second for collection of glass; thirdly, the size of recovered secondary raw material such as glass, plastic and paper from mixed municipal waste; fourthly, the amount of containers or plastic bags designated for selective waste collection. For execution of this objective, two establishments using various waste management systems were selected. Research was carried out in Firma Usług Komunalnych [Municiapl Services Company] "Wodnik" in Trzebnica and in Zakład Gospodarki Komunalnej [Municipal Management Establishment] in Gać, which have dealt with municipal waste sorting for many years. The research proved that the plastic bag method is more effective than segregation with the use of containers located in the neighbourhood.
PL
Od momentu wejścia Polski do UE zobowiązani jesteśmy do dostosowania systemu gospodarki odpadami do dyrektyw wydawanych przez Radę Wspólnoty Europejskiej. Nasza gospodarka odpadami została dostosowana do wymogów dyrektyw Unii Europejskiej. Celem pracy było określenie: po pierwsze ilości wytwarzanych odpadów komunalnych zmieszanych, po drugie ilości odpadów komunalnych gromadzonych selektywnie przy wykorzystaniu metod zbiórki poprzez segregację w miejscu ich powstawania stosując dwa kontenery ustawione obok siebie – jeden do łącznego gromadzenia papieru, tektury oraz tworzywa sztucznego a drugi do gromadzenia szkła, po trzecie wielkości odzyskanych surowców wtórnych takich jak szkło, tworzywo sztuczne oraz papier z odpadów komunalnych zmieszanych, po czwarte ilości pojemników lub worków przeznaczonych do selektywnej zbiórki odpadów. Do zrealizowania tego celu wybrano dwa zakłady stosujące różne systemy zagospodarowania odpadów. Badania zostały przeprowadzone w Firmie Usług Komunalnych ,,Wodnik” w Trzebnicy oraz w Zakładzie Gospodarki Komunalnej w Gaci, które od wielu lat zajmują się sortowaniem odpadów komunalnych. Badania dowiodły, że metoda workowa jest efektywniejsza od segregacji za pomocą kontenerów ustawionych w ,,sąsiedztwie”.
EN
The Mjølnir submarine crater attaining about 40 kilometers in diameter on the Barents Shelf is one of the largest meteorite craters in the World. It was formed in the earliest Ryzanian as proved by the ammonite datings of the ejecta bearing strata in the boreholes in the Barents Sea. The iridium anomalies related to that impact were recognized also on central Spitsbergen, and in Nordvik Peninsula of northern Siberia . The Mjølnir impact resulted in a large scale reworking and redeposition of sediments in the Boreal Sea across the Late Volgian and Ryazanian transition as documented e.g. in a close neighbourhood of the crater, but also in more distal successions in central Spitsbergen. So far, no unequivocal proof of this event was documented in more southern areas in Europe, but the detailed studies of complete successions in the nonmarine Purbeck-type facies in north-western and central Poland seem to be promising in this respect. This could allow for correlation of the Boreal ammonite subdivision with that based on the ostracodes. The palaeomagnetic studies of the continuous succession in the Nordvik Peninsula section of the uppermost Upper Volgian and Lower Ryazanian yielded also new information on the correlation between the Boreal and the Mediterranean biostratigraphical zonal schemes which is especially importantfor recognition of the uniform Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the World. The recent results of these studies indicate that the Mjolnir impact took place during magnetozone 17 r which suggests the correlation of that event with the boundary of the Jacobi and Occitanica ammonite zones corresponding to the boundary of the Lower and the Middle Berriasian of the Mediterranean domain. This confirms an opinion that the Volgian-Ryazanian boundary of the Boreal domain is placed much higher than the Tithonian-Berriasian boundary in the Tethyan domain - treated as a main candidate level for the uniform Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the World.
EN
Magnetostratigraphy is an important method in regional and worldwide correlations across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. The M-sequence of magnetic anomalies, embracing this boundary, provides an easily recognizable pattern which might be identified in bio­stratigraphically calibrated land sections. The polarity chrons between M21r and M16n are well correlated to calpionellid and calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy in the Tethyan Realm. This results in a very high precision of stratigraphic schemes of pelagic carbonates (ammonitico rosso and maiolica limestones), integrating the two groups of fossils with magnetostratigraphy. The main clusters of the reference sections are located in the Southern Alps and Apennines, but the database was recently enriched by sections from the Western Carpathians and Eastern Alps. Quite a few Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary sections with magnetostratigraphy are known in the Iberian Peninsula and south-eastern France but their importance relies on the integration of magnetostratigraphy also with the Tethyan ammonite zonation. Correlation of Boreal and Tethyan regions still remains a major problem. Just two sections with reliable correlation to the global polarity time scale are documented outside Tethys: a shallow marine to non-marine Tithonian–Berriasian–Valanginian sequence in southern England (Portland–Purbeck beds) and the marine clastic Upper Tithonian–Middle Berriasian (= Middle Volgian–lowermost Ryazanian) sequence at Nordvik Peninsula (Siberia). The Volgian/Ryazanian boundary at Nordvik seems to be located in the lower part of magnetochron M18n, while the most commonly accepted definitions of the Tethyan Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary are situated either within magnetochron M19n (A/B calpionellid zonal boundary, Durangites/Jacobi ammonite zonal boundary), or at the boundary of M19n/M18r (Jacobi/Grandis ammonite subzonal boundary).
EN
The results of numerous palaeomagnetic studies performed in the last three decades in Devonian carbonates of the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) have documented the occurrence of several episodes of remagnetisation. This knowledge was applied in this study to determine the temporal relationships between the acquisition of particular secondary palaeomagnetic components and the formation of tectonic structures. This made it possible to estimate the timing of several episodes in the multistage tectonic evolution of particular folds and faults. We show that the westernmost part of the southern HCM was rotated clockwise after the early Permian. Detailed palaeomagnetic analysis documented also shape modifications in some map-scale and minor folds. This tectonic overprinting of originally Carboniferous folds postdated the early Permian. It was furthermore shown that the N-S trending dextral strike-slip faults studied were active between the early Permian and the Permo/Triassic. Our recent data show also the post-early Permian age of breccia that covers the deformed Devonian strata.
EN
This article presents the sixth and final contribution in a series of papers focused mainly on the K-Ar dating of the Oligocene and Neogene (Miocene and Pliocene) intraplate basaltic volcanics of the Lower Silesia, SW Poland. The present paper includes 22 new K-Ar dates from the West Sudety Mountains and their northern foreland. The K-Ar dates range from 30.7 to 22.2 Ma. The data are supplied with geological description of the sampled outcrops, petrographic, geochemical and palaeomagnetic data of the analysed samples. Palaeomagnetic investigation confirmed the existence of two important volcanic episodes distinguished already in 1997: the reversed polarity Odra Event (mean age 28.2š1.2 Ma), and the normal polarity Gracze Event (mean age 26.28š1.8 Ma).
PL
Podziemne zgazowanie węgla (PZW), którego koncepcja powstała na początku ubiegłego wieku w Anglii, jest metodą pozyskiwania energii z węgla bezpośrednio w miejscu jego zalegania (in situ) poprzez doprowadzenie czynnika zgazowującego do zapalonego złoża i odbiór wytworzonego gazu na powierzchni. W porównaniu do metod zgazowania w reaktorach powierzchniowych, PZW jest procesem dużo bardziej złożonymi trudnym w realizacji. W artykule przedstawiono obecny stan rozwoju technologii podziemnego zgazowania węgla oraz plany firm zaangażowanych w rozwój tych technologii. Przedstawiono również wybrane wyniki badań uzyskanych w koordynowanym przez Główny Instytut Górnictwa projekcie badawczym Hydrogen Oriented Underground Coal Gasification for Europe (HUGE).
EN
The idea and objectives of underground coal gasification process is presented. World experience in the past and particularly in the present state as well as plans of companies dealing with UCG for the future is shown. The plans of work in the UCG in different countries are shortly described and discussed. The aims and a short description of project cofounded by RFCS, titled Hydrogen Oriented Underground Coal Gasification for Europe (HUGE) is presented. Results of the project, from ex-situ reactor constructed for simulation underground conditions are presented and discussed. Also some results from underground trial are presented. The trial performed in underground seam was successful and we learned how to control the process safely, how to chose gasification media and how influence on the quality of gas composition. The experiment has been performed in dammed space. The obtained gas product of heating value 2.5–10 MJ/m3 was combustible during the whole sixteen days experiment. It was found that there is possible to obtain up to 40% of hydrogen in UCG process. The most important issues in UCG are safety problems (avoiding of gases explosion) and environmental issues (mainly water contamination).
16
Content available remote Wzrost kultury mikroorganizmów w warunkach inhibicji
PL
Badano wpływ azydku sodu, alkoholu etylowego i ich mieszanin na wzrost bakterii Vibrio harveyi (szczep B39)). Uzyskane wyniki inhibicji wzrostu wykorzystano do wykreślania krzywych: dawka / koncentracja - efekt toksyczny"=. W celu uzyskania informacji o charakterze ww. mieszaniny (addytywność, synergizm, antagonizm) wykorzystano teorię Grabowskiego toksyczności mieszaniny chemikaliów.
EN
The effect of toxic chemicals (sodium azide, ethanol and their mixtures) on the growth of bacteria Vibrio harveyi (strain B392) have been studied. Experimental toxicity data were then analysed with the use of Grabowski's theory on toxicity of chemical mixtures.
PL
Praca poświęcona jest niepermutacyjnemu problemowi przepływowemu z kryterium sumy terminów zakończenia realizacji zadań. W pracy przedstawiono opis matematyczny problemu, model grafowy oraz pewne własności problemu, które pozwalają na wyeliminowanie znacznej frakcji ruchów typu zamień sąsiednie nie lepszych od rozwiązania bazowego. Skonstruowano hybrydowy algorytm przeszukiwania z zabronieniami oparty na otoczeniu generowanym przez tego typu ruchy. Przeprowadzono badania eksperymentalne algorytmu na literaturowych danych testowych Tailarda.
EN
The paper deals with non-permutation flow shop with total completion time criterion. In the paper the mathematical model and graph model is presented. Some properties of the problem associated with the block theory have been presented and discussed. These properties allow us to significantly reduce neighbourhoods which are based on the adjacent interchange type. To validate efficiency of the discussed neighbourhoods, the hybrid tabu search algorithm have been developed and executed on a well-known Tailard's benchmarks.
EN
Palaeomagnetic studies of the uppermost Jurassic to lower Cretaceous pelagic carbonates in the Krizna nappe in the Strazovske vrchy Mts (Central West Carpathians, Slovakia) revealed the presence of secondary magnetite-related magnetization of exclusively normal polarity (component B), which was most probably acquired during the thrusting episode in the late Cretaceous. Three formations exposed in the Strazovce section were the subject of investigation: Jasenina Kimmeridgian.Tithonian), Osnica (Lower.Middle Berriasian) and Mraznica (Upper Berriasian.Hauterivian). Component B is ubiquitous throughout the section but is strongest in the Mraznica Formation. This formation contains a lot of superparamagnetic particles and shows rock magnetic characteristics typical of chemically remagnetized carbonates. The remaining two formations, although also remagnetized, bear traces of an older, probably primary magnetization (component C). The fold test for component B is apparently positive; however the inclination in pre-folding coordinates is too steep for any expected palaeoinclination of Jurassic to recent age. Additional tectonic correction must be applied to match the palaeoinclinations with expected values. Although there is some uncertainty in this additional correction, all plausible options suggest that the rocks must have been magnetized when they dipped in the opposite direction to the thrusting direction. This interpretation is concordant with the internal tectonics of the Krizna nappe, consisting of imbricated units of duplex-type structure.
PL
Własności blokowe są z powodzeniem stosowane do usuwania ruchów nierokujących poprawy dla wielu otoczeń stosowanych w algorytmach popraw dla problemów szeregowania. W pracy, dla ogólnego problemu przepływowego, zaproponowano nowy sposób przeglądania otoczenia, który pozwala na eliminację znacznie większego zbioru ruchów. W celu sprawdzenia efektywności metody przeprowadzono eksperyment komputerowy na instancjach Taillarda.
EN
The block properties are successfully applied to a priory eliminate non promising moves from the neighborhood for many local search algorithm of solving scheduling problems. In this paper, for the general flowshop problem, it presents new method of searching the neighborhood, which gives rise to eliminate highly greater set of moves. To validate efficiency of the proposed method, computational experiment have been executed on a well-known Taillard's benchmarks.
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