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EN
Very rare chondrichthyan spines from the Famennian (Upper Devonian) of European Russia are referred here to ctenacanthiforms, euselachians and a chondrichthyan group of uncertain systematic position. Ctenacanthus Agassiz, 1837 is recorded from the lower and middle Famennian of the central and north-western parts of the area. Sculptospina makhlaevi Lebedev gen. et sp. nov. originates from the lower Famennian of the Lipetsk Region. The holotype of ‘Ctenacanthus’ jaekeli Gross, 1933 and a new specimen from the upper Famennian of the South Urals are shown to belong to the same taxon, which is transferred to Acondylacanthus St. John and Worthen, 1875. New specimens of Tuberospina nataliae Lebedev, 1995 from the upper Famennian of Central Russia are described in detail. The newly presented material increases our knowledge of the composition of Famennian marine assemblages from the East European Platform. It is suggested that these assemblages may be classified as chondrichthyan-dominated and dipnoan-dominated. Hypothetically, after the end- Devonian Hangenberg extinction event, which affected numerous secondary consumers in vertebrate communities, some chondrichthyan groups could have encroached to take advantage of previously occupied ecological niches. Ctenacanthus, as well as Acondylacanthus and Amelacanthus survived the end-Devonian mass extinction to continue into the Carboniferous.
EN
The paper provides new results of palynological studies of rocks from the Świebodzice Unit. An abundant Carboniferous miospores were found in rocks of the Pogorzała Formation from the southern part of this unit. These miospores occur in rocks containing also macrofloral and marine macrofaunal fossils, partly reworked, which were usually considered Upper Devonian. Two miospore sub-assemblages of different ages and colours have been distinguished. One of them consists of poorly preserved miospores, dark in colour, which indicate the Late Visean–Serpukhovian age of the rocks. The other sub-assemblage, found only in a few samples, consists of much lighter and well-preserved miospores of the Asturian age. Their presence is considered as a result of stratigraphical leakage. Observation of the miospore colour indicates that the thermal event occurred after the Late Devonian and before the Asturian and the palaeotemperature exceeded ~180°C. These new data indicate that the geological history of the Świebodzice Unit lasted longer and was much complex than it was previously considered.
EN
Eressella, a new genus of rhynchonellide brachiopods belonging to the superfamily Uncinuloidea Rzhonsnitskaya, 1956, is described with Rhynchonella coronata Kayser, 1871, as the type and only species. It is characterised by a dorsibiconvex profile with a resupinate ventral valve, costae rounded posteriorly, but acute and developing ventrally directed spur-like protuberances anteriorly, small dental cavities, cardinal process multilobed posteriorly and massive anteriorly, and the presence of a septalium and thick dorsal median septum. Given the present state of flux in the systematics of the superfamily, it is conventionally placed within the family Uncinulidae Rzhonsnitskaya, 1956, although similarities with the subfamily Betterbergiinae Savage, 1996 and the family Eucharitinidae Sartenaer, 2015 are also noted. Eressella coronata, hitherto the only representative of the genus, is known from the Eifel Hills (Eifelian, mainly middle Eifelian), from central Poland (especially from the Eifelian of the Holy Cross Mts.), and from the Moroccan Anti-Atlas (late Eifelian to early Givetian, details uncertain).
EN
A huge isolated accumulation, more than 3 m thick and 10 m wide, of densely packed, uncrushed brachiopods has been found in Józefka Quarry within the Middle/Upper Devonian Szydłówek Beds deposited in a relatively deep environment of an intrashelf basin (Kostomłoty facies zone, western Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). The low-diversity assemblage is strongly dominated by the atrypide Desquamatia globosa jozefkae Baliński subsp. nov. and, to a lesser degree, by the rhynchonellide Coeloterorhynchus dillanus (Schmidt, 1941), which constitute 72.8% and 22.1% of the fauna, respectively. Less frequent are specimens representing the genera Hypothyridina, Schizophoria and Phlogoiderynchus. According to the conodont fauna found within the coquina bed, the stratigraphic position of the shell accumulation is close to the Givetian/ Frasnian boundary. The brachiopods are associated with numerous crinoids and less frequent bryozoans, receptaculitids (Palaeozoic problematica), sponges and solitary corals. Although it is difficult to entirely exclude the autochthonous nature of the brachiopod coquina member, its allochthonous origin and redeposition of the brachiopod shells to the deep basin by gravity flows is much more probable. Such conclusion is supported by the following facts: (1) the position of the complex in a succession of deep-marine basinal facies impoverished in oxygen; (2) its lateral thinning-out and composite internal stratification; (3) the lensshaped geometry of the coquina bed in the section perpendicular to the bedding dip; (4) high variability of the sediments preserved within the shells; and (5) the preferred orientation of the shells. The brachiopods mixed with crinoidal debris were probably transported by low-velocity, high-density, gravity-induced debris flows. Lack of fossils typical of the Middle Devonian shallows, such as massive stromatoporoids, amphiporoids and tabulates, indicates that the source area of the bioclastic material was not located in the shallowest part of the shelf, but most probably on a submarine sea-mount to the north of present-day Józefka, as suggested by earlier investigators. The triggering mechanism of the allochthonous deposition was an earthquake rather than storm activity. The enormous thickness of the brachiopod complex is probably caused by the sinking of bioclastic material, transported in succeeding depositional multi-events, in a soft, muddy bottom, typical of the Szydłówek Beds deposition.
EN
Six enigmatic fossils from the Famennian (Devonian) Cleveland Shale in Ohio, U.S.A., are interpreted here as arthrodiran (Placodermi) egg cases. Recognition as egg cases is confirmed based on the observation of layered collagen fibers. The presence of a tuberculated bone fragment preserved within one case confirms a vertebrate source. The nature of the tubercles and the unique morphology of the egg cases supports the interpretation of an arthrodiran source. Reports of Devonian egg cases are limited to either assumed chondrichthyan producers or a putative ‘egg sac’ with a morphology atypical for any vertebrate. The Cleveland Shale egg cases thus represent the first record for a non-chondrichthyan producer. Among placoderms, behaviors of a pelagic life style with obligate nesting sites, reef fishes with live birth, and estuarine and fluvial nurseries, along with eggcase oviparity testifies to the diversity of reproductive strategies. As with modern fishes these strategies may be ecologically driven and the derived and variable reproductive biology of extant chondrichthyans is actually a primitive condition among gnathostomes. One consequence of the diversity of reproductive strategies (dependent on the topology of relationships) is the independent origin of internal fertilization within placoderms, possibly suggesting external fertilization as the primitive gnathostome reproductive mode.
EN
The Cleveland Shale fauna represents a unique view of the time after a major Devonian extinction event (Frasnian–Famenian) with the recovery of arthrodires (Placodermi) best represented by this most specious North American fauna. This time was followed by an additional event (Hangenberg Biocrisis) leading to the extinction of arthrodires (and all other placoderms). An understanding of the diversity and interrelationships of North American arthrodires can aid our understanding of this critical time in vertebrate evolution. A new aspinothoracid arthrodire Hlavinichthys jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Late Devonian of northern Ohio, U.S.A., which adds to our knowledge of this group. It provides a point of comparison to other members of the fauna whose interrelationships are poorly known. A phylogenetic analysis supports an assignment of Hlavinichthys jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. among the aspinothoracid arthrodires. This work has drawn attention to the continued need for descriptive and phylogenetic analyses of this unique fauna. Decades old species descriptions need revision along with preparation and description of new taxa. The work on Hlavinichthys jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. here is one step in that process.
7
Content available remote Ślady po kryształach halitu w dolomitach dewońskich w kamieniołomie Zachełmie
PL
Nieczynny kamieniołom w Zachełmiu jest znany z racji odkrycia i opisu śladów najstarszego lądowego kręgowca – tetrapoda. W tym samym kamieniołomie znaleziono dobrze zachowane 3 ślady po pojedynczych kryształach halitu (na 2 próbkach skał). Wielkość śladów po tych kryształach wynosi od 1 do ok. 2,5-3 cm. Przypuszczalnie jeden ślad zostawił kryształ sześcienny, a 2 ślady powstały po kryształach typu hopper. Kilkakrotnie szczegółowo przebadane i opisane utwory dolomitowe z tego miejsca wskazują, że środowiskiem ich depozycji była płytka, rozległa laguna odsłaniająca kilkakrotnie dno i okresowo sprzyjająca sedymentacji ewaporatów. W niniejszym artykule autorka rozważa możliwość miejsca oraz czasu krystalizacji halitów, tzn. czy te kryształy wytrąciły się z roztworu w zbiorniku, czy też nieco później, już w obrębie osadu węglanowego, na skutek penetracji sedymentu przez solanki. Oba „miejsca” i czas precypitacji halitu wydają się równie prawdopodobne.
EN
The abandoned Zachełmie Quarry has been known for the discovery and descriptions of the trackways of a tetrapod, the oldest land vertebrate animal. Three well-preserved casts of single halite crystals were found on two salt samples collected from the same site. The sizes of the halite traces range from 1 to ca. 2.5-3 cm. Most certainly, they are two casts of hopper and one of cube form crystals. The local dolomite formations, studied and described several times in detail, indicate that a shallow and vast lagoon that had uncovered the sea bottom several times and periodically allowed for the sedimentation of evaporites was the sedimentation environment. In this paper, the author considers possible place and time of halite crystallisation, i.e. whether the crystals were precipitated from the basin’s solution or somewhat later, as a result of brine penetration through the carbonate sediment. Either halite “location” and precipitation time seem to be equally probable.
EN
The Rock-Eval source rock characteristics, mineral composition and type-porosity of reservoir horizons, and origin of natural gas in the Devonian of the Lublin and Lviv basins are described. In the Lower Devonian, the TOC content ranges from 0.01 to 1.82 wt.% in the Lublin Basin, and from 0.01 to 0.45 wt.% in the Lviv Basin. Transformation of organic matter varies from immature in the Lochkovian (Lviv Basin) to mature and overmature in the Emsian (Lublin Basin). The organic matter contains mainly Type-II kerogen, and underwent primary and/or secondary oxidation processes. In the Middle Devonian, the TOC content varies from 0.00 to 1.63 wt.% in the Lublin Basin, and from 0.02 to 0.64 to 2.35 wt.% in the Lviv Basin. The organic matter contains mainly Type-II kerogen and is immature in the Givetian of the Lviv Basin and mature in the Eifelian of the Lviv Basin and in the Eifelian and Givetian in the Lublin Basin. In the Upper Devonian, the TOC content is from 0.02 to 2.62 wt.% in the Lublin Basin, and from 0.04 to 1.43 wt.% in the Lviv Basin. Type-II kerogen dominates in both basins. Organic matter is mature in the Upper Devonian in the Lublin Basin and in the Famennian of the Lviv Basin and overmature in the Frasnian of the Lviv Basin. The reservoir horizons in the Devonian of the Lublin and Lviv basins are developed in clastic, carbonate and sulphate rocks. Terrigenous rocks form several separate horizons in the Lower and Middle Devonian of the Lviv Basin, and in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) of the Lublin Basin. Their filtration properties relate to intergranular porosity, while the fracture space has subordinate significance. Carbonate rocks form thick saturated horizons in the Givetian in the Lviv Basin, and in the Eifelian, Givetian and Frasnian in the Lublin Basin. Their filtration properties are produced by fracture porosity. Sulphates and carbonate-sulphate rocks with fracture and cavern porosity play a role as reservoir horizons in the Middle Devonian of the Lublin Basin. The natural gas collected from the Upper Devonian of the Lublin Basin was generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes, from Ordovician–Silurian Type-II kerogen. The gas from the Middle Devonian reservoirs of the Lviv Basin was produced from Ordovician–Silurian Type-II kerogen and partly from the Middle and Upper Devonian mixed Type-III/II kerogen with maturity from about 0.9 to 1.4%. Carbon dioxide was formed by both thermogenic and microbial processes. Molecular nitrogen was generated mainly through thermal transformation of organic matter and also from destruction of NH4-rich illite of the clayey facies of the Ordovician–Silurian strata.
EN
The lower part of the Frasnian succession in the Radlin Syncline (Kielce–Łagów Synclinorium, southern region of the Holy Cross Mountains), in the two studied successions: Józefka at Górno and (for the first time) Radlin, consists of the rhythmic marly Szydłówek Beds, the fossil-rich limestones of the Wietrznia Beds (locally) and the atypically developed, calcareous Kostomłoty Beds. The carbon isotope chemostratigraphic pattern overall corresponds well to the global Early–Middle Frasnian biogeochemical perturbation, even if the major punctata positive excursion is only fragmentarily recorded in the Kostomłoty intrashelf basin. Two brachiopod assemblages are abundantly represented in both sections: the Phlogoiderhynchus polonicus Assemblage, typical of the Szydłówek Beds, and the Biernatella lentiformis Assemblage, limited to the middle part of the Wietrznia Beds. Both are highly dominated by the index species. Twenty nine lower Frasnian brachiopod species (Craniida – 1 species, Strophomenida – 1, Productida – 2, Protorthida – 1, Orthida – 5, Pentamerida – 1, Rhynchonellida – 4, Atrypida – 4, Athyridida – 3, Spiriferida – 4, Spiriferinida – 3) are described from the Szydłówek and Wietrznia Beds. Seven new species are introduced: Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov., Biernatium minus Baliński sp. nov., Monelasmina montisjosephi Baliński sp. nov., Atryparia (Costatrypa) agricolae Halamski and Baliński sp. nov., Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov., Leptathyris gornensis Baliński sp. nov., and Echinocoelia parva Baliński sp. nov. Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov. is intermediate between Davidsonia Bouchard-Chantereaux, 1849 and Rugodavidsonia Copper, 1996 and is the youngest known representative of the suborder Davidsonioidea Copper, 1996. Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov. is the last representative of the genus. Statistical investigation of a large sample of Spinatrypina (Exatrypa) explanata did not confirm the existence of two dimorphic forms, coarse- and fine-ribbed. The high-diversity Biernatella lentiformis Assemblage is quite dissimilar to coeval brachiopod assemblages described heretofore from the Holy Cross Mountains region. It is interpreted as consisting of mostly parautochthonous dwellers of deep-slope muddy habitats and a local, occasionally storm-agitated, intra-basin brachiopod-crinoid-coral shoal. The fauna was adapted probably to cooler and nutrient-poor waters during an initial phase of the severe carbon cycle perturbation.
PL
Na obszarze środkowej części masywu małopolskiego, w ośmiu profilach wiertniczych wykonano badania paleotermiczne utworów węglanowych dewonu, karbonu i triasu na podstawie przeobrażenia termicznego substancji organicznej zawartej w konodontach. Na podstawie stopnia przeobrażenia barw konodontów pod wpływem temperatury (wskaźnik CAI – Colour Alteration Index) określono zakresy paleotemperatur jakim zostały poddane skały zawierające te organizmy. W otworze wiertniczym Węgrzynów IG 1 utwory żywetu górnego, franu, famenu i karbonu dolnego (turnej, wizen) mają wskaźnik CAI od 3 (dla żywetu) do 2 (dla karbonu dolnego). Wskazuje on na podgrzanie w zakresie 60‒110°C, na obszarze frontu waryscydów o wysokiej wartości paleogradientu termicznego. Dla profilu dewonu górnego w otworze Pągów IG 1 wartość CAI 4,5 dokumentuje stopień podgrzania skał do temperatury powyżej 230°C, w wyniku udziału podwyższonego strumienia cieplnego w rejonie strefy tektonicznej. W utworach triasu wskaźnik CAI 1‒1,5 świadczy o podgrzaniu skał w granicach 50‒90°C. Stosunkowo niska paleotemperatura materii organicznej w utworach triasu wskazuje, że utwory dewonu i karbonu osiągnęły dojrzałość termiczną w późnym karbonie, przed orogenezą waryscyjską. Objawy ropy naftowej i gazu ziemnego w utworach dewonu i karbonu centralnej części masywu małopolskiego mogą świadczyć o ich perspektywiczności w aspekcie poszukiwań bituminów.
EN
A paleothermal study of Devonian, Carboniferous and Triassic carbonate rocks was carried out in eight boreholes from the central part of the Małopolska Massif by using data on thermal alteration of organic matter contained in conodonts. The maturity of organic matter expressed as the CAI (Colour Alteration Index) values was used to calculate palaeotemperatures that affected the conodont-bearing rocks. In the Węgrzynów IG 1 borehole, the CAI values for the Upper Givetian, Frasnian, Famennian and Lower Carboniferous rocks range from 3 (Givetian) to 2 (Lower Carboniferous). It suggests heating of rocks (at temperatures from 60 to 110°C) in the area of high palaeogeothermal gradient, close to the Variscan front. In the Upper Devonian sequence of the Pągów IG 1 borehole, the CAI value of 4.5 proves heating of rock at a temperature exceeding 230°C as a result of higher heat flow near a fault zone. The low CAI values (1‒1.5) of Triassic rocks provide the evidence for heating of rocks in the range of 50 to 90°C. The relatively low maturity of organic matter in the Triassic rocks indicates that the Devonian and Carboniferous sediments must have reached their thermal maturity in the Late Carboniferous prior to the Variscan orogeny. The signs of crude oil and natural gas observed in the Devonian and Carboniferous rocks in the central part of the Małopolska Massif attest their potential for hydrocarbon exploration.
PL
W profilach otworów wiertniczych Pągów IG 1 i Węgrzynów IG 1 (centralna część masywu małopolskiego) wykonano badania konodontów z utworów węglanowych dewonu i najniższego karbonu. W profilu Węgrzynowa na podstawie konodontów udokumentowano utwory żywetu, franu i famenu datowane na poziomy dolny falsiovalis–górny postera, oraz turneju i wizenu z poziomów delicatus–texanus. W profilu Pągowa na podstawie konodontów udokumentowano fran i famen w zakresie poziomów jamieae–górny rhenana oraz dolny expansa. Niepełna sukcesja poziomów konodontowych w profilach Pągowa i Węgrzynowa wskazuje na obecność luk stratygraficznych. W Pągowie luki stwierdzono w utworach dewonu górnego oraz między utworami dewonu i karbonu, natomiast w Węgrzynowie w utworach z pogranicza dewonu i karbonu. W rejonie Węgrzynowa osady dewonu górnego były deponowane w zbiorniku o znacznie większej subsydencji niż w rejonie Pągowa. Utwory dewonu górnego masywu małopolskiego i obszarów ościennych odpowiadające zbliżonym przedziałom biostratygraficznym są podobne pod względem litologicznym i biofacjalnym.
EN
The conodont study was performed on Devonian and lowermost Carboniferous carbonate rocks from the Pągów IG 1 and Węgrzynów IG 1 boreholes located in the central part of the Małopolska Massif. Based on the conodont biostratigraphy, sediments assigned to the Givetian, Frasnian and Famennian (lower falsiovalis–upper postera zones) and to the Tournaisian and Visean (delicatus–texanus zones) were examined in the Węgrzynów section. The Pągów section is represented by Frasnian and Famennian sediments ascribed to the jamieae–upper rhenana and lower expansa zones. The incomplete conodont zone succession in the Pągów and Węgrzynów sections indicates the presence of stratigraphic gaps. In Pągów, these hiatuses were pinpointed in the Upper Devonian and between the Devonian and the Carboniferous, whereas in Węgrzynów at the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary. In the Węgrzynów area, deposition of the Upper Devonian sediments occurred in a basin, showing much greater subsidence than that in the Pągów area. In the Late Devonian sediments of the Małopolska Massif and neighbouring areas of much the same biostratigraphic intervals are similar in terms of lithologic and biofacies characteristics.
PL
Przedstawiono charakterystykę i wyniki mikrotermometrycznych badań inkluzji fluidalnych występujących w spoiwie skał osadowych wieku od kambru po perm oraz od jury po paleogen i miocen. Inkluzje mają charakter pierwotny i wtórny; na ogół są jedno- lub dwu-, rzadziej trójfazowe. Wypełniają je paleofluidy o zróżnicowanym składzie i różnej gęstości. Temperatura homogenizacji, która stanowi przybliżenie temperatury zamknięcia fluidu w minerale, wykazuje zmienność związaną z rodzajem spoiwa i z historią geologiczną badanego obszaru. Zasolenie fluidów również jest zmienne i zależy od rodzaju spoiwa i od lokalizacji. Połączenie analiz inkluzji np. z badaniami izotopowymi pozwala na szerszą interpretację wyników oznaczeń mikrotermometrycznych.
EN
Characteristics and results of microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions which occur in the cements of sedimentary rocks of the age oscillating form Cambrian to Permian and from Jurassic to Paleogene and Miocene are presented. The inclusions studied are primary and secondary in origin. They display one, two or, less frequently, three phases. The inclusions are filled by the paleofluids of variable compositions and densities. The homogenization temperature, which corresponds to the minimum estimation of the trapping temperature, shows variability in respect to the cement type and geological history of the study area. Salinities of fluids are also variable in respect to the cement type and locality. Wider interpretation of the microthermometric analyses is enabled when they are combined, e.g., with the isotopic studies.
EN
The paper provides a description of primary geological logs, characteristics and formal lithostratigraphy of the uppermost Emsian and lower Eifelian of the Kielce Region of the Holy Cross Mts., central Poland. Nine sections of this interval, representing the whole area of the Kielce Region, and ranging between the Lower Devonian clastics of the Winna Formation and the Middle Devonian carbonates of the Kowala Formation were studied. The succession is divided into the Barania Góra Dolomite and Limestone Formation and the Wojciechowice Dolomite Formation. Six members are distinguished within the former. In the western part of the region these are (in stratigraphical order): Porzecze Claystone Member, Dębska Wola Dolomite Member, Dąbrowa Limestone Member, and Brzeziny Dolomite Member. In the eastern part, the formation is divided into the Janczyce Dolomite Member and the Jurkowice Dolomite Member. Additionally, the Wszachów Dolomite Member and Nowy Staw Dolomite Member are distinguished within the overlying Wojciechowice Formation. The thickness of the uppermost Emsian–Eifelian succession ranges from ca. 200 m in the eastern part to ca. 130 m in the western part of the Kielce Region.
EN
At a glance, progress in palaeontology and eustatic reconstructions in the past decade permits to prove or to disprove the possible dependence of Palaeozoic brachiopod generic diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes. However, the available diversity curve is of much lower resolution than the eustatic curve. This problem can be resolved by decreasing the resolution of the latter. The other restriction linked to the chronostratigraphical incompatibility of the available data allows to focus on the Middle Palaeozoic only. A series of mass extinctions and other biotic crises in the Silurian-Devonian does not allow to interpret correctly the results of direct comparison of the brachiopod generic diversity dynamics with global sea-level changes. With the available data, it is only possible to hypothesize that the eustatic control was not playing a major part in diversity dynamics of Middle Palaeozoic brachiopods. The resolution of the stratigraphic ranges of Palaeozoic brachiopods should be increased significantly, and these ranges should be plotted against the most up-to-date geologic time scale. Until this task will be achieved, it is impossible to judge about the existence of any dependence (either full or partial) of the Palaeozoic brachiopod diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes.
EN
Five sections from the Kielce Region of the Holy Cross Mountains and one core from a borehole drilled in the nearby western Mesozoic Margin reveal the best recognized beds from the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary interval. In four sections: Ruda Strawczyńska, Bolechowice IG 1, Zaręby IG 2 and Kowala, the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary is located within a continuous series of deep-water carbonates, whereas in the two remaining: Ostrówka Quarry and the Jabłonna IG 1 borehole, the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary interval contains stratigraphic gaps resulting from lack of deposition in submarine conditions. The biostratigraphic position of the analyzed uppermost Devonian and lowermost Carboniferous beds is determined by assemblages of conodonts, microspores and deep-water ostracodes of the Thuringian ecotype. The lithology and biostratigraphic position of particular beds in the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary interval of the Kowala section from the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains resemble those in a succession of equivalent age from the Rhenish Massif. Both areas are characterized by similar lithological horizons and changes of biotic assemblages within the same conodont zones. Strata and fauna from the uppermost Famennian are influenced by the global regressive Hangenberg Event.
EN
Anhydrite is widespread in the Prypiać Trough in the form of beds and nodules in the Subsaliferous Terrigenous and Carbonate formations (Eifelian and Frasnian), the Lower Saliferous Formation (Frasnian), the Intersaliferous and Upper Saliferous formations (Famennian). It is also present in the Asselian and Sakmarian (Lower Permian) deposits of the trough. The anhydrite is grey, blue, pink and orange. It has massive and, more rarely, horizontal bedding, and a fine- and micro-crystalline structure. Gypsum extends widely across the Orša Depression, Žlobin and Latvijas Saddles and partly in the Belarusian Anteclise, where it lies within the Eifelian deposits. It is also found in the Frasnian strata of the North-Prypiać Shoulder. As a component of facial analogue of the Upper Saliferous Formation gypsum forms the Bryniou deposit in the west of the Prypiać Trough. This mineral is also observed in the Oversaliferous Formation (Famennian) and in the Asselian and Sakmarian strata of the trough. There are spar, saccharoidal, alabastrine and selenitic varieties of gypsum. A medium to coarse crystalline structure is typical. The gypsum is grey, pink, yellow or orange.
PL
Okruszcowanie w skałach ediakaru w otworze wiertniczym Cianowice 2 jest bardzo ubogie. Dość bogaty jest jednak zespół mineralny reprezentowany przez: chalkopiryt, piryt, piryt framboidalny, bornit, minerały szeregu galena–clausthalit, minerały szeregu tennantyt– tetraedryt, kowelin, chalkozyn, wittichenit, markasyt, sfaleryt, anglezyt oraz minerały ziem rzadkich (calcioancylite-(Ce), bastnäsyt). Stwierdzona mineralizacja ma wyraźnie charakter hydrotermalny, niskotemperaturowy, a w okruszcowaniu znaczącą rolę odgrywa piryt framboidalny. Natomiast w utworach kambru w otworze Trojanowice 2 występuje okruszcowanie o charakterze śladowym. Stwierdzono tu ubogi zespół minerałów kruszcowych reprezentowany przez piryt (głównie framboidalny) i chalkopiryt. To okruszcowanie jest prawdopodobnie również w znacznej części epigenetyczne. W młodszych utworach obydwu otworów wiertniczych (dewon dolny i środkowy, jura dolna i środkowa) dominują siarczki żelaza – piryt i markasyt, lokalnie występuje wtórny getyt i limonit. We wszystkich osadach klastycznych powszechnie występują tlenki tytanu i tytanit. W otworze Trojanowice 2 w skałach węglanowych jury górnej zaobserwowano niewielkiej miąższości brekcje tektoniczne z pirytem i markasytem w spoiwie oraz z impregnacjami skały otaczającej drobnokrystalicznym pirytem.
EN
Ore mineralization in Ediacaran rocks from the Cianowice 2 borehole is very poor, but despite that, the mineral association is quite variable and represented by framboidal pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, bornite, galena-clausthalite, tennantite-tetrahedrite, covellite, chalcocite, wittichenite, marcasite, sphalerite, anglesite and two rare earth elements minerals (calcioancylite-(Ce), bastnäsite). The mineralization is of low temperature and hydrothermal nature. Cambrian sediments in the Trojanowice 2 borehole contain only traces of mineralization. The poor assemblage of ore minerals is represented by pyrite (mainly framboids) and chalcopyrite. Most of this mineralization is probably epigenetic in origin. In the younger sediments drilled by both boreholes (Lower and Mid-Devonian, Lower and Mid-Jurassic) iron sulphides (pyrite and marcasite) predominate, and locally secondary goethite and limonite can be found. In all the clastic sediments titanium oxides and titanite are common. In the Trojanowice 2 borehole in the Upper Jurassic carbonates contain thin tectonic breccias with pyrite and marcasite in the cement as well as fine-grained pyrite impregnation in the hosting rocks.
PL
Kompleksowe badania palinologiczne przeprowadzono na 37 próbkach z otworu wiertniczego Trojanowice 2, z interwału 502,0–558,8 m. Na podstawie rozpoznanych gatunków miospor wyróżniono dwa standardowe poziomy miosporowe: Emphanisporites annulatus-Camarozonotriletes sextantii z emsu oraz Grandispora douglastownense-Ancyrospora eurypterota z pogranicza emsu i eiflu. Przeprowadzone anlizy palinofacjlne pozwoliły określić środowisko sedymentacji spągowych partii profilu na morskie, bliskiego brzegu, z intensywną dostawą materiału organicznego z lądu.W części stropowej stwierdzono natomiast nieco głębsze warunki depozycji, w większym oddaleniu od obszarów źródłowych. Analiza kolorystyczna wykazała dojrzały stopień przeobrażenia termicznego materii organicznej. Formalnie opisano po raz pierwszy dwa nowe gatunki miospor: Camptozonotriletes reticulum sp.n. i Perotrilites asymmetricus sp.n.
EN
The palynological investigation were carried out on 37 samples from the Trojanowice 2 borehole from a depth interval of 502.0–558.8 m. Based on the presence of index and important microflora species two standard miospore zones were recognized: Emphanisporites annulatus-Camarozonotriletes sextantii, from the Emsian and Grandispora douglastownense-Ancyrospora eurypterota from the Emsian/ Eifelian transition interval. Palynofacies from the lower part of the section indicate marginal marine palaeoenvironmental conditions. Palynofacies from the upper part prove deeper marine conditions further from the shoreline. Additionally, spore colour analyses revealed a high degree of thermal transformation. Two new miospore taxa have been formally erected: Camptozonotriletes reticulum sp.n. and Perotrilites asymmetricus sp.n.
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