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EN
Water quality is an environmental priority for irrigation in rainfed agriculture. Recently, water quality has been affected by the uncontrolled disposal of wastewater, the use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture and, most significantly, by the excessive exploitation of water resources during the low season. The basin of the Maffragh in the Algerian north-east real is fed by two main rivers: Wadi El Kebir East and Bounnamoussa. From its source, the stream is continually contaminated with domestic and agricultural discharges through the tributaries causing a significant deterioration in water quality. In order to know the current state of water quality in the Maffragh basin and to determine its suitability for irrigation without any prior treatment, research has been conducted in the two streams at representative sampling points in catchment areas used for irrigating crops. To assess the quality of water and detectable compounds monitoring, laboratory methods are used. The various volumetric and colorimetric assays were carried out according to Jean Rodier. Organic parameters such as nitrites, ammonium and phosphates, were measured using a UV/VIS 6705 JENWAY spectrophotometer, at wavelengths of 543 nm, 630 nm and 880 nm respectively for nitrites, ammonium and phosphates. The BOD5 and COD parameter was measured using a DIN EN 1899-1-H51 spectrophotometer and DIN ISO15705: 2002 spectrophotometer. The performed analyses on conductivity shows oscillating values ranging between 425 and 495 μS∙cm–1 for January 2018, while for the low water level of July 2018 the conductivity varies between 433 and 796 μS∙cm–1; this parameter is determinant for water quality assessment and its use for irrigation. Beside the conductivity test, the Riverside–Wilcox diagram was applied, to combine conductivity and sodium absorption rate (SAR). The obtained results of the two seasons show satisfactory results in the applicability of the water to irrigate in the basin.
EN
Developments in agriculture, industry, and urban life have caused the deterioration of water resources, such as rivers and reservoirs in terms of their quality and quantity. This includes the Saguling Reservoir located in the Citarum Basin, Indonesia. A review of previous studies reveals that the water quality index (WQI) is efficient for the identification of pollution sources, as well as for the understanding of temporal and spatial variations in reservoir water quality. The NSFWQI (The National Sanitation Foundation water quality index) is one of WQI calculation methods. The NSFWQI is commonly used as an indicator of surface water quality. It is based on nitrate, phosphate, turbidity, temperature, faecal coliform, pH, DO, TDS, and BOD. The average NSFWQI has been 48.42 during a dry year, 43.97 during a normal year, and 45.82 during a wet year. The WQI helped to classify water quality in the Saguling Reservoir as “bad”. This study reveals that the strongest and most significant correlation between the parameter concentration and the WQI is the turbidity concentration, for which the coefficient correlation is 0.821 in a dry year, and faecal coli, for which the coefficient correlation is 0.729 in a dry year. Both parameters can be used to calculate the WQI. The research also included a nitrate concentration distribution analysis around the Saguling Reservoir using the Inverse Distance Weighted method.
EN
The research analyzed seasonal changes of the oxygen regime and related indicators on the example of water objects of the Ukrainian Polesie Region. The region shows different directions of economic use. Zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton–Buchanan) and the Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) were used as test objects to investigate survival responses. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in water, pH values and temperatures were determined by standard methods. Based on research results, the main problems were determined pertaining to the oxygen regime of investigated waters, i.e. the increase in temperature and toxicity of the aquatic environment in the summer. A rather dangerous decrease in DO concentration, almost up to the levels of maximum allowable concentration (MAC) (4.10 mg∙dm–3 in group E1 and 6.07 mg∙dm–3 in group E2), was observed in August and it was typical for the reservoirs with a slow water movement. Flowing river waters (group E3) were eliminated due to their better aeration compared to other groups. The correlation analysis based on the presented data revealed a high and average degree of probable correlation between the DO concentration and water temperature, as well as an average degree of correlation with general toxicity determined on sensitive species of D. rerio, and in group E1 on the persistent species C. auratus gibelio as well. The interrelations and equations of the rectilinear regression can be used to predict the oxygen regime of the waters investigated and other surface waters having similar problems.
EN
The article describes modern anthropogenic load on the surface water of the Southern Bug River Basin in a changing climate. The main water users-pollutants of the Southern Bug River Basin in Vinnytska and Mykolaivska regions were identified. The water quality of the surface water of the Southern Bug River in time and space (along the river stream) was analyzed. The water quality of the Southern Bug River was assessed by complex indices for different water users. In order to assess water quality, it is recommended to use complex indices that take into account the effect of the total action of pollutants. The self-purification potential and capability of restoration in space (along the river stream) of the aquatic ecosystem of the Southern Bug River was established for 2019. The results of the study allow us to state that the use of surface water of the Southern Bug River Basin for drinking, fishery, cultural and recreational needs is related to certain environmental risks. It is recommended to carry out the environmental protection measures aimed at adjusting the priorities of economic activity, reduction of wastewater discharge and increase in the water content of the river by regulating the operation of energy complexes.
EN
The water quality is influenced by different factors, including land use, hydrological conditions, and anthropogenic activities. The identification of the contamination sources in the Vizela river and the potential effects on water quality will promote efficient watershed management. The spatial and temporal variability of surface water was analysed through the physicochemical parameters, including: temperature, pH, Total Dissolved Solids, electrical conductivity, redox potential, and chloride, fluoride, bromide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate content. The microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci were monitored over time. The obtained results show that the water located downstream the Vizela river is the most contaminated, although there has been an improvement in the water quality over time. The microbiological values are higher than the Portuguese parametric values defined for human consumption, and often also for recreational water activities. Continuous spatial and temporal water monitorization including the physicochemical and microbiological parameters is recommended as a preventive and monitoring measure.
EN
Over the last twenty years, the number of projects aimed at river restoration and rehabilitation increased significantly. In the city it is impossible to provide full river restoration, but at the same time it is possible to create a comfortable natural environment both for flora and fauna and for the citizens. In our work it was assessed the possibility of the floodplain restoration by the water replenishment of the dry old riverbed during the vegetation season on the example of the river inside the city. The simulation of the current state allowed to verify the main parameters of the model with the existing observations of the water levels in the river and lake and water levels in the wells located in the park. The river – floodplain interaction was simulated: floodplain was separated from the river by the flood control dyke, the water replenishment of the lake and the old riverbed was due to seepage (current state); the connection of the floodplain with the river by the culvert and the replenishment of the lake and the old riverbed with surface river water. The simulation showed that the lake isolated from the river is filled to a depth of not more than 0.5 m, the old riverbed is filled with water only during spring floods. The water balance calculations of the lake showed that in the conditions of isolation from the river, the lake volume is significantly affected by precipitation and evaporation from the lake water surface area. The connection of the lake with the river surface water reduces the impact of the vertical components of the water balance, at the same time increases the seepage losses from the lake because of the water level raising. The connection of the river with the floodplain makes it possible to replenish the old riverbed and the lake in the mean year, but in the dry years the water level in the lake does not allow to replenish the old riverbed during the vegetation season. Calculations showed that to be able to keep the constant water level in the lake and old riverbed, it is necessary to increase the water level in the lake.
PL
Skuteczność usuwania zawiesin z wody w filtrach pośpiesznych może być w niektórych warunkach niezadowalająca. Przyczyną jest zwykle niski poziom mineralizacji wody, w szczególności małe stężenie anionów wielowartościowych. Efekt oczyszczania wody w filtrach można poprawić poprzez stosowanie polielektrolitów anionowych. W pracy przeprowadzono badania nad poprawą skuteczności oczyszczania wody powierzchniowej i wody podziemnej w procesie filtracji. Badania wykonywano w skali pilotowej i technicznej. Dozowanie polielektrolitów odbywało się poprzez okresowe wprowadzanie porcji polielektrolitu do wody kierowanej do filtrów. Wielkość porcji i częstotliwość ich podawania zależała od jakości uzdatnianej wody. Średnia dawka polielektrolitu wynosiła od 0,01 do 0,05 mg/l. Szybkość przyrostu oporów filtracji była nieznacznie wyższa w porównaniu ze stratami ciśnienia w filtrach pracujących bez polielektrolitu. Dzięki zastosowaniu polielektrolitu uzyskano znaczące wydłużenie filtrocykli w przypadku oczyszczania wody powierzchniowej w procesie koagulacji powierzchniowej. Dozowanie polielektrolitu do wody umożliwiło też uzyskanie obniżenia mętności wody i stężenia żelaza w warunkach oczyszczania wody podziemnej. Stężenie monomeru akrylamidu w wodzie uzdatnionej w warunkach stosowania polielektrolitów było bardzo niskie, nie przekraczało 5% wartości dopuszczalnej dla wody przeznaczonej do spożycia przez ludzi.
EN
The efficiency of removing suspended solids from water in rapid filters may be unsatisfactory in some conditions. The reason is usually a low level of water mineralization, in particular a low concentration of poly vale anions. The effect of water purification in filters can be improved using anionic polyelectrolytes. The study carried out research on improving the effectiveness of surface water and groundwater purification in filtration process. The dosing of polyelectrolytes was done by periodically introducing a portion of the polyelectrolyte into the water directed to the filters. The portion size and frequency of dosing depended on the quality of t treated water. The average dose of polyelectrolyte was from 0,01 to 0,05 mg/1. Filtration resistance increase rate was slightly higher compared to pressure losses in filters operating without polyelectrolyte. The use polyelectrolyte resulted in a significant prolongation of filter cycles for surface water purification in dirt filtration process. Dosing polyelectrolyte into water also enabled the reduction of water turbidity and iron concentration under groundwater purification conditions. The concentration of acrylamide monomer in treat water under the conditions of use of polyelectrolytes was very low, it did not exceed 5% of the limit value water intended for human consumption.
EN
A crucial part of every adaptation planning and disaster risk reduction is estimation of vulnerable areas and risk in the future. Only a well-developed monitoring system could bring valuable information to create possible scenarios to set up adaptation plans. Monitoring systems of meteorological conditions, surface water, groundwater, landslides, seacoast, agricultural drought as well as their standards and methodologies, are crucial for establishing an effective warning system of every country, and thus are the subject of research conducted by national institutes. Therefore, the conditions of this national research (getting trained staff, equipment etc.) is essential to provide reliable information for a national adaptation plan and for economic assessment of climate change impacts. Poland has significant experiences in monitoring systems, data collecting and visualizing, as well as in the development of scenarios and risk maps. Methodologies and capacity building, necessary for their use, along with experiences and lessons, learned to get valuable information for disaster risk reduction, were presented by the authors from the research during the 24th session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 24) in Katowice (December 2018). The presentation contributed to the global adaptation process through experience sharing that is important for the relevant research conducted in the least developed countries.
EN
The interaction between groundwater and surface water plays an important role in the function of riparian ecosystems and sustainable water resource management. Hydraulic fracturing, an unconventional oil and gas well stimulation method, has increased dramatically in North America in an effort to exploit previously inaccessible shale oil and gas reserves. Hydraulic fracturing often requires several thousand cubic meters of water to fracture the source formations. Use of such a high volume of water has raised considerable public concern over the sustainability of this activity and the potential impacts on surface water and groundwater. This paper provides a review of the published literature addressing the effects of water withdrawal for hydraulic fracturing on surface water and groundwater. The potential effects of such withdrawal are: decreased volume of water in rivers, streams, lakes and aquifers; alteration of natural flow regimes; regional water shortages during periods of drought; creating conflicts with other water users in water-stressed regions; inadequate downstream water availability; reduced downstream water quality for human uses, due to less water availability for dilution; and degradation of habitat and aquatic ecosystem function, impacting local wildlife. This review demonstrates that relatively little attention has been paid to quantify and understand these interactions, and suggests that there is a significant need for further research in this area to address the currently limited availability of data.
EN
The results of a research into the scale and consequences of the degradation of aquatic ecosystems in Ukrainian Polesie have been detected in article, and the areas of increased anthropogenic pressure have been identified which greatly affect the condition and number of aquatic macrophytes. The biodiversity of sites with different anthropogenic load was evaluated using the biodiversity criteria. In the research, the structural and functional features of macrophytic species diversity within Teteriv River ecological corridor as a typical river landscape of Ukrainian Polesie were determined and described, the floristic composition was determined. Within the ecological zones, the number of species and their projective coverage in areas with different anthropogenic pressures within Teteriv River ecological corridor were determined. The basic criteria for the implementation of deferred biomonitoring based on the analysis of the dynamics of the species composition of the phytocoenoses of Teteriv River ecological corridor on the indicators of ecological stability and plasticity using the species-specific criteria, are: Margalef species richness index, Sørensen–Dice index, Shannon diversity index, Simpson’s index, and Pielou’s evenness index. Based on the results, correlation dependencies have been constructed, which will allow to obtain data on the stability of the development of aquatic ecosystems according to the data of species surveys. Interconnections between biodiversity indicators and indicators of surface water quality within the Ukrainian Polesie were found; they are the fundamental component of a long-term monitoring of the stability in the development of aquatic phytocenoses.
EN
Monitoring of surface waters within the transboundary section of the Western Bug River showed, that during 2014–2018, a significant excess of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was observed for some substances for fish ponds. As a result of this, the water in the river for these substances was rated as “dirty” in terms of purity and corresponded to water quality class IV, namely: phosphorus was observed to exceed the MPC at the observation point Ambukіv village in 2015 (9.7 times), for manganese – an excess of the MPC at the observation point Ambukіv village in 2018 (9.7 times) and in point Zabuzhzhia village in 2014 (7.9 times), 2015 (8.0 times), 2017 (7.1 times), 2018 (8.3 times); for the total iron – the exceeding of MPC at the observation point Ambukіv village in 2016 (5.95 times) and 2017 (6.13 times); at the observation point Ustilug town in 2016 (5.23 times); in the observation point Zabuzhzhia village in 2016 (9.44 times) and 2017 (5.27 times). The assessment of the surface waters based on the determination of the pollution factor showed that during the study period their quality did not deteriorate but did not meet the norms. In general, surface waters of the river correspond to the second class of quality and are characterized as “poorly polluted” waters by the level of pollution.
12
Content available remote Risk assessment for the selected surface water intake
EN
The purpose of the work is to analyze the risk for surface water intake, taking into account factors affecting the water quality. A three-parameter risk definition was proposed. It was found that the analyzed water intake has an efficient system that protects consumers against drinking water of inadequate quality (multibarier system). The task of the water supply company is to maintain its security measures (including a caution and warning station, biomonitoring) in a state of efficiency.
PL
W pracy przeprowadzono analizę ryzyka dla ujęcia wody powierzchniowej z uwzględnieniem czynników negatywnie wpływających na jakość ujmowanej wody. Zaproponowano trójparametryczną definicję ryzyka. Stwierdzono, że analizowane ujęcie wody posiada sprawny system zabezpieczający konsumentów przed spożyciem wody o nieodpowiedniej jakości (system multibariera). Zadaniem przedsiębiorstwa wodociągowego jest utrzymywanie posiadanych środków bezpieczeństwa (m.in. stacja osłonowo-ostrzegawcza, biomonitoring) w stanie zdatności.
EN
The implementation or optimization of the coagulation process requires prior preliminary tests. Standard Jar-Test method is time-consuming, inaccurate and may not work well, especially for the waters characterized by high variability of quality parameters. Zeta Potential Isoelectric Point (IEP) analysis may give fast and precise data on the coagulant type and dose required for maintaining an efficient coagulation process. The research objects included the surface waters taken directly from the Mała Panew and Odra rivers. The zeta potential and set coagulant dose dependence was measured for each sample. Four aluminum-based coagulants with different characteristics were used in this research: aluminum sulfate (Alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), dialuminum chloride pantahydroxide (PACl), polyaluminum chloride hydroxide sulfate (PACS). Charge neutralization effectiveness, by means of Zeta Potential IEP analysis, was the basis for the choice of the most effective coagulant doses. The coagulation process efficacy was based on the parameters of the treated water (pH, turbidity, color, alkalinity), reduction of organic matter (Abs254, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)) and residual aluminum contamination. The Zeta Potential utility evaluation was based on the DOC reduction.
EN
The household and industrial wastes that have been accumulated during the last 40–50 years organized and spontaneous landfills (garbage dumps) pollution of the natural water bodies near locations. As results of precipitation and solar irradiation, the drainage of water formation occurs; such waters are polluted with harmful and toxic ingredients. The known indices of pollution of industrial and surface waters as well as the technique for determining the class of danger posed by solid household wastes were analyzed. The application of this technique to liquid wastes is suggested, since the change of aggregate state must not restrict its application; on the contrary, a new useful unexpected result can emerge with this. A rather simple dimensionless index of toxicity was chosen on the basis of the following examples: composition of the drainage waters of a specific landfill, content of harmful ingredients in them, excess ratio of their maximum permissible concentration. Such an index takes into account the maximum permissible concentration of the harmful substance in the ground, as well as the fraction of the harmful ingredients in the total mass of the liquid waste. Using the dimensionless index of toxicity, the bar charts were drawn, from which the sequence of removal of harmful components from the liquid mixture can be determined, starting with the component with the least value of dimensionless index of toxicity which characterizes the most dangerous component.
EN
Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam has a rapid growth rate, with an open economy with cooperation with many countries around the world, concentrating many industrial parks and export processing zones along with infrastructure development projects, industrial production services related to transportation, communication, water supply and environmental protection, resource exploitation, production and processing of consumer goods and exports. Along with the rapid industrialization and modernization process in Ho Chi Minh City, according to which environmental quality is increasingly reduced, in which the most significant effect is water resources, particularly water sources of rivers and canals. In recent years, there have been many studies related to the quality of surface water sources in Ho Chi Minh City, but there haven’t been studies to assess the impacts, affecting the quality of surface water sources due to activities of industrial parks in the City. This study was conducted to assess surface water quality by analyzing the current status of surface water quality in areas related to the operation of industrial parks in Ho Chi Minh City. Thereby assessing the impact on the water quality and proposing solutions to control and prevent pollution due to the operation of industrial parks.
PL
Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) w Wietnamie charakteryzuje się szybkim tempem wzrostu, otwartą gospodarką i współpracą z wieloma krajami, skupiając wiele parków przemysłowych i stref przetwórstwa eksportowego wraz z projektami rozwoju infrastruktury przemysłowej, usługi produkcyjne związane z transportem, komunikacją, zaopatrzeniem w wodę i ochroną środowiska, eksploatacją zasobów, produkcją i przetwarzaniem dóbr konsumpcyjnych oraz eksportem. Wraz z szybkim procesem industrializacji i modernizacji w Ho Chi Minh City coraz bardziej obniża się jakość środowiska, w którym najważniejszym czynnikiem są zasoby wodne, zwłaszcza wodne źródła rzek i kanałów. W ostatnich latach przeprowadzono wiele badań dotyczących jakości wód powierzchniowych w Ho Chi Minh City, ale nie przeprowadzono badań oceniających oddziaływanie wpływające na jakość źródeł wód powierzchniowych z powodu działalność parków przemysłowych w mieście. Badania przeprowadzono w celu oceny jakości wód powierzchniowych poprzez analizę aktualnego stanu wód, zbadano jakość wód powierzchniowych na obszarach związanych z funkcjonowaniem parków przemysłowych w Ho Chi Minh City. W ten sposób oceniono wpływ czynników na jakość wody i proponowano rozwiązania w zakresie kontroli i zapobiegania zanieczyszczeniom wynikającym z funkcjonowania parków przemysłowych.
EN
In the present study, the creeks and lakes located at the western shore of Admiralty Bay were analysed. The impact of various sources of water supply was considered, based on the parameters of temperature, pH and specific electrolytic conductivity (SEC25). All measurements were conducted during a field campaign in January-February 2017. A multivariate dataset was also created and a biplot of SEC25 and pH of the investigated waters was performed. The average temperatures of the investigated waters were 0.10-8.10 °C. The pH values indicate that most of the water environments of the analysed area are slightly acidic to alkaline (5.26-8.50) with two exceptions: Siodlo II Creek (9.26) and Petrified Forest Creek (8.95), which are characterised by greater alkalinity. At the measurement points closest to the Baranowski Glacier and Ecology Glacier, SEC25 values were the lowest (26.8-61.1 μS·cm–1), while the remaining values ranged from 79.0 to 382 μS·cm–1 for the whole studied area. Based on the results it is concluded that the periodic intensive inflow of ablation waters, combined with morphological changes in the glacier front, causes a significant variability in the outflow network, creating the conditions for changes in basic physicochemical parameters. Moreover, it is observed that local depressions in the terrain form sedimentation traps in which, alongside fine-grained deposits, compounds can accumulate that originate from in situ sedimentation and that are also associated with surface runoff from the melting of snow cover, buried ice and permafrost.
EN
The aim of the study was to characterize the components of crude oil, with particular emphasis on those that have a toxic effect on organisms, and to describe the sources of pollution and the methodology for determining these compounds in aqueous solutions. In addition, the study presents the legal provisions in the field of petroleum compounds and practical methods for their removal in the event of uncontrolled emission of these compounds into the aquatic environment as well as methods used in the treatment of wastewater loaded with these compounds.
PL
Wody, które miały kontakt w wyniku powodzi z glebami z terenu zlewni, ze ściekami bytowogospodarczymi czy odpadami komunalnymi, mogą być źródłem mikroorganizmów chorobotwórczych. Celem badań prezentowanych w pracy była ocena stanu sanitarnego wody z Wisły w rejonie dzielnicy Nowodwory w Warszawie po ustąpieniu drugiej fali powodziowej w czerwcu 2010 r. oraz w lipcu i sierpniu. Próby wody pobierano zgodnie z normą PN-ISO 5567 bezpośrednio z nurtu rzeki, w odległości ok. 40 m od deptaka spacerowego, w trzech punktach. Badaniami objęto następujące grupy mikroorganizmów: bakterie grupy coli, paciorkowce kałowe, bakterie psychro- i mezofilne, bakterie proteolityczne, bakterie redukujące siarczany. Ocena stanu sanitarnego wody polegała na wykryciu i oznaczeniu ilościowym organizmów wskaźnikowych wg obowiązujących norm prawnych. Badania wykazały, że stan sanitarny rzeki Wisły po opadnięciu fali powodziowej charakteryzował się dużą zmiennością. Liczebność badanych grup fizjologicznych drobnoustrojów zależała od terminu badań i miejsca poboru prób. Indeks bakterii grupy coli oraz indeks bakterii grupy coli typu kałowego przekroczył w czerwcu wartości normatywne.
EN
Waters that have been contact with floods from the catchment area, domestic and commercial wastewater, municipal waste and various types of waste (spoiled food products) can be a source of pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the study was to assess the hazards of selected pathogens on the health of the residents of the Nowodwory district in Warsaw immediately after the second flood wave ceased in June 2010 and in July and August. The microbiological tests of flood water from the Vistula River were taken in accordance with the PN-ISO 5567 standard were collected at three research points – walking with the river current, at a distance of about 40 m from the pedestrian promenade. The study involved the following groups of microorganisms: the index of coli group bacteria, the index of faecal coliforms, psychro- and mesophilic bacteria, proteolytic sulphate-reducing bacteria. The assessment of the sanitary state of water consisted in the detection and quantification of indicator organisms in accordance with applicable legal norms. Our results showed that the sanitary condition of the Vistula River after the flood wave subsided was characterized by high variability. The number of respondents physiological groups of microorganisms depend on the date of the study and places of sampling. The index of coli group bacteria, the index of faecal coliforms exceeded the normative values in the month of June.
PL
Nadmierny wzrost fitoplanktonu powoduje tzw. rozkwit wody. Zjawisko to sprawia, że woda nie nadaje się do celów konsumpcyjnych i rekreacyjnych. Wśród organizmów rozmnażających się w wodzie są cyjanobakterie. Zainteresowanie tymi organizmami wynika z toksyn, które wytwarzają. Niniejsza publikacja jest przeglądem literatury na temat rodzajów toksyn, metod ich określania i usuwania ze zbiorników wodnych.
EN
Excessive growth of phytoplankton causes the so-called bloom of water. This phenomenon makes the water unsuitable for consumption and recreational purposes. Among the organisms that multiply in water are cyanobacteria. The interest in these organisms is due to the toxins, which cyanobacteria produce. The publication is a review of the literature on the types of toxins, methods of their determination and removing from water reservoirs.
PL
Nawozy sztuczne stosowane w rolnictwie negatywnie wpływają na jakość wód, zarówno powierzchniowych, jak i podziemnych. Zatoka Pucka jest szczególnie narażona na eutrofizację spowodowaną napływem substancji odżywczych, ponieważ jest otoczona terenami intensywnie wykorzystywanymi w rolnictwie. Na wybrzeżu znajduje się także wiele ośrodków turystycznych. Strumienie i rzeki łatwo przenoszą ładunek azotu i fosforu do morza. W ramach projektu WaterPuck, finansowanego przez Narodowe Centrum Badań i Rozwoju (NCBiR), badano jakość rzek i strumieni płynących przez terytorium Gminy Puck i wpadających do Zatoki Puckiej. Były to: Reda, Kanał Łyski, Kanał Mrzezino, Gizdepka, Potok Błądzikowski, Płutnica i Kanał Młyński. Badane rozpoczęto w lipcu 2017 r., a próbki wody są pobierane co 3-4 tygodnie pobliżu ujść strumieni. Mierzone są stężenia związków azotu (amoniak, azotan(III) i azotan(V)) oraz fosfor ogólny i fosforany. Regularne monitorowanie jakości strumieni umożliwia ocenę sezonowych zmian stężeń składników odżywczych, a także ich rozmieszczenia przestrzennego. Stworzy to podstawę do śledzenia zależności między użytkowaniem gruntów i praktykami rolniczymi a ładunkiem składników odżywczych zrzucanych do Zatoki Puckiej z niepunktowych źródeł zanieczyszczeń. Wstępne wyniki wskazują na znaczące sezonowe zmiany stężeń zanieczyszczeń, prawdopodobnie związane z harmonogramem prac rolniczych. Kolejna część projektu badawczego skupi się na identyfikacji obszarów przyczyniających się do zanieczyszczenia strumieni. Oceniane będą zmiany stężeń składników pokarmowych podczas intensywnych opadów deszczu. Wyniki będą podstawą do modelowania transportu składników pokarmowych wodami powierzchniowymi w gminie Puck.
EN
The ferilizers used in agriculture negatively affect the surface and groundwater quality. The Bay of Puck is a semi-closed part of the Gulf of Gdańsk, which is particularly vulnerable to eutrophication caused by the inflow of nutrient substances. The Bay is surrounded by the lands intensively used in agriculture. Also a number of touristic resorts is located on its coast. The streams and rivers carry the load of nitrogen and phosphorus to the sea. Within the project WaterPuck, financed by the National Centre of Research and Development in Poland (NCBiR), the quality of rivers and streams flowing through the territory of the Puck Community and discharging to the Bay of Puck is being researched. The quality of seven streams: Reda, Kanał Łyski, Kanał Mrzezino, Gizdepka, Potok Błądzikowski, Płutnica and Kanał Młyński is investigated. The researched was started in July 2017. The samples of water are collected every 3-4 weeks at sampling points located close to the streams estuaries. The concentrations of nitrogen species (ammonia, nitrate III and nitrate V) as well as total phosphorus and phosphates are measured. The regular monitoring of streams quality make it possible to assess the seasonal changes of nutrients concentrations as well as their spatial distribution. This will provide the basis for tracking the relationships between the land use and agricultural practices and the load of nutrients discharged to Bay of Puck from non-point sources of pollution. The preliminary results indicate quite significant seasonal variations of pollutants concentrations, probably associated to the time schedule of agricultural practices. The highest concentrations of nutrients where present in sampling points located on Błądzikowski Potok, Kanał Mrzezino as well as Gizdepka – all flowing through arable lands. Concentrations of nitrates V in Błądzikowski Stream varied from 2,27 to 7,55 mg NO3-/dm3, while the concentrations of total phosphorus – from 0,24 to 0,45 mg P/dm3. The next part of the research project is going to focus on identification of areas contributing to the streams pollution. The changes of nutrients concentrations during intensive rainfalls will be evaluated. The results will provide the basis for modelling of nutrient transport with surface waters in the Puck Community.
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